Vietnam Veterans Memorial

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For the plaza in New York City, see Vietnam Veterans Plaza.
Vietnam Veterans Memorial
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
TouchWall.jpg
Map showing the location of Vietnam Veterans Memorial
Map showing the location of Vietnam Veterans Memorial
Location Washington, D.C., United States
Coordinates 38°53′28″N 77°2′52″W / 38.89111°N 77.04778°W / 38.89111; -77.04778Coordinates: 38°53′28″N 77°2′52″W / 38.89111°N 77.04778°W / 38.89111; -77.04778
Area 2.00 acres (0.81 ha)
Established November 13, 1982
Visitors 3,799,968 (in 2006)
Governing body

National Park Service

Architect IM Pei
NRHP Reference # 01000285[1]
Added to NRHP November 13, 1982

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is a national memorial in Washington, D.C. It honors U.S. service members of the U.S. armed forces who fought in the Vietnam War, service members who died in service in Vietnam/South East Asia, and those service members who were unaccounted for (Missing In Action) during the War.

Its construction and related issues have been the source of controversies, some of which have resulted in additions to the memorial complex. The memorial currently consists of three separate parts: the Three Soldiers statue, the Vietnam Women's Memorial, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall, which is the best-known part of the memorial.

The main part of the memorial, which was completed in 1982, is in Constitution Gardens adjacent to the National Mall, just northeast of the Lincoln Memorial. The memorial is maintained by the U.S. National Park Service, and receives around 3 million visitors each year. The Memorial Wall was designed by American architect Maya Lin. The typesetting of the original 58,195 names on the wall was performed by Datalantic in Atlanta, Georgia. In 2007, it was ranked tenth on the "List of America's Favorite Architecture" by the American Institute of Architects.

History[edit]

The Main Navy and Munitions Buildings site, with the Munitions building behind the Navy building
  • April 30, 1975 – The Fall of Saigon.
  • April 27, 1979 – The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Inc. (VVMF), was incorporated as a non-profit organization to establish a memorial to veterans of the Vietnam War. Much of the impetus behind the formation of the fund came from a wounded Vietnam veteran, Jan Scruggs, who was inspired by the film The Deer Hunter, with support from fellow Vietnam veterans such as retired Navy chaplain Arnold Resnicoff. Eventually, $8.4 million was raised by private donations.
  • July 1, 1980 – Congress authorizes 3 acres (12,000 m2) near the Lincoln Memorial for the site. The "temporary" Munitions Building, built for War Department offices during World War I and finally razed in 1970, ordered by President Richard Nixon, formerly occupied the site. The memorial is to be managed by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks group. A design competition is announced.
  • December 29, 1980 – 2,573 register for design competition with a prize of $50,000.
  • March 30, 1981 – 1,421 designs submitted. The designs are displayed at an airport hangar at Andrews Air Force Base for the selection committee, in rows covering more than 35,000 square feet (3,300 m2) of floor space. Each entry was identified by number only, to preserve the anonymity of their authors. All entries were examined by each juror; the entries were narrowed down to 232, then 39. Finally, the jury selected entry number 1026.
  • January 1982 – The Three Soldiers was added to the design as a result of controversy over Lin's design.
  • March 11, 1982 – The design is formally approved.
  • March 26, 1982 – Ground is formally broken.
  • October 13, 1982 – The U.S. Commission of Fine Arts approves erection of a flagpole to be grouped with sculptures.
  • November 13, 1982 – Memorial dedication after a march to its site by thousands of Vietnam War veterans. As a National Memorial it was administratively listed on the National Register of Historic Places the same day.
Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall with Christmas ornaments
  • November 1984 – The Three Soldiers statue is dedicated.
  • November 11, 1993 – Vietnam Women's Memorial is dedicated.
  • 1994 – The Pentagon, instead of adding two unidentified bodies of Vietnam veterans to the Tomb of the Unknowns, recommended that a display of medals be added behind the tomb with a plaque reading: "Let all know that the United States of America pays tribute to the members of the Armed Forces who answered their country's call." A Veterans Affairs subcommittee later changed the statement to read: "Let all know that the United States of America pays tribute to the members of the Armed Forces who served honorably in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam Era." Later, in 1998, Congress, prodded by the Vietnam-Era Caucus (composed of veteran Congressmen), discussed creating a "Vietnam Veterans Week" to honor the survivors of the war.
  • November 10, 2004 – Dedication of memorial plaque honoring veterans who died after the war as a direct result of injuries suffered in Vietnam, but who fall outside Department of Defense guidelines.
  • May 4, 2010 - Six names were added to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial during a ceremony. The new names are veterans who died after the war as a direct result of injuries suffered in the combat zone.[2]
  • October 12, 2012 - It was announced that a place of honor will be added by the Wall for post 9/11 service members.[3]

Structure[edit]

An aerial photograph of 'The Wall' taken on April 26, 2002 by the United States Geological Survey. The dots visible along the length of the angled wall are visitors. For a satellite view of the Wall in relation to other monuments, see Constitution Gardens.

Memorial Wall[edit]

The Memorial Wall, designed by Maya Lin, is made up of two gabbro walls 246 feet 9 inches (75.21 m) long.[4][5] The walls are sunk into the ground, with the earth behind them. At the highest tip (the apex where they meet), they are 10.1 feet (3.1 m) high, and they taper to a height of 8 inches (20 cm) at their extremities. Stone for the wall came from Bangalore, Karnataka, India, and was deliberately chosen because of its reflective quality. Stone cutting and fabrication was done in Barre, Vermont. Stones were then shipped to Memphis, Tennessee where the names were etched. The etching was completed using a photoemulsion and sandblasting process. The negatives used in the process are in storage at the Smithsonian Institution. When a visitor looks upon the wall, his or her reflection can be seen simultaneously with the engraved names, which is meant to symbolically bring the past and present together. One wall points toward the Washington Monument, the other in the direction of the Lincoln Memorial, meeting at an angle of 125° 12′. Each wall has 72 panels, 70 listing names (numbered 1E through 70E and 70W through 1W) and 2 very small blank panels at the extremities. There is a pathway along the base of the Wall, where visitors may walk.

One panel of 'The Wall', displaying some of the names of fallen U.S. service members from the Vietnam War.

Inscribed on the walls with the Optima typeface are the names of servicemen who were either confirmed to be KIA (Killed in Action) or remained classified as MIA (Missing in Action) when the walls were constructed in 1982. They are listed in chronological order, starting at the apex on panel 1E in 1959 (although it was later discovered that the first casualties were military advisers who were killed by artillery fire in 1957), moving day by day to the end of the eastern wall at panel 70E, which ends on May 25, 1968, starting again at panel 70W at the end of the western wall which completes the list for May 25, 1968, and returning to the apex at panel 1W in 1975. Symbolically, this is described as a "wound that is closed and healing." Information about rank, unit, and decorations are not given. The wall listed 58,191 names when it was completed in 1983; as of May 2011, there are 58,272 names, including 8 women. Approximately 1,200 of these are listed as missing (MIAs, POWs, and others), denoted with a cross. If the missing return alive, the cross is circumscribed by a circle (although this has never occurred as of March 2009); if their death is confirmed, a diamond is superimposed over the cross. According to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, "there is no definitive answer to exactly how many, but there could be as many as 38 names of personnel who survived, but through clerical errors, were added to the list of fatalities provided by the Department of Defense."[6] Directories are located on nearby podiums so that visitors may locate specific names.

Occasionally, visitors to the Wall will take a piece of paper and place it over a name on the wall and rub a pen or pencil over it. This is called "rubbing".

Timeline for those listed on the wall[edit]

A Marine at Vietnam Memorial on July 4, 2002
  • November 1, 1955 – Dwight D. Eisenhower deploys Military Assistance Advisory Group to train the South Vietnamese military units and secret police. However, the U.S. Department of Defense does not recognize such date since the men were supposedly only training the Vietnamese. The officially recognized date is the formation of the Military Assistance Command Viet-Nam, better known as MACV. This marks the official beginning of American involvement in the war as recognized by the memorial.
  • June 8, 1956 – The first official death in Vietnam is U.S. Air Force Technical Sergeant Richard B. Fitzgibbon, Jr. of Stoneham, MA who was murdered by another U.S. airman.
  • July 8, 1959 – Charles Ovnand and Dale R. Buis are killed by guerrillas at Bien Hoa while watching the film The Tattered Dress. They are listed 1 and 2 at the wall's dedication. Ovnand's name is spelled on the memorial as "Ovnard," due to conflicting military records of his surname.
  • April 30, 1975 – Fall of Saigon. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs uses May 7, 1975 as the official end date for the Vietnam era as defined by 38 U.S.C. § 101.
  • May 15, 1975 – 18 U.S. servicemen (14 Marines, two Navy corpsmen, and two Air Force crewmen) are killed on the last day of a rescue operation known as the Mayagüez incident with troops from the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. They are the last servicemen listed on the timeline.

The Three Soldiers[edit]

The Three Soldiers by Frederick Hart
Main article: The Three Soldiers

A short distance away from the wall is another Vietnam memorial, a bronze statue named The Three Soldiers (sometimes called The Three Servicemen). Negative reactions to Lin's design created a controversy; a compromise was reached by commissioning Frederick Hart (who had placed third in the original design competition) to produce a bronze figurative sculpture in the heroic tradition. Opponents of Lin's design had hoped to place this sculpture of three soldiers at the apex of the wall's two sides. Lin objected strenuously to this, arguing that this would make the soldiers the focal point of the memorial, and her wall a mere backdrop. A compromise was reached, and the sculpture was placed off to one side. The statue, which was unveiled in 1984, depicts three soldiers, purposefully identifiable as White American, African American, and Hispanic American. In their final arrangement, the statue and the Wall appear to interact with each other, with the soldiers looking on in solemn tribute at the names of their fallen comrades. The distance between the two allows them to interact while minimizing the impact of the addition on Lin's design.

Women's Memorial[edit]

In Memory memorial plaque[edit]

A memorial plaque, authorized by Pub.L. 106–214, was dedicated on November 10, 2004, at the northeast corner of the plaza surrounding the Three Soldiers statue to honor veterans who died after the war as a direct result of injuries suffered in Vietnam, but who fall outside Department of Defense guidelines. The plaque is a carved block of black granite, 3 by 2 feet (0.91 by 0.61 m), inscribed "In memory of the men and women who served in the Vietnam War and later died as a result of their service. We honor and remember their sacrifice."

Ruth Coder Fitzgerald, founder of The Vietnam War In Memory Memorial Plaque Project, worked for years and struggled against opposition to have the In Memory Memorial Plaque completed. The organization was disbanded, but their web site is maintained by the Vietnam War Project at Texas Tech University.

Controversies[edit]

Original design submission by Maya Lin

The Vietnam War was one of the longest and most controversial wars in United States history. A stated goal of the memorial fund was to avoid commentary on the war itself, serving solely as a memorial to those who served.[citation needed] Nevertheless, a number of controversies have surrounded the memorial.

Opposition to design[edit]

The selected design was very controversial, in particular its unconventional design, its black color and its lack of ornamentation. Some public officials voiced their displeasure, calling the wall "a black gash of shame."[7] Two prominent early supporters of the project, H. Ross Perot and James Webb, withdrew their support once they saw the design. Said Webb, “I never in my wildest dreams imagined such a nihilistic slab of stone.” James Watt, Secretary of the Interior under President Ronald Reagan, initially refused to issue a building permit for the memorial due to the public outcry about the design.[8] Since its early years, criticism of the Memorial's design faded. In the words of Scruggs, "It has become something of a shrine."[7]

Women's memorial[edit]

The original winning entry of the Women's Memorial design contest was deemed unsuitable.[citation needed] Glenna Goodacre's entry received an honorable mention in the contest and she was asked to submit a modified maquette (design model). Goodacre's original design for the Women's Memorial statue included a standing figure of a nurse holding a Vietnamese baby, which although not intended as such, was deemed a political statement, and it was asked that this be removed. She replaced them with a figure of a kneeling woman holding an empty helmet.[citation needed]

Traveling replicas[edit]

The Moving Wall[edit]

Vietnam veteran John Devitt of Stockton, California, attended the 1982 dedication ceremonies of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Recognizing what he saw as the healing nature of the Wall, he vowed to make a transportable version of the Wall, a "Traveling Wall" so those who were not able to travel to Washington, D.C. would be able to see and touch the names of friends or loved ones in their own home town.

Using personal finances, Devitt founded Vietnam Combat Veterans, Ltd. With the help of friends, the half-size replica of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, named The Moving Wall,[9] was built and first put on display to the public in Tyler, Texas, in 1984.

The Moving Wall visits hundreds of small towns and cities throughout the U.S., staying five or six days at each site. Local arrangements for each visit are made months in advance by veterans' organizations and other civic groups. Thousands of people all over the US volunteered their time and money to help honor the fallen.

Desire for a hometown visit of The Moving Wall was so high that the waiting list became very long. Vietnam Combat Veterans built a second structure of The Moving Wall. A third structure was added in 1989. In 2001, one of the structures was retired due to wear.[citation needed]

By 2006, there had been more than 1000 hometown visits of The Moving Wall. The count of people who visited The Moving Wall at each display ranges from 5,000 to more than 50,000; the total estimate of visitors is in the tens of millions.

As the wall moves from town to town on interstates, it is often escorted by state troopers and up to thousands of local citizens on motorcycles. Many of these are Patriot Guard Riders, who consider escorting The Moving Wall to be a "special mission", which is coordinated on their website. As it passes towns, even when it is not planning a stop in those towns, local veterans organizations sometimes plan for local citizens to gather by the highway and across overpasses to wave flags and salute the Wall.[9]

The Wall That Heals[edit]

The Wall That Heals is a traveling three-fifths size replica of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial started in 1996 by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund. A 53-foot (16 m) tractor-trailer transports the 250-foot (76 m) wall and converts to a museum at each stop, showing letters and other items left at the original wall, and more details about those whose names are shown. Lisa Gough of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund said that the exhibit goes to around 20 cities each year and traveled 33,534 miles (53,968 km) in 2010. Organizations in each location pay $5,000 of the cost for the exhibit.

The Traveling Wall[edit]

Created by the American Veterans Traveling Tribute, this traveling wall is an 80% replica Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall and is 360 feet (110 m) long and 8 feet (2.4 m) tall at its apex. It claims to be the largest traveling replica.

The Vietnam Traveling Memorial Wall[edit]

Created by Vietnam and All Veterans of Brevard, Inc, this traveling replica is a 35 scale of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial and is almost 300 feet (91 m) long and 6 feet (1.8 m) tall at the center.

Dignity Memorial Vietnam Wall[edit]

Created by Dignity Memorial, this traveling replica is 34 scale of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Fixed replicas[edit]

Wildwoods[edit]

Located across Ocean Avenue from the Wildwoods Convention Center, New Jersey, the memorial was unveiled and dedicated on May 29, 2010. The memorial wall is a half-size granite replica of the Vietnam Memorial in Washington, D.C., and the only permanent memorial in the northeast, other than the memorial in the nation's capital.

Winfield, Kansas[edit]

Located 401 East Ninth Street in Winfield, Kansas. Plans for the Vietnam War Memorial in Winfield began in 1987 when friends who had gathered for a class reunion wanted to find a way to honor their fallen classmates. The project quickly grew from honoring only Cowley County servicemen to representing all 777 servicemen and nurses from Kansas who lost their lives or are missing in action from the Vietnam War. The memorial is a replica of the Vietnam War memorial in Washington D.C. It was also created as a tribute to servicemen and nurses who served in any world war.[10]

As a Memorial Genre[edit]

The first US memorial to an ongoing war, the Northwood Gratitude and Honor Memorial in Irvine, CA, is modelled on the Vietnam Veterans memorial in that it includes a chronological list of the dead engraved in dark granite. As the memorialized wars (in Iraq and Afghanistan) have not concluded, the Northwood Gratitude and Honor Memorial will be updated yearly. It has space for about 8000 names, of which 5,714 were engraved as of the Dedication of the Memorial on November 14, 2010.[11][12]

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Collection[edit]

Various items left at 'The Wall'.
Flags and flowers

Visitors to the memorial began leaving sentimental items at the memorial at its opening. One story claims that this practice began during construction, when a Vietnam veteran threw the Purple Heart his brother received posthumously into the concrete of the memorial's foundation.[13] Several thousand items are left at the memorial each year.

Items left at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial are collected by National Park Service employees and transferred to the NPS Museum and Resource Center, which catalogs and stores all items except perishable organic matter (such as fresh flowers) and unaltered U.S. flags. The flags are redistributed through various channels.[14]

The largest item left at the memorial was a sliding glass storm door with a full-size replica "tiger cage". The door was painted with a scene in Vietnam and the names of U.S. POWs and MIAs from the conflict.[13]

Other items in collection include a Harley-Davidson motorcycle with the license plate HERO, a plain brown teddy bear which was dressed by other unconnected visitors, a 6' abstract sculpture titled "After the Holocaust", and an experimental W. R. Case "jungle survival knife" of which only 144 were made. It also contains the Medal of Honor of Charles Liteky, who renounced it in 1986 by placing the medal at the memorial in an envelope addressed to then-President Ronald Reagan.

From 1992 to 2003, selected items from the collection were placed on exhibit, at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History as "Personal Legacy: The Healing of a Nation".

Vandalism[edit]

There have been three known incidents of vandalism at the memorial wall.

  • The first occurred in April 1988, when a swastika and various scratches were found etched in two of the panels.[15] The panels were replaced.
  • In 1993, someone burned one of the directory stands at the entrance to the memorial.[16]
  • On September 7, 2007, an oily substance was found by park rangers on the memorial's wall panels and paving stones. It was spread over an area of 50 to 60 feet (18 m). Memorial Fund founder Jan Scruggs deplored the scene, calling it an "act of vandalism on one of America's sacred places". The removal process took a few weeks to complete.[16]
Panorama of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial

See also[edit]

Wreaths placed around the Three Soldiers Statue


References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010. 
  2. ^ "Six Names Added to Vietnam Veterans Memorial". American Forces Press Service. 
  3. ^ Scruggs, Jan. "By the Vietnam Wall, a Place to Honor Our Post-9/11 Service Members". The Daily Beast. Retrieved October 10, 2012. 
  4. ^ Robbins, Eleanora I. (2001). Building Stones and Geomorphology of Washington, D.C.: The Jim O’Connor Memorial Field Trip. CiteSeerX: 10.1.1.124.7887. 
  5. ^ Rasmussen, Kenneth (October 16, 2010). "The Post Could Have Better Explained Cracks in the Wall". Opinions. The Washington Post (Letter to the Editor). Retrieved October 16, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Vietnam Memorial Fund: FAQs". [dead link]
  7. ^ a b Garber, Kent (November 3, 2007). "A Milestone for a Memorial that Has Touched Millions". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved November 11, 2009. 
  8. ^ Wills, Denise (November 1, 2007). "The Vietnam Memorial's History". The Washingtonian. Retrieved November 11, 2009. 
  9. ^ a b "Local AMVETS to Salute Wall". Greenville Advocate. July 17, 2007. 
  10. ^ "Kansas Vietnam War Memorial". Winfield, KS. 
  11. ^ "The Northwood Gratitude and Honor Memorial". northwoodmemorial.com. 
  12. ^ Kang, Sukhee (February 22, 2010). "Letter". City of Irvine. Retrieved June 21, 2010. 
  13. ^ a b "MRCE: Frequently Asked Questions (continued)". National Park Service. Retrieved June 21, 2010. 
  14. ^ "MRCE: Frequently Asked Questions". National Park Service. Retrieved June 21, 2010. 
  15. ^ "Vandals Scratch Swastika on Face of Viet Veterans Memorial". Los Angeles Times. United Press International. May 3, 1988. 
  16. ^ a b "Substance on Vietnam Memorial is Vandalism". Oswego, NY: WTOP-TV. Retrieved September 2, 2010. .

Works cited[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Ashabranner, Brent K. (1989). Always to Remember: The Story of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. New York: Putnam. 
  • ——— (1998). Their Names to Live: What the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Means to America. Brookfield, CT: Twenty-first Century Press. 
  • Berdahl, Daphne. "Voices at the Wall: Discourses of Self, History and National Identity at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial". History & Memory: Studies in Representation of the Past 6 (Fall–Winter 1994): 88–124. 
  • Blair, Carole; Jeppeson, Marsha S. & Pucci, Enrico, Jr. (August 1991). "Public Memorializing in Postmodernity: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial as Prototype". Quarterly Journal of Speech 77: 263–288. 
  • Capasso, Nicholas (1998). The National Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Context: Commemorative Public Art in America, 1960–1997 (PhD Thesis). Rutgers University. 
  • Carlson, A. Cheree & Hocking, John E. (September 1988). "Strategies of Redemption at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial". Western Journal of Speech Communication 52: 203–215. 
  • Carney, Lora S. (1993). "Not Telling Us What to Think: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial". Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 8 (3): 211–219. 
  • Danto, Arthur (August 31, 1985). "The Vietnam Veterans Memorial". The Nation. pp. 152–155. 
  • Ellis, Caron S. (Summer 1992). "So Old Soldiers Don't Fade Away: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial". Journal of American Culture 15: 25–28. 
  • Ehrenhaus, Peter (March 1988). "Silence and Symbolic Expression". Communication Monographs 55: 41–57. 
  • Foss, Sonja K. (Summer 1986). "Ambiguity as Persuasion: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial". Communication Quarterly 34: 326–340. 
  • Friedman, Daniel S. (November 1995). "Public Things in the Modern City: Belated Notes on Tilted Arc and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial". JAE: Journal of Architectural Education 49: 62–78. 
  • Griswold, Charles L. (Summer 1986). "The Vietnam Veterans Memorial and the Washington Mall: Philosophical Thoughts on Political Iconography". Critical Inquiry 12: 688–719. 
  • Haines, Harry (1986). "'What Kind of War?': An Analysis of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial". Critical Studies in Mass Communucation 3: 1–20. 
  • Hass, Kristin Ann (1998). Carried to the Wall: American Memory and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Berkeley: University of California Press. 
  • Hess, Elizabeth (1987). "Vietnam: Memorials of Misfortune". In Williams, Reese. Unwinding the Vietnam War: From War into Peace. Seattle: Real Comet Press. pp. 261–270. 
  • Hubbard, William (Winter 1984). "A Meaning for Monuments". The Public Interest 74: 17–30. 
  • Katakis, Michael (1988). The Vietnam Veterans Memorial. New York: Crown. 
  • Lopes, Sal (1987). The Wall: Images and Offerings from the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. New York: Collins. 
  • McLeod, Mary (1989). "The Battle for the Monument: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial". In Lipstadt, Helene. The Experimental Tradition. New York: Rizzoli. pp. 115–137. 
  • Morrissey, Thomas F. (2000). Between the Lines: Photographs from the National Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. 
  • Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl (February 1997). "A Space of Loss: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial". JAE: Journal of Architectural Education 50: 156–171. 
  • Palmer, Laura (1987). Shrapnel in the Heart: Letters and Remembrances from the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. New York: Random House. 
  • Resnicoff, Arnold E. (2009). "Dedication Prayer for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial". In Moore, James P., Jr. The Treasury of American Prayer. Doubleday. p. 317. 
  • Scott, Grant F. (Fall 1990). "Meditations in Black: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial". Journal of American Culture 13: 37–40. 
  • Scruggs, Jan C. & Swerdlow, Joel L. (1985). To Heal a Nation: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial. New York: Harper & Row. 
  • Sturken, Marita (Summer 1991). "The Wall, the Screen, and the Image: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial". Representations 35: 118–142. 
  • Wagner-Pacific, Robin & Schwartz, Barry (1991). "The Vietnam Veterans Memorial: Commemorating a Difficult Past". The American Journal of Sociology 97: 376–420. 

External links[edit]