Việt Tân

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Viet Tan)
Jump to: navigation, search
Vietnam Reform Party
Việt Nam Canh Tân Cách Mạng Đảng
Chairman Đỗ Hoàng Điềm
Spokesperson Hoang Tu Duy
Founder Hoang Co Minh
Founded September 10, 1982 (1982-09-10)
Headquarters United States
Ideology Democracy
Peaceful reform
Colors Blue, White
National Assembly
0 / 500
Party flag
Viet Tan Logo.png
Website
viettan.org
Politics of Vietnam
Political parties
Elections

Viet Tan (Vietnam Reform Party) (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Canh Tân Cách Mạng Đảng or Việt Tân in short) is a network of members inside Vietnam and around the world, that aims to establish democracy and reform Vietnam through peaceful and political means.[1][2]

The organization has its origins in the National United Front for the Freedom of Vietnam (NUFLV), founded on September 10, 1982 with Vice-admiral Hoàng Cơ Minh elected as chairman, which operated underground for two decades. On September 19, 2004, then-chairman Nguyễn Kim dissolved the NUFLV and publicly introduced the Vietnam Reform Party[3] as it is known today.

The organization is outlawed in Vietnam and the government of Vietnam considers it a terrorist organization,[4][5] but Viet Tan's activities are rooted in the promotion of non-violent political change in Vietnam.[1][6]

The U.S. government has repeatedly said that it does not see any evidence that Viet Tan is a terrorist organization,[7] most notably former U.S. Ambassador Michael Michalak stated that there does not exist any evidence that Viet Tan is engaged in terrorism.[8] In addition, the United Nations have also noted that "Viet Tan is a peaceful organization advocating for democratic reform."[9]

Objectives[edit]

Viet Tan aims to establish democracy and reform Vietnam through peaceful means, focusing on empowering the Vietnamese people, supporting the development of civil society, and the promoting pluralism in Vietnam. Specifically, Viet Tan seeks to roll back existing restrictions against basic rights by promoting a de facto free media, supporting grassroots movements, training and capacity building and engaging in international advocacy.[10] Viet Tan sees the strength and resources of the Vietnamese people as the impetus for achieving political change and restoring civil rights.[11]

Non-violent struggle[edit]

Viet Tan embraces the non-violent struggle approach to reform. The organization believes that change has to come from within Vietnam and come from the bottom up.[2] Human Rights Watch have repeatedly stated that the organization "has worked for peaceful political reform, democracy, and human rights in Vietnam".[6]

The organization has outlined the following steps to democratizing Vietnam:[2]

  • Improving Social Welfare & Restoring Civil Rights
  • Promoting Pluralism
  • Building Collective Strength
  • Expanding the Knowledge Base
  • Investing in the Future Generation
  • Lobbying International Support
  • Strengthening the Overseas Vietnamese Community
  • Building the Foundation to Reform Vietnam
  • Protecting National Interests and Territorial Integrity
  • Restoring Truth to Recent History

Outside of Vietnam, Viet Tan frequently meets with members of the United States Congress, the Parliament of Australia, Parliament of Canada, and members of the European Union and given key testimonies on issues of human rights, Internet Freedom, and political repression. Viet Tan also advises organizations on using trade to leverage human rights.[12]

In a radio interview with Australia Radio station 2SER, Viet Tan representative Phong Nguyen states that "our mission is to promote human rights, democracy and to end social injustice by peaceful nonviolent means based civic participation", though he recognizes that the Vietnamese government regards them as a terrorist organization, despite a lack of evidence.[13]

In a statement released in 2013 following the conviction of Vietnamese dissidents accused of being members of Viet Tan, the organization states that it "believes that gaining an understanding of nonviolent civil resistance, digital security and leadership skills are both empowering and the right of every free individual."[14]

The United Nations have also noted that "Viet Tan is a peaceful organization advocating for democratic reform."[9] The Vietnamese government has also publicly acknowledged that it finds Viet Tan members handing out pamphlets on non-violent peace protests.[15]

Membership[edit]

Viet Tan has members and supporters throughout Vietnam and around the world,[16] its network inside Vietnam comprises intellectuals, university students, and workers.[2][5] While membership is by-invitation-only, Viet Tan does send out mass emails to people in Vietnam to recruit potential members.[17]

Viet Tan held its 6th Party Congress in September 2006. Members were elected the Central Committee headed by Đỗ Hoàng Điềm as chairman and Ly Thai Hung as general secretary.[5]

History[edit]

Beginnings: 1982–2004[edit]

On September 10, 1982, the National United Front for the Freedom of Vietnam (NUFLV) was founded by various groups in Vietnam, with Hoang Co Minh elected as president. Two years later, this group was then later reorganized into Viet Tan, when it became a worldwide underground movement.[16] While the former had the primary aim to topple the communist regime through a popular uprising, the latter aims at renovating Vietnam through political and peaceful means.[4]

During the period of 1982 to 1987 Hoang Co Minh also served as the organization's chair, until he was ambushed by Vietnamese soldiers while leading a group of members into Vietnam. In the period that followed, Viet Tan remained an underground organization with undisclosed projects and campaigns.

Going public in 2004[edit]

Viet Tan chairman Đỗ Hoàng Điềm (2nd from right) meets with U.S. President George Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney on May 29, 2007 urging the president to increase pressure on Vietnam to respect human rights

On September 19, 2004, in a highly publicized event in Berlin, Germany, the organization stepped out as a public organization, announcing the dissolution of the NUFLV, and a recommitment to establish democracy in Vietnam through peaceful means.[18]

In September 2006, Viet Tan sent members to testify before the Congressional Human Rights Caucus in Washington, DC.

On May 29, 2007, chairman Đỗ Hoàng Điềm was invited by US president George W. Bush together with three other Vietnamese-American activists to the White House on a meeting about Vietnam's increasingly harsh treatment of anti-government activists and an upcoming visit by Vietnam's president Nguyen Minh Triet to the United States.[19][20][21] During the 45-minute meeting, Đỗ Hoàng Điềm urged the president to increase pressure on Vietnam to respect human rights and asked for the United States to support openly democratic forces to bring change to Hanoi.[22] During Nguyen Minh Triet's visit to the US, Đỗ Hoàng Điềm also met with House Speaker Nancy Pelosi shortly before her meeting with the Vietnamese president to stress the importance of raising the issue of Vietnam's poor human rights record.[19][23]

2009 testimony before Parliament of Australia[edit]

On March 19, 2009 Viet Tan members (including Đỗ Hoàng Điềm) also testified before the Parliament of Australia Human Rights Sub-Committee on Vietnam's recent development on worker's rights abuses, religious freedom and arbitrary arrests.[24] This was also followed up in November 2009, when Viet Tan organized a democracy dinner with Australian politicians Alistair Coe and George Lemon who both received honorary member status for Viet Tan given their support and work for the non-violent struggle for democracy in Vietnam[2]

2010 public appearances in Hanoi[edit]

Viet Tan organizes civic action in Hanoi on October 9, 2010

On March 14, 2010 Viet Tan members gathered in the Vietnamese capital Hanoi, Vietnam to assert Vietnam's maritime claims to the Paracel and Spratly Island.[25] They distributed t-shirts and hats with slogans that were prohibited by the Vietnamese government.

A similar protest against China's actions over disputed maritime territories occurred on October 8, 2010 with approximately 70 members of Viet Tan in attendance in Hanoi, Vietnam. The members said it was their responsibility as citizens to speak out,[26] and passed out T-Shirts and hats calling for the government to defend its right to sovereignty over disputed islands in the South China Sea.[27]

Arrests[edit]

2007 arrests[edit]

Main article: Nguyen Quoc Quan

On November 17, 2007, three Viet Tan members, US citizens Nguyen Quoc Quan, a mathematics researcher, and Truong Van Ba, a Hawaiian restaurant owner, and Frenchwoman Nguyen Thi Thanh Van, a contributor to Viet Tan’s Radio Chan Troi Moi radio show, were arrested in Ho Chi Minh City.[28] At the time, they were leading a “democracy seminar” and preparing pro-democracy pamphlets,[5][29] when 20 security officers raided the house.[30] In addition, Thai citizen Somsak Khunmi and two Vietnamese nationals, Nguyen The Vu, a trader, and his brother Nguyen Trong Khiem were also arrested[28] Three days later, on November 20, 2007, Vietnamese security police arrested Nguyen Viet Trung, a Vietnamese citizen, in Phan Thiet. Born 1979, Nguyen Viet Trung is a businessman and younger brother of Nguyen The Vu. The arrests were not officially confirmed by the Vietnamese government until November 22, 2007. During the press briefing, officials declined to state which laws the detained individuals have broken, nor released any information about Nguyen Quoc Quan, whose whereabouts remained unknown for a week.[31]

In response to the arrest, Viet Tan launched a worldwide awareness campaign under the name of Free Them Now, that included a petition to request the US, French and Thai government for assistance in demanding an immediate release of the individuals. Coinciding with the International Human Rights Day on December 10, rallies were organized in Paris, Sydney and Washington, DC.

On November 24, 2007, Vietnamese security police released university student Nguyen Trong Khiem after detaining him for a week without cause. On December 12, 2007, after weeks of protests and appeals by U.S. lawmakers and international pro-democracy movements, Vietnam released American citizen Truong Van Ba shortly after the U.S. ambassador Michael Michalak demanded to see evidence of terrorism or other charges to justify their detention.[32][33] Nguyen Quoc Quan remained detained in Vietnam, with the U.S. Consulate allowed to visit him once per month. However, family visits were not allowed.[29][34] His wife was granted a visa to visit him in January 2008, though the Vietnamese consulate revoked the visa one week prior her scheduled trip.[34]

Democracy activist visits with US Congressman Mike Honda in 2008, after his release from prison in Vietnam

On March 12, 2008, chairman of Viet Tan, Đỗ Hoàng Điềm, appeared before the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee’s subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs along with Nguyen Quoc Quan's wife to appeal to lawmakers to confront the issue.[1][34]

During a behind-closed-doors trial in Vietnam on May 13, 2008,[35][36] Nguyen Quoc Quan was sentenced to 6 months in prison, but since he had already served that time, was released on May 17, 2008 and deported back to the United States.[8][37] Nguyen The Vu was released immediately, and Somsak Kunmi will serve another three months before he will be released.[8] Other than the sentences, the presiding judge would not release any further detail of the trial.[8]

2008 arrests[edit]

Following the 2007 arrests, three additional Viet Tan members, Nguyen Thi Xuan Trang, a medical doctor from Switzerland, Mai Huu Bao, an electrical engineer from the United States and past Executive Board Member of the Union of Vietnamese Student Associations of Southern California as well as Nguyen Tan Anh, a manager of a health-care non-profit from Australia, attempted a visit of Nguyen Quoc Quan in Ho Chi Minh City. On April 4, 2008, the three Viet Tan members visited the Ministry of Public Security detention center in Ho Chi Minh City, but were detained by security police.[38] The three were released two days later and expelled from Vietnam.[39]

2010 arrests[edit]

Main articles: Hong Vo and Pham Minh Hoang

In July and August 2010, a new series of arrests by the Vietnamese government was made. The arrests included Pham Minh Hoang, a 55-year-old French-educated lecturer in applied mathematics at the Ho Chi Minh City Institute of Technology,[40][41] Duong Kim Khai (a pastor in the Mennonite Church), Tran Thi Thuy (a merchant) and Nguyen Thanh Tam (a farmer).[42] Hoang's wife believed her husband was arrested because he supported the protests against controversial Chinese-run bauxite mines in Vietnam's Central Highlands.[40] Hoang remains in police custody since August 13, 2010.[43] Reporters Without Borders and the Committee of Concerned Scientists condemned the government's consistent use of conspiracy theories to arrest dissidents.[44][45]

Following a peaceful demonstration of Viet Tan party members in Hanoi to affirming Vietnamese sovereignty over the Paracel and Spratly Island, Mrs. Hong Vo, a 53 year-old social worker from Melbourne, Australia was arrested in the evening of October 10, 2010.[46] The arrest occurred at the airport, as Mrs. Vo was boarding a plan to return to Australia.[47] Her son was on a phone call with her, when the phone call ended abruptly.[47]

After the Australian consulate in Vietnam intervened in the case, Hong Vo was released from prison on October 21, 2010 and immediately expelled from the country without the possibility for her to ever return.[48][49]

2011 arrests[edit]

Following the peaceful demonstration with Vietnamese farmers who protest the government's confiscation of their land, Viet Tan members Jennifer Truong, Nguyen Ly Trong and Nguyen Quang Khanh were arrested in Ho Chi Minh City on March 16, 2011.[50] While the arrest was confirmed by the Vietnamese police, no further information was provided.[50]

In May 2011, three Viet Tan members along with four other land activists were tried during a one-day, closed trial and sentenced to prison for two to seven years.[51] The activists, including Tran Thi Thuy and Duong Kim Khai were lobbying for land rights in Ben Tre and offered legal advice to farmers whose land has been confiscated by the government.[52] During the trial, the defendants were denied access to a lawyer, and members of the US Congress, led by Representative Ed Royce, wrote a letter asking for their release.[51]

2012 arrests[edit]

Main article: Nguyen Quoc Quan

On April 17, 2012, Nguyen Quoc Quan was arrested again at Tan Son Nhat International Airport in Ho Chi Minh City.[53][54] Government officials did not confirm his arrest until five days later.[53] He is detained on charges of terrorism[55] and for planning to "instigate a demonstration" during the anniversary of the Fall of Saigon.[56] He is being detained for at least four months.[53] According to his wife, he was planning to visit his younger sister and "talk about democracy and the rule of law".[53] The U.S. consulate in Vietnam has confirmed that he has been arrested, but no formal charges have been filed and has not been granted a lawyer.[57] Six members of the U.S. Congress signed a letter to U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and urged the State Department to call for Dr. Quan's immediate release on grounds that the Vietnamese government is "abusing its vague national security provisions as the pretext to arrest and detain individuals who peacefully advocate for religious and political freedom."[58] Following intense US pressure, he was then deported on January 30, 2013 after spending nine months in prison.[59]

2013 convictions[edit]

14 activists, many associated with the Roman Catholic Redemptionist movement, arrested in 2011 after attending Viet Tan training in Thailand, were convicted of subversion after a two-day trial in Vinh, in Nghe An Province, and sentenced in January 2013 for periods ranging from 3 to 13 years. Defendants included Dang Xuan Dieu, Dang Ngoc Minh, Ho Duc Hoa, Ho Van Oanh, Paulus Le Son, Nguyen Dang Minh Man, Nguyen Dang Vinh Phuc, Nguyen Dinh Cuong, Nguyen Van Duyet, Nguyen Van Oai, Nguyen Xuan Oanh, Nong Hung Anh, Thai Van Dung, and Tran Minh Nhat.[60] During this time, Viet Tan chairman Đỗ Hoàng Điềm went on public media including Saigon Broadcasting Television Network as well as Al Jazeera to speak out against this "blatant crackdown."[61]

Campaigns[edit]

Viet Tan recruitment and infobooth centre in Canada

Internet Freedom Campaign[edit]

In response to Vietnam's appeal to Internet companies Microsoft, Google and Yahoo to work with the Vietnamese government to restrict blogging about dissident material and hand over information that could lead to arrests, Viet Tan launched the "Internet Freedom Campaign".[62] Under this campaign, Viet Tan released a report[63] stating that the Vietnamese ministry has expressed the wish that foreign Internet companies "comply with provisions in the new decree, including providing personal information on bloggers to government authorities upon request."[64] Through this lobbying campaign, 16 members of the US Congress have already co-signed a joint letter to the CEOs of each company to express their concerns about "the worsening Internet restrictions in Vietnam.".[65][66]

In October 2010, the organization also started the No Firewall portal, that provided documentation on digital security and how to circumvent the Vietnamese government firewall.[67]

In April 2012, the organization obtained a decree entitled Decree on the Management, Provision, Use of Internet Services and Information Content Online that was drafted by the Vietnamese government that would ask internet companies to censor blogs, release blogger information and possibly house data centers in Vietnam for the purpose of censorship and regulation of social media.[68] Viet Tan published an editorial describing the draft policy and called for US companies to resist it. Reporters without Borders later confirmed that the decree exists and that it was meant to be enacted in June 2012.[68]

Save Tay Nguyen campaign[edit]

In 2009, Viet Tan has been very vocal about the planned bauxite mining in the central area of Tay Nguyen.[69] Under an agreement between the Chinese government and the Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung, Chinese companies were allowed access to the central highlands of Tay Nguyen for bauxite mining. Environmental concerns about bauxite mining sparked widespread international opposition among scientists, intellectuals and former soldiers.[70] Prominent Vietnamese lawyer Le Cong Dinh was very vocal about the bauxite mining, and as a result was arrested on June 13, 2009 by the Vietnamese police force.[71]

Free Thuy-Nhan-Nghien campaign[edit]

In response to the imprisonment of human rights and democracy activists Tran Khai Thanh Thuy, Le Thi Cong Nhan and Pham Thanh Nghien, Viet Tan launched the Free Thuy-Nhan-Nghien campaign in March 2010. The campaign included a call to spread awareness on social media outlets.[72]

One Million Against 79 campaign[edit]

With many Vietnamese pro-democracy activists being arrested under article 79 of the Vietnamese penal code that bans "carrying out activities aimed at overthrowing the people's administration."[43] Viet Tan has started the One Million Against 79 campaign that solicits videos from individuals voicing their opposition against article 79. Reporters without Borders also noted the government's systematic use of conspiracy theories and article 79 to arrest dissidents.[44]

Programs[edit]

New Horizon Radio/Radio Chân Trời Mới[edit]

Since 1992, Viet Tan has operated a daily radio broadcast to Vietnam under the name "Radio Chân Trời Mới" (New Horizon Radio). The program airs every night from 8:30pm to 9:00pm on AM 1503.[16] Despite efforts to jam the broadcast by the government, it can be heard in most areas of the country. The episodes are also available online as a podcast.[73]

Friends of Viet Tan[edit]

Viet Tan started a social networking outreach program through the Friends of Viet Tan community that allows like-minded activists to follow news and activities about Vietnam and Viet Tan and also participate in the discussion. The program was first launched as a Facebook application that allowed other users to suggest their own newsworthy articles and references to a main feed that was replicated to many other websites.[73] The application also syndicated Radio Chân Trời Mới as a podcast, and in 2009 also introduced a vodcast.

Digital activism seminars[edit]

On November 14–15, 2009, Viet Tan organized a seminar on "Digital Activism: A Tool for Change in Vietnam" held at Georgetown University, in Washington, D.C.[74][75] Incidentally, in the same week, the Vietnamese government decided to block Facebook through its internet firewall.[76][77] In response, seminar attendees produced viral videos and documentation on how to circumvent Vietnam's firewall to access Facebook[78] as well as a viral video called Facebook Back that uses modified lyrics of Justin Timberlake's Sexyback[79]

The same seminar was repeated February 27–28, 2010 at Chapman University in Orange, California, which was co-sponsored by the Asian Pacific Law Student Association and the Vietnamese American Law Student Association.[80]

The seminar also took place at Harvard University from October 16–17, 2010.[80]

On March 9, 2010, Viet Tan Spokesman Duy Hoang presented on "Digital Activism in Vietnam" at the Geneva Summit for Human Rights, Tolerance and Democracy and was one of the panelist to discuss 'Next Generation: Young Rights Defenders and the Blogosphere'.[81][81]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs" (PDF). 2008-03-12. Archived from the original on May 2, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Alistair Coe (2009-11-12). "Alistair commends Vietnam pro-democracy movement". Retrieved 2009-12-06. 
  3. ^ Kim Nguyen. "Reasons for the Public Introduction of Viet Tan". Archived from the original on October 14, 2006. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  4. ^ a b Carlyle A. Thayer (2007-05-05). "Background Briefing: Viet Tan". Retrieved 2007-08-03. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Pro-reform party coddled in U.S". 2007-12-17. Retrieved 2008-04-15. 
  6. ^ a b "Vietnam: Release Convicted Activists - Drop Charges Against Blogger Le Quoc Quan". Human Rights Watch. 2013-01-09. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  7. ^ "Vietnam arrests US pro-democracy activist". Associated Press. 2012-04-29. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Vietnam sentences American for terrorism". 2008-05-13. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  9. ^ a b "UN human rights office concerned over convictions of 14 activists in Vietnam". United Nations. 2013-01-11. Retrieved 2013-01-11. 
  10. ^ "Viet Tan". Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  11. ^ "Democratic pebble in Vietnam's shoe". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  12. ^ Payton Hoegh (2007-02-12). "Use Trade to Promote Rights, Vietnamese Dissidents Urge US". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  13. ^ Presenters: Jennifer Lush (2010-10-17). "Australian pro-democracy activist arrested in Vietnam". Razors Edge. 4:04 minutes in. 2SER. http://2ser.podomatic.com/entry/2010-10-17T17_41_44-07_00.
  14. ^ James Hookway (2013-01-09). "Vietnam Court Sentences 14 Activists". Retrieved 2013-01-11. 
  15. ^ "Vietnam's Trial". Wall Street Journal. 2013-01-14. Retrieved 2013-01-21. 
  16. ^ a b c Deepa Bharath (2007-04-22). "Democracy activism a 'battle without boundaries'". The Orange County Register. Retrieved 2007-08-03. 
  17. ^ Kay Johnson (2007-11-20). "Vietnam Arrests a New Activist Breed". Time. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  18. ^ Shawn W Crispin (2008-01-18). "Democratic pebble in Vietnam's shoe". Retrieved 2008-01-18. 
  19. ^ a b Mark Silva (2007-06-21). "Bush hosts Vietnam -- reformers seek pressure". The Swamp. Retrieved 2012-05-21. 
  20. ^ Alex Wong (2007-05-29). "Bush Meets With Vietnamese Democracy And Human Rights Activists". Getty Images. Retrieved 2012-05-21. 
  21. ^ John Boudreau (2007-05-30). "Bush meets with backers of Vietnamese democracy". Mercury News. Retrieved 2012-05-21. 
  22. ^ Associated Press (2007-05-29). "Vietnamese-American activists call for US to pressure Vietnam on human rights". Retrieved 2007-08-27. 
  23. ^ Kathrine Schmidt (2007-06-20). "Orange County pushes discussion on Vietnam". Retrieved 2007-08-27. 
  24. ^ Diem H. Do (2009-03-19). "Testimony before the Parliament of Australia Human Rights Sub-Committee". Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  25. ^ "From Hanoi, Viet Tan members affirm Vietnam’s sovereignty". 2010-03-14. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  26. ^ "Vietnamese opposition protests against "Chinese aggression"". 2010-10-09. Retrieved 2010-10-09. 
  27. ^ "Hanoi throws extravagant 1,000th birthday bash". 2010-10-09. Retrieved 2010-10-10. 
  28. ^ a b "Six activists arrested in Vietnam, says dissident group". 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  29. ^ a b Tran Angelina Do (2008-05-07). "Doing time for democracy in Vietnam". Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  30. ^ Kay Johnson (2007-11-20). "Vietnam Arrests a New Activist Breed". Time. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  31. ^ "Vietnam confirms secret arrest of Thai activist". 2007-11-23. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  32. ^ "Vietnam Frees 3 U.S. Citizens". 2007-12-12. Retrieved 2008-04-15. [dead link]
  33. ^ Vietnam Frees 3 U.S. Citizens, CBS 2007-12-13
  34. ^ a b c Mark Silva (2008-03-12). "Vietnamese rights activists press Congress to act". Retrieved 2008-04-04. 
  35. ^ "Vietnamese Government to Bring to Trial American Activist Nguyen Quoc Quan and Two Other Democracy Promoters". 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  36. ^ "Pro-democracy activists to be charged with terrorism in Vietnam". 2008-05-05. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  37. ^ Demian Bulwa (2008-05-19). "Vietnam deports American democracy activist". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  38. ^ "Vietnamese police detain Viet Tan members for visiting imprisoned colleagues". 2008-04-04. Retrieved 2008-04-04. [dead link]
  39. ^ "Vietnam expels three foreign activists". Retrieved 2008-04-09. 
  40. ^ a b "Vietnam arrests math professor on political charges". DPA. 2010-08-17. Retrieved 2010-09-09. 
  41. ^ Salma Abdelaziz (2010-10-10). "Bloggers detained... but others write on". CNN. Retrieved 2010-10-10. 
  42. ^ "Vietnamese opposition party says arrested dissident was member". DPA. 2010-09-09. Retrieved 2010-09-09. 
  43. ^ a b "Vietnam Indicts Pro-democracy Activist On Subversion Charges". RTTNews. 2010-09-29. Retrieved 2010-10-10. 
  44. ^ a b "French-Vietnamese blogger charged with trying to topple government". Reports Without Borders. 2010-09-30. Retrieved 2010-10-10. 
  45. ^ "Vietnamese mathematician Pham Minh Hoang arrested, accused of sedition after publishing blogs criticizing environmental impact of bauxite extraction". Committee of Concerned Scientists. 2011-03-17. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  46. ^ "Viet Tan member detained for joining peaceful demonstration". 2010-10-10. Retrieved 2010-10-10. 
  47. ^ a b John Masanauskas (2010-10-14). "Melbourne woman held in Vietnam over pro-democracy rally". Herald Sun. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  48. ^ "Vietnam bans Aussie democracy protester from returning to country". AAP. 2010-10-21. Retrieved 2010-10-20. 
  49. ^ "Vietnam releases Australian woman for protesting against China". Monsters and Critics. 2010-10-21. Retrieved 2010-10-20. 
  50. ^ a b "Vietnam arrests members of banned pro-democracy group after protest". Monsters and Critics. 2011-03-16. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  51. ^ a b "Vietnamese Land Activists Jailed For Up to 8 Years". Voice of America. 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-04. 
  52. ^ "US condemns conviction of 7 Vietnamese activists". Associated Press. 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-04. 
  53. ^ a b c d "Human rights activist detained in Vietnam on 'terrorism' charge". 2012-04-30. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  54. ^ "US pro-democracy activist accused of terrorism in Vietnam". Associated Press. 2012-04-29. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  55. ^ "The New Hanoi Hilton - Vietnam arrests an American democracy advocate.". Associated Press. 2012-04-29. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  56. ^ Joshua Lipes (2012-05-01). "Vietnamese-American Jailed for 'Terrorism'". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  57. ^ "Elk Grove man arrested again in Vietnam". Elk Grove News. 2012-05-02. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  58. ^ "Bloggers’ Trial Fixed, Then Postponed". Radio Free Asia. 2012-05-05. Retrieved 2012-05-05. 
  59. ^ "Vietnam frees American democracy activist detained for 9 months". Washington Post. 2013-01-30. Retrieved 2013-01-30. 
  60. ^ Seth Mydans (January 9, 2013). "Activists Convicted in Vietnam Crackdown on Dissent". The New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  61. ^ "Crackdown on Vietnam's voices". Al Jazeera. 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2013-01-21. 
  62. ^ Johnston, Tim (2009-01-18). "Vietnamese Authorities Rein In the Country's Vigorous Blogosphere". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  63. ^ "Vietnam’s blogger movement: A virtual civil society in the midst of government repression". 2009-03-30. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  64. ^ "Vietnam’s Crackdown on Bloggers Prompts Appeal From U.S. Lawmakers". 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2009-04-02. [dead link]
  65. ^ "Letter to Yahoo, Google and Microsoft". 2009-03-31. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  66. ^ "U.S. House Members Support Internet Freedom in Vietnam". 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2009-09-22. 
  67. ^ Helen Clark. "Facebook in Vietnam: Why the block doesn't work". Retrieved 2010-10-09. 
  68. ^ a b "Vietnam: Draft Decree Would End Online Anonymity, Force Foreign Internet Firms To Censor". 2012-04-15. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  69. ^ "Prominent lawyer jailed in Vietnam". Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  70. ^ "Global lawyers' group brands Vietnam arrest 'arbitrary'". Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  71. ^ "On the Repressive Measures Against Attorney Le Cong Dinh". Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  72. ^ "Free Thuy-Nhan-Nghien's Site". Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  73. ^ a b "Podcast Radio Chân Trời Mới" (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2009-04-01. 
  74. ^ "Viet Tan Vodcast - Digital Activism Seminar". 2009-11-29. Retrieved 2009-12-06. 
  75. ^ "Digital Activism - A Tool For Change in Vietnam". 2009-11-14. Retrieved 2009-12-06. 
  76. ^ "Vietnam Firewalls Facebook". 2009-12-01. Retrieved 2009-12-06. 
  77. ^ Ben Stocking (2009-11-17). "Vietnam Internet users fear Facebook blackout". Retrieved 2009-12-06. 
  78. ^ "Phương pháp vượt tường lửa để vào Facebook" (in Vietnamese). 2010-01-06. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  79. ^ "Thanh niên Việt Nam và Chiến dịch 'Đem Facebook lại ngay'" (in Vietnamese). 2010-01-05. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  80. ^ a b "Digital activism and Vietnam". 2010-02-02. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  81. ^ a b "Next Generation: Young Rights Defenders and the Blogosphere - Digital Activism in Vietnam". 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 

External links[edit]