Vidin

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For the Romanian village, see Jupâneşti.
Vidin
Видин
Baba Vida Castle
Baba Vida Castle
Coat of arms of Vidin
Coat of arms
Location of Vidin Province in Bulgaria
Location of Vidin Province in Bulgaria
Vidin is located in Bulgaria
Vidin
Vidin
Location of Vidin
Coordinates: 43°59′N 22°52′E / 43.983°N 22.867°E / 43.983; 22.867Coordinates: 43°59′N 22°52′E / 43.983°N 22.867°E / 43.983; 22.867
Country Bulgaria
Province
(Oblast)
Vidin
Government
 • Mayor Gergo Gergov
Area
 • City 63.218 km2 (24.409 sq mi)
Elevation 34 m (112 ft)
Population (Census February 2011)[1]
 • City 48,071
 • Density 760/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
 • Urban 63,257
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal Code 3700
Area code(s) 094
Website Official website

Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин, archaically spelled as Widdin in English) is a port town on the southern bank of the Danube in north-western Bulgaria. It is close to the borders with Romania and Serbia, and is also the administrative centre of Vidin Province, as well as of the Metropolitan of Vidin (since 870).

An agricultural and trade centre, Vidin has a fertile hinterland renowned for its wines.

Geography[edit]

Vidin is the westernmost important Bulgarian Danube port and is situated on one of the southernmost sections of the river. The New Europe Bridge, completed in 2013, connects Vidin to the Romanian town of Calafat on the opposite bank of the Danube. Previously, a ferry located 2 km (1 mi) from the town was in use for that purpose.

History[edit]

Vidin emerged at the place of an old Celtic settlement known as Dunonia. The name itself meant "fortified hill" with the typically Celtic dun found frequently in Celtic place names.[2] The settlement evolved into an Roman fortified town called Bononia. The town grew into one of the important centres of the province of Upper Moesia, encompassing the territory of modern north-western Bulgaria and eastern Serbia.

When Slavs settled in the area, they called the town Badin or Bdin, where the modern name comes from.

The central streets of Vidin
Orthodox Cathedral of St Dimitar (St Dimitrius)

Vidin's main landmark, the Baba Vida fortress, was built in the period from the 10th to the 14th century. In the Middle Ages Vidin used to be an important Bulgarian city, a bishop seat and capital of a large province. Between 971 and 976 the town was the center of Samuil's possessions while his brothers ruled to the south. In 1003 Vidin was seized by Basil II after an eight-month siege because of the betrayal of the local bishop. Its importance once again rose during the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1422) and its despots were influential figures in the Empire and were on several occasions chosen for Emperors. From the mid 13th century it was ruled by the Shishman family. In 1356, Bulgarian Tsar Ivan Alexander isolated Vidin from the Bulgarian monarchy and appointed his son Ivan Stratsimir (1356–1396) as absolute ruler of Vidin's new city-state - the Tsardom of Vidin (Bdin / Badin).

Hungarian occupation of Vidin[edit]

In 1365, the Tsardom of Vidin was occupied by Magyar crusaders. Under Hungarian rule, the city became known as Bodony, but the occupation was short-lived. In 1369, the Second Bulgarian empire drove out the Hungarian military, but in 1396 Vidin was occupied by a foreign force again.

The Ottomans[edit]

The Ottomans went on to conquer the despotates of Dobrudzha, Prilep and Velbazhd as well. Vidin's independence did not last long. In 1430 the Ottomans invaded and turned Vidin into a sanjdak.

In the late years of Ottoman rule, Vidin was the centre of Turkish rebel Osman Pazvantoğlu's breakaway state.

In 1853, The Times of London reported that Widdin, as it was called, was

a considerable town, with a population of about 26,000, and a garrison of 8,000 to 10,000 men. Widdin is one of the important fortified places of the military line of the Danube. It covers the approaches oif Servia, commands Little Wallachia, the defiles of Transylvania, and, above all, the opening of the road which leads through Nissia and Sophia on to Adrianople. Its form is an irregular pentagon; it is strongly bastioned, possesses a fortified castle, with two redoubts in the islands, and its defences are completed by an extensive marsh.[3]

Modern rule[edit]

During the Serbo-Bulgarian War (1885), the town was besieged by a Serbian army. Although vastly outnumbered, the Bulgarians were victorious.

Climate[edit]

Vidin has a humid subtropical climate transforming to temperature continental climate. In the winter months, inversions are very common. The average annual temperature is 12.2 °C (54.0 °F).

Climate data for Vidin, Bulgaria
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
6.0
(42.8)
13.4
(56.1)
19.0
(66.2)
24.8
(76.6)
28.4
(83.1)
31.3
(88.3)
30.9
(87.6)
25.1
(77.2)
18.0
(64.4)
10.8
(51.4)
4.5
(40.1)
18.1
(64.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
1.5
(34.7)
7.3
(45.1)
12.4
(54.3)
18.0
(64.4)
21.6
(70.9)
24.0
(75.2)
23.5
(74.3)
18.3
(64.9)
12.3
(54.1)
6.8
(44.2)
1.0
(33.8)
12.3
(54.1)
Average low °C (°F) −3.5
(25.7)
−3
(27)
1.6
(34.9)
6.0
(42.8)
11.2
(52.2)
14.7
(58.5)
16.6
(61.9)
16.1
(61)
11.5
(52.7)
6.6
(43.9)
2.9
(37.2)
−2.8
(27)
6.5
(43.7)
Rainfall mm (inches) 41
(1.61)
37
(1.46)
40
(1.57)
51
(2.01)
64
(2.52)
69
(2.72)
47
(1.85)
38
(1.5)
36
(1.42)
49
(1.93)
56
(2.2)
53
(2.09)
581
(22.87)
Source: Stringmeteo.com[4]

Population[edit]

Vidin is the 20th town by population in Bulgaria, but serious demographic problems have been experienced in the area during the last two decades. The number of the residents of the city reached its peak between 1988 and 1991 when the population exceeded 65,000.[5] As of February 2011, the town has a population of 47,138 inhabitants.[1] The following table presents the change of the population after 1887.

Vidin
Year 1887 1910 1934 1946 1956 1965 1975 1985 1992 2001 2011
Population 14,772 16,450 18,465 18,481 23,932 36,981 53,179 62,541 62,666 57,395 48,071
Highest number 68,164 in 1991
Sources: National Statistical Institute,[1][5][6] „citypopulation.de“,[7] „pop-stat.mashke.org“,[8] Bulgarian Academy of Sciences[9]

Ethnic, linguistic and religious composition[edit]

According to the latest 2011 census data, the individuals declared their ethnic identity were distributed as follows:[10][11]

  • Bulgarians: 40,550 (91.8%)
  • Gypsies: 3,335 (7.5%)
  • Turks: 60 (0.1%)
  • Others: 199 (0.4%)
  • Indefinable: 280 (0.6%)
  • Undeclared: 3,647 (7.6%)

Total: 48,071

There is a large concentration of Gypsies within the city limits as there are 3,335 in the city and 3,753 in the municipality, while the Bulgarian elements are 40,550 in the city and 54,546 in the municipality.

Tourism[edit]

The Vidin Synagogue, deserted after Jewish immigration to Israel

Vidin boasts two well-preserved medieval fortresses, Baba Vida and Kaleto, as well as many old Orthodox churches such as St Pantaleimon, St Petka (both 17th century), and St Greatmartyr Dimitar (Dimitrius) (19th century), The Vidin Synagogue (1894), the Osman Pazvantoğlu Mosque and library, the late 18th-century Turkish ruler of north-western Bulgaria, the Krastata Kazarma of 1798, and a number of old Renaissance buildings.

Another tourist attraction in the Vidin area is the town of Belogradchik, famous for its unique and impressive rock formations, the Belogradchik Rocks and the medieval Belogradchik Fortress and also the nearby Magura Cave with its beautiful prehistoric cave paintings.

Transportation[edit]

Danube Bridge II at Vidin

In Vidin is a border-station to neighbouring Romania via the Danube river. It was operated by ferryboats only until 14 June 2013 when the Vidin–Calafat Bridge opened. Crossing by ferry was possible only every 1/2 hour with just five trucks per ferry. Ticket prices were €50 per truck and €12 per car.

The city has an airport (ICAO code LBVD) a few kilometres to the north-west; as of 2014, there is no scheduled service, and the buildings are in a state of disrepair.

Landmarks[edit]

Close to the town lies a powerful medium wave broadcasting station (since 1973) whose signals can be easily received throughout Europe. It works on 576 kHz and on 1224 kHz with a power of 500 kW each. For transmission on 576 kHz a 259 metre-tall guyed mast equipped with a cage antenna at its lower part is used. The transmission of 576 kHz Radio Hristo Botev is on hold for now, because of the world financial crisis and it is unknown when it will resume broadcasting. A powerful FM transmitter on 88.2 MHz provides good coverage for Hristo Botev radio. Only 1224 kHz Radio Bulgaria remains atm. For the transmission on 1224 kHz four guyed masts, insulated against ground, which are each equipped with a cage antenna are used, which allows a switchable directional pattern.

Honour[edit]

Vidin Heights on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Vidin.

Gallery[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Vidin is twinned with:

Partner towns[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c (Bulgarian)National Statistical Institute - Main Towns Census 2011
  2. ^ Veyrenc, Charles Jacques (1981). Bulgaria Nagel's encyclopedia-guide (2 ed.). Nagel. p. 413. ISBN 978-2-8263-0560-6. In the 3rd century BC the Celts established on the site now occupied by Vidin a fortress to which they gave the name of Dunonia, "fortified hill" 
  3. ^ "The Seat of War on the Danube," The Times, December 29, page 8
  4. ^ [1], Stringmeteo.com Retrieved February 21, 2012.
  5. ^ a b (Bulgarian)National Statistical Institute - Towns population 1956-1992
  6. ^ (English) Bulgarian National Statistical Institute - Bulgarian towns in 2009
  7. ^ (English) „WorldCityPopulation“
  8. ^ „pop-stat.mashke.org“
  9. ^ (Bulgarian) Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
  10. ^ (Bulgarian) Population on 01.02.2011 by provinces, municipalities, settlements and age; National Statistical Institute
  11. ^ Population by province, municipality, settlement and ethnic identification, by 01.02.2011; Bulgarian National Statistical Institute (Bulgarian)
  12. ^ http://www.vidin.bg/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=334
  13. ^ http://www.vidin.bg/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=336
  14. ^ http://www.vidin.bg/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=337
  15. ^ http://www.vidin.bg/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=339
  16. ^ http://www.vidin.bg/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=340
  17. ^ http://www.vidin.bg/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=341
  18. ^ http://www.vidin.bg/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=342
  19. ^ http://www.vidin.bg/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=344
  20. ^ http://www.vidin.bg/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=345
  21. ^ http://www.vidin.bg/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=346

External links[edit]