Video game art
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|Art and video games|
Video game art is a specialized form of computer art employing video games as the artistic medium. Video game art often involves the use of patched or modified video games or the repurposing of existing games or game structures, however it relies on a broader range of artistic techniques and outcomes than artistic modification and it may also include painting, sculpture, appropriation, in-game intervention and performance, sampling, etc. It may also include the creation of art games either from scratch or by modifying existing games. Notable examples of video game art include Cory Arcangel's "Super Mario Clouds" and "I Shot Andy Warhol," Joseph Delappe's projects including "Dead in Iraq" and the "Salt Satyagraha Online: Gandhi's March to Dandi in Second Life," the 2004-2005 Rhizome Commissions "relating to the theme of games," Paulo Pedercini's Molleindustria games such as "Unmanned" and "Everyday the Same Dream", and Ian Bogost's "Cowclicker."
Artistic modifications are frequently made possible through the use of level editors, though other techniques exist. Some artists make use of machinima applications to produce non-interactive animated artworks, however artistic modification is not synonymous with machinima as these form only a small proportion of artistic modifications. Machinima is distinct from art mods as it relies on different tools, though there are many similarities with some art mods.
Like video games, artistic game modifications are often interactive and may allow for single-player or multiplayer experience. Multiplayer works make use of networked environments to develop new kinds of interaction and collaborative art production.
In-game intervention and performance 
Artists may intervene in online games in a non-play manner, often disrupting games in progress in order to challenge or expose underlying conventions and functions of game play. Examples of this include Velvet-Strike (a project designed to allow players of realistic first person shooter games to use anti-war graffiti within the game to make an artistic statement) and Dead in Iraq (an art project created by Joseph DeLappe in which the player character purposely allows himself to be shot and then recites the names of US soldiers who have died in the Iraq War).
Site-specific installations and site-relative mods 
Site-specific installations and site-relative gaming modifications ("mods"), replicate real-world places (often the art gallery in which they are displayed) to explore similarities and differences between real and virtual worlds. An example is What It Is Without the Hand That Wields It, where blood from kills in Counterstrike manifests and spills into a real life gallery.
Real-time performance instruments 
Video games can be incorporated into live audio and visual performance using a variety of instruments and computers such as keyboards embedded with music chips. See also chiptune and the Fijuu project.
Generative art mods 
Generative art mods exploit the real-time capabilities of game technologies to produce ever-renewing autonomous artworks. Examples include Julian Oliver's ioq3apaint, a generative painting system that uses the actions of software agents in combat to drive the painting process, Alison Mealy's UnrealArt which takes the movements of game entities and uses them to control a drawing process in an external program, Kent Sheely's "Cities in Flux," a Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas mod that glitches and distorts the game's world in real-time, and RetroYou's R/C Racer a modification of the graphic elements of a racing game which results in rich fields of colour and shape.
See also 
- Art game
- Digital art
- Electronic art
- Internet art
- Software art
- Mod (video gaming)
- Virtual art
- Electronic Language International Festival
- Game Masters (exhibition)
- Videogames and Art, Eds. Andy Clarke & Grethe Mitchell
- Mail Away: War Correspondence at Home and Away, by Lindsay Kelley, in the Media-N Journal of the New Media Caucus http://www.newmediacaucus.org/html/journal/issues.php?f=papers&time=2009_summer&page=kelley
- The Salt Satyahgraha by Joseph Delappe - review by Natasha Chuk, in Furtherfield http://www.furtherfield.org/netbehaviour/salt-satyagraha-joseph-delappe-review-natasha-chuk
- Rhizome Commissions http://rhizome.org/commissions/
- GameScenes: Art in the Age of Videogames. (John & Levi, 2006). Edited by Matteo Bittanti and Domenico Quaranta.
- Introduction to artistic computer game modification by Rebecca Cannon (PDF file) Backed up here.
- Videogames and Art Andy Clarke and Grethe Mitchell (eds)
- Journal of Media Practice vol 7, no. 1 (special edition on videogames and art) Andy Clarke and Grethe Mitchell (eds)
- Switch, Art & Games issue, 1999, online magazine of the CADRE Laboratory for New Media, San Jose State University
- From "First-Person Shooter" to Multi-User Knowledge Spaces Mathias Fuchs and Sylvia Eckermann
- Konsum Art-Server nTRACKER Margarete Jahrmann and Max Moswitzer
- Messages For A First Person Perspective Maia Engeli
- Smuts, Aaron (2005). "Are Video Games Art?".
- Art Games archive with examples of artistic modifications
- Art Games web site with various examples of artistic modifications
- Another Art Games archive with examples of artistic modifications