Vietnamese border raids in Thailand

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Vietnamese border raids in Thailand
Part of the Cambodian–Vietnamese War and the Cold War
Date 1979 – 1989
Location Thai-Cambodian border, Gulf of Thailand
Result Destruction of numerous guerilla bases and refugee camps along the Cambodian-Thai border and isolated outbreaks of open hostility between Vietnamese and Thai troops.
Belligerents
 Vietnam
Cambodia KPRAF (1979–89)
Cambodia SOC (1989)
 Thailand
CambodiaCGDK[1]

Supported by:
 United States

After the 1978 Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia and defeat of Democratic Kampuchea in 1979, the Khmer Rouge fled to the border regions of Thailand, and with assistance from China Pol Pot's troops managed to regroup and reorganize in forested and mountainous zones on the Thai-Cambodian border. During the 1980s and early 1990s Khmer Rouge forces operated from inside refugee camps in Thailand, in an attempt to de-stabilize the pro-Hanoi People's Republic of Kampuchea's government, which Thailand refused to recognize. Thailand and Vietnam faced off across the Thai-Cambodian border with frequent Vietnamese incursions and shellings into Thai territory throughout the 1980s in pursuit of Cambodian guerrillas who kept attacking Vietnamese occupation forces.

Causes[edit]

Border camps hostile to the People's Republic of Kampuchea; 1979-1984.

Thailand's suspicion of Vietnamese long-term objectives and fear of Vietnamese support for an internal Thai communist insurgency movement had led the Thai government to support United States objectives in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.

In 1973 a new civilian government in Thailand created a chance for some degree of reconciliation with North Vietnam, when it proposed to remove United States military forces from Thai soil and adopt a more neutralist stance. Hanoi responded by sending a delegation to Bangkok, but talks broke down before any progress in improving relations could be made. Discussions resumed in August 1976, after Hanoi had defeated the South Vietnamese and united the country under its rule. They resulted in a call for an exchange of ambassadors and for an opening of negotiations on trade and economic cooperation, but a military coup in October 1976 ushered in a new Thai government that was less sympathetic to the Vietnamese communists. Contact was resumed briefly in May 1977, when Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos held a conference to discuss resuming work on the Mekong Development Project, a major cooperative effort that had been halted by the Vietnam War. Beginning in December 1978, however, the conflict in Cambodia dominated diplomatic exchanges, and seasonal Vietnamese military offensives that included incursions across the Thai border and numerous Thai casualties particularly strained the relationship.

In 1979, after Vietnam's military occupation of Cambodia Bangkok allied itself with the Khmer Rouge, an adversary of Vietnam and looked to Beijing for security assistance. In both instances, Thailand's actions hardened Hanoi's attitude toward Bangkok. As the ASEAN member most vulnerable to a hypothetical Vietnamese attack for having given shelter to the Khmer Rouge in camps within its territory,[2] Thailand was foremost among the ASEAN partners opposing Vietnam's 1978 invasion of Cambodia.

Timeline[edit]

1979[edit]

  • October: A major offensive by the Vietnamese against Khmer Rouge hide-outs in their mountain sanctuaries pushed thousands of Khmer Rouge soldiers, their families and the civilians under their control to the Thai border.[3]
  • November 8: Thai artillery fire hit Nong Chan Refugee Camp,[4] killing about 100 refugees.
  • November 12: Vietnamese attacks opposite Ban Laem drove 5,000 Khmer Rouge troops and villagers into Thailand. About half went to Kamput Holding Center.[5]

1980[edit]

  • June 23: In response to the organized repatriation of thousands of refugees, 200 Vietnamese troops crossed the border at 2 a.m. into the Ban Non Mak Mun area, including Nong Chan Refugee Camp, setting off a three-day artillery battle that left about 200 dead, including between 22 and 130 Thai soldiers, one Thai villager, scores of refugees and up to 72 Vietnam People's Army (PAVN) troops. Hundreds of refugees were reported killed, many by a Thai artillery barrage that struck one of the camps. Others were caught in the crossfire.[6] Several hundred refugees who resisted the Vietnamese were bound and executed.[7] Vietnamese troops temporarily seized two Thai border villages including Ban Non Mak Mun and shelled others.
  • June 24: Still controlling Nong Chan, Vietnamese forces fought artillery and small arms duels with Thai troops and attacked guerrilla strongpoints. The Vietnamese shot down two Thai military aircraft.[8]
  • June 26: Vietnamese troops seized two relief officials (Robert Ashe and International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Medical Coordinator Dr. Pierre Perrin) and two American photographers at Nong Chan Refugee Camp.[9][10]

1981[edit]

  • January 4: Vietnamese forces stormed across the border, opened fire with rocket-propelled grenades and automatic weapons, and battled with Thai troops before being pushed back.[11] Two Thai soldiers were killed and one was wounded during the early morning, 90-minute battle. Between 50 and 60 Vietnamese soldiers reportedly opened fire on a Thai patrol half a mile inside Thailand. Vietnamese casualties are unknown.[12]Thai troop reinforcements were rushed to the border and put on alert against another cross-border raid by Hanoi's troops.[13]

1982[edit]

  • Early March: A spate of incidents along the border, culminating in the intrusion of 300 Vietnamese troops and the killing of a number of Thai Border Patrol Police.
  • October 21: Vietnamese gunners opened fire on a Thai reconnaissance plane near the border, but did not hit the aircraft. The plane returned to its base inside Thailand.[14]

1983[edit]

  • January: Cambodian government troops, backed by Vietnamese units, conducted a major offensive against the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea, which united three resistance factions. The fighting spilled over onto Thai soil. More than 47,000 Cambodians flee to Thailand.
  • January 16: Vietnamese troops recaptured the hamlet of Yeang Dangkum, east of Nong Chan. Insurgents from the non-Communist Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) captured the hamlet on December 26 and held it as part of a series of initiatives at year's end.
  • January 21: Vietnamese artillery attack forced the KPNLF base in the 0'Bok pass to move into Thailand. Non-combatants return at the end of the month.
  • January 31 – February 1: With heavy artillery support, 4000 armor-led Vietnamese troops launched an assault against Nong Chan, one of the largest refugee camps on the border, destroying it. Ground fighting was reported outside the camp between Vietnamese troops based in Cambodia and about 2000 KPNLF guerrillas.[15] At the same time the Vietnamese kept up a steady barrage of shells, rockets and mortars. At least 50 shells landed in Thai territory, killing a 66-year-old farmer and damaging several houses and a Buddhist temple.[16] The refugee population of about 24,000 fled with unknown casualties while MOULINAKA units were brushed aside, and KPNLF forces withdrew after a 36-hour fight. The Khao-I-Dang ICRC hospital received over 100 civilian wounded.[16]
  • March 31: 1,000 Vietnamese troops, augmented by about 600 PRK "people's volunteers," attacked the Khmer Rouge refugee settlements of Phnom Chat and Chamkar Kor, aided by artillery, rocket, and Soviet T-54 tank fire. Thai officials claimed that the Vietnamese attacks again had resulted in "spillovers" of Vietnamese artillery and mortar shells falling into adjacent Thai territory.[17] Vietnamese troops clashed with Thai forces for several days, drawing Bangkok into a defensive campaign. Intense exchange of artillery and tank fire killed 30 civilians and injured some 300 persons. Approximately 22,000 Cambodian civilians fled to Thailand for refuge.
  • Early April: PAVN destroyed the camp of Phnom Chat, civilians evacuated to Red Hill. Sihanouk's Camp David was attacked and civilians moved to Green Hill. One Thai jet was shot down.
  • April 3: At least 100 Vietnamese troops crossed into Thailand and fought hand-to-hand with a Thai border patrol, killing five Thai soldiers and wounding eight.[18] An assault on Ampil Camp, the KPNLF headquarters, failed because KPNLF sabotage units had blown up several fuel depots in the weeks prior to the attack, leaving the division short of diesel and unable to mobilize its armor.[19]
  • December 27: Vietnam moved troops, tanks and armored personnel carriers into an area near the eastern border of Thailand and was apparently preparing to attack Cambodian guerrillas. About 350 Vietnamese troops with several T-54 tanks and armored personnel carriers arrived in Thmar Puok village in western Cambodia, 14 miles southeast of the major base of the non-Communist Cambodian rebels and 16 miles from the Thai frontier. Thai military and security officials expected Vietnamese forces to begin a dry-season offensive against Cambodian guerrillas next month.[20]
  • December: Vietnamese troops clashed with Thai troops repeatedly on land while Vietnam People's Navy gunboats opened fire on a fleet of ten Thai fishing trawlers about 20 miles off the southern Vietnamese coast, seizing five trawlers and capturing 130 fishermen.[21]

1984[edit]

  • March 25-early April: Hanoi launched a 12-day cross-border operation into Thai territory in pursuit Khmer Rouge rebels, using Soviet-made T-54 tank, 130-mm artillery, and some 400–600 troops. As a result, Thai artillery and air power had to be called into action, resulting in dozens of casualties on both sides and the downing of another Thai military airplane. Vietnam's cross-border raid, along with Thai military and civilian casualties, was reviewed as seriously undermining Thailand's security. Minor clashes occurred in the area of the Khmer Rouge camp, the Chong Phra Palai Pass linking Cambodia and Thailand.[22]
  • April 15: Six hundred Vietnamese troops of the 5th Division and the 8th Border Defense Regiment first shelled, then entered Ampil Camp, a guerrilla base on the border, killing 85 and wounding about 60 Cambodian civilians.[23] The dawn attack was supported by tanks and artillery. About 50 artillery shells landed on Thai territory near the base of KPNLF guerrillas. In a broadcast monitored in Bangkok, guerrillas loyal to Prince Sihanouk said Vietnam had eight battalions within striking distance of their stronghold at Tatum, a settlement just inside Cambodia's northern border. Thai troops had been put on full alert to prevent a spillover of the fighting.[24]
  • Late May-early June: the Vietnamese Navy repeatedly attacked Thai fishing trawlers off the Vietnamese coast, resulting in the deaths of three Thai fishermen.
  • August 10: Vietnamese infantry, APCs and artillery stationed north of Ampil Camp shelled Nong Chan and Ampil, forcing 10,000 KPNLF troops and civilian refugees to flee into Thailand. Since the April 15 battle for Ampil, the KPNLF had regained control of the camp.[25]
  • October 28: Thai Border Patrol Police capture 5 unarmed Vietnamese infantry regulars who had entered Thailand near Ban Wang Mon southeast of Aranyaprathet, reportedly looking for food.[26]
  • November 6: Vietnamese troops attacked a lightly manned Thai Border Patrol outpost near Surin on the border. Two Thai soldiers were killed, 25 wounded and 5 missing in fighting for control of Hill 424 at Traveng, 180 miles northeast of Bangkok.[27] About 100 soldiers from the PAVN's 73d Regiment pushed about a mile into Thai territory but were later forced back into Cambodia by Thai forces. A Thai military source said the Vietnamese crossed the border in pursuit of Khmer Rouge guerrillas.[28]
  • November 18–26: Nong Chan Refugee Camp was attacked by over 2000 soldiers of the PAVN's 9th Division and fell after a week of fighting,[29] during which 3 Vietnamese captains and 66 Cambodian soldiers of the KPRAF were killed.[30] 30,000 civilians were moved to evacuation Site 3 (Ang Sila) then to Site 6 (Prey Chan).
  • December 8: Nam Yuen, a small camp in Eastern Thailand near the border with Laos, was shelled and evacuated.
  • December 11: Sok Sann[31] was shelled and evacuated.
  • December 25: Nong Samet Refugee Camp was attacked at dawn.[32] The entire Vietnamese 9th Infantry Division (over 4000 men) plus 18 artillery pieces and 27 T-54 tanks and armored personnel carriers participated in this assault.[33] The Vietnamese deployed both 105mm and 130mm howitzers, Soviet-built M-46 field guns with a range of up to 27 kilometers. During the fighting KPNLAF guerrillas claimed 14 Vietnamese tanks and APCs were destroyed.[34] An estimated 55 resistance fighters and 63 civilians died in the assault[35] and 60,000 civilians were evacuated to Red Hill.[36] Approximately 200 war wounded were evacuated to Khao-I-Dang. Numerous KPNLAF soldiers and officers, including General Dien Del, reported that during fighting at Nong Samet on December 27 the Vietnamese used a green-colored[37] "nonlethal but powerful battlefield gas[38]" which stunned its victims[39][40] and caused nausea and frothing at the mouth.[41] Over 3500 KPNLAF troops held portions of the camp for about a week after this,[42] but in the end it was abandoned.[43]
  • December 31: Vietnamese troops ambushed two Thai Ranger units in Buriram Province, wounding six and pinning them down with small arms fire for over 24 hours.[44]

1985[edit]

  • January–February: A powerful Vietnamese offensive overruns virtually all key bases of the Cambodian guerrillas along the frontier, putting the Thais and Vietnamese in direct confrontation along many stretches.
  • January 5: Paet Um attacked and evacuated.
  • January 7–8: Five to six thousand Vietnamese troops, backed by artillery and 15 T-54 tanks and 5 APCs,[45] attacked Ampil (Ban Sangae). Vietnamese troops were supported by 400–500 Cambodian KPRAF troops.[46] The attack was preceded by heavy artillery bombardment, with between 7000[47] and 20,000[48] shells falling over a 24-hour period. Nong Chan and Nong Samet were also shelled.[49] Ampil camp fell to the Vietnamese after a few hours of fighting in spite of General Dien Del's predictions.[50] KPNLAF troops disabled 6 or 7 tanks but reportedly lost 103 men in combat.[51] San Ro civilian population evacuated to Site 1. A Thai A-37 Dragonfly ground attack plane, was shot down over Buriram Province during the fighting,[52] killing one of the two crew members. During the assault on Ampil, Thai troops defending Hill 37 near Ban Sangae sustained 11 killed and 19 injured.[48]
  • January 23–27: Dong Ruk and San Ro camps shelled, 18 civilians were killed.[53] Population of 23,000 fled to Site A.[54]
  • January 28–30: Vietnamese artillery fired about one hundred 130mm shells, mortars and rockets at positions of the Khmer Rouge's 320th Division near the Khao Din Refugee Camp about 34 miles south of Aranyaprathet. This was followed by an infantry assault on Khao Ta-ngoc.[55]
  • February 13: Nong Pru, O'Shallac and Taprik (South of Aranyaprathet) attacked and evacuated to Site 8.
  • February 16: In a skirmish with non-communist rebel forces near Ta Phraya, four Vietnamese rockets containing toxic gas were fired, causing Thai villagers in the area to complain of dizziness and vomiting. A Thai Army laboratory confirmed that the rockets contained phosgene gas.[56]
  • February 18: 300 Vietnamese troops assaulted Khmer Rouge positions near Khlong Nam Sai, 19 miles southeast of Aranyaprathet. Fighting began with small arms exchanges and escalated into a Vietnamese barrage with heavy artillery and mortars. Thai troops fired warning shots at Vietnamese soldiers as they crossed the border in pursuit of fleeing Khmer Rouge guerrillas. One Thai villager was killed.[57]
  • February 20: Vietnamese and Thai soldiers fought on Hill 347, about half a mile inside Thailand's northeastern province of Buriram.[58] A Thai officer was killed and two soldiers were wounded in the fighting, which included an artillery duel across the border.[59]
  • March 5: Tatum attacked. Green Hill population evacuated to Site B. Dong Ruk, San Ro, Ban Sangae, and Vietnamese Land Refugees are all moved to Site 2. Some 1000 Vietnamese troops were regularly intruding into Thai territory in attempts to outflank units of the Cambodian resistance groups. [60]
  • March 6: Thai troops and aircraft forced Vietnamese troops to retreat from one of three hills on Thai territory which the Vietnamese had captured during preceding days. Royal Thai Air Force fighter-bombers flew missions against about 1,000 Vietnamese who crossed the Thai-Cambodian border in two places.[61] The Thai counterattack against the intruding Vietnamese troops left some 60 people dead.[62]
  • March 7: Thai army troops supported by artillery and A-37 Dragonfly aircraft recaptured three hills seized by intruding Vietnamese soldiers. Hundreds of Vietnamese were said to have been driven back across the border into Cambodia. However, the Vietnamese counterattacked against Hill 361 on Thai soil behind the besieged Cambodian guerrilla base at Tatum, and the results of the battle were not immediately clear. 14 Thai soldiers and 15 Thai civilians had been killed.[63]
  • April 4: A clash occurred at Laem Nong Ian, after five Vietnamese intruded about 875 yards into Thailand.
  • April 6: Thai Border policemen killed a Vietnamese soldier in Thailand during a 10-minute fight near the border.[64]
  • April 20: At southeastern Thailand's Trat Province, some 1,200 Vietnamese troops attacked Thai positions situated 3 to 4 km from the Gulf of Thailand. Instead of withdrawing the Vietnamese set up a permanent base on a hill in Thailand, about a half-mile from the border, where they laid mines and built bunkers. Later, escalating Thai attacks had pushed some of the Vietnamese back into Cambodia, but the Vietnamese dispatched a fresh battalion of 600 to 800 men to reinforce the hilltop.[65][65]
  • May 10: A Thai soldier was killed after stepping on a land mine while on patrol.[65]
  • May 11: Thai jet fighters and heavy artillery pounded Vietnamese troops occupying a hill half a mile inside Thailand, and Thai soldiers poised for an assault on the heavily mined position. The Thais bombed and shelled the Vietnamese before an infantry operation was to be launched in the Banthad Mountain range, 170 miles southeast of Bangkok. The Vietnamese were dug in along the hill and had laid a string of mines to counter any Thai ground assaults. Seven Thai soldiers have been reported killed and at least 16 were injured. Radio Hanoi reported a Vietnamese Foreign Ministry statement denying the latest reported incursion into Thailand. Thailand had accused Vietnam of at least 40 cross-border forays in search of Cambodian guerrillas since November 1984, but the Vietnamese government had denied the charges.[65]
  • May 15: Vietnamese and Thai soldiers clashed for about eight hours with mortars, antitank cannons and machine guns.
  • May 17: Thai soldiers drove intruding Vietnamese soldiers back into Cambodia in intense fighting along Thailand's southeastern border. After more than a week of fighting, Thai rangers and marines seized part of a Vietnamese-occupied hill just inside the Thai border the previous days.[66]
  • May: An approximate 230,000 Khmer civilians were in temporary evacuations in Thailand after a very successful Vietnamese dry season offensive.
  • May 26: Vietnamese soldiers crossed into the Thai province of Ubon Ratchathani from northern Cambodia, apparently searching for Cambodian guerrillas. A Vietnamese force killed five Thai soldiers and a civilian in a one-hour clash with Thai border patrols in northeast Thailand. The fighting prompted Thai provincial authorities to evacuate about 600 civilians from two border villages to safer areas in the Nam Yuen district.[67]
  • June 13: Thai forces battled 400 Vietnamese troops who crossed into Thailand.[68]

1986[edit]

  • January 23: A Vietnamese barrage was aimed at a Thai marine outpost in Haad Lek, a village at the southern tip of the border. The Vietnamese fire came from a hill overlooking Haad Lek, inside Cambodian territory. "This appears to be a deliberate provocation by the Vietnamese", a Thai Navy spokesman said. "It does not look like a spillover of fighting inside Cambodia." A Thai warship in the Gulf of Thailand responded by shelling the Vietnamese artillery base. The warship fired more than 100 shells and the Vietnamese more than 70 shells.[69]
  • January 25: Vietnamese heavy guns pounded a Thai border post, killing three Marines and causing an artillery battle with a Thai warship offshore.[69]
  • December 7: Vietnamese troops warned Thailand against continuing to support Cambodian guerrillas. A loudspeaker broadcast and leaflets shot from cannon near Aranyaprathet District appealed to Thailand to refuse sanctuary to the guerrillas and warned that it would bear the "consequences" if it refuses.[70]

1987[edit]

  • March 25: Thai Army Commander-in-Chief General Chavalit Yongchaiyudh announces an all-out offensive against Vietnamese troops who have intruded into Thai territory beyond the set 5 km limit.
  • April 17: Thai forces tried to oust Vietnamese infantry from Chong Bok, a mountainous region where the borders of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia converge. Casualties in double figures are reported on both sides.[71]
  • May 30: Thai Rangers patrol the Chong Bok region where fighting has raged to dislodge Vietnamese from entrenched positions just inside Thai territory.[72]
  • Mid-1987: The 800-kilometer Thai-Cambodian border was fully garrisoned by Vietnamese and Cambodian forces.[73]

1988[edit]

  • April 22: Vietnamese troops crossed the border and ambushed a company of border police, killing four of the Thai soldiers and wounding another. The company of five Thai police was patrolling a strategic point near the border in Buriram Province, 174 miles east of Bangkok, when a Vietnamese soldier hurled a grenade into the group and opened fire with rifles. The Vietnamese soldiers were more than 500 yards inside Thai territory when they staged the attack.[74]
  • June 12: At about 9 a.m., Vietnamese 105mm and 85mm artillery shelled a Thai village, killing two villagers and wounding two others. Six artillery shells struck four miles deep inside Thailand.[75]
  • August 4: The leader of the Chart Thai Party, General Chatichai Choonhavan, becomes the 17th Prime Minister of Thailand, he promises "to turn battlefields into market places".

1989[edit]

  • April 26: Vietnamese troops fired four artillery shells into Site Two, the largest of the Cambodian refugee camps with a population of more than 198,000. Three people were severely wounded. After the shelling, the camp was reportedly closed to Western aid officials, including members of the United Nations Border Relief Operation, which provided aid for the camp.[76]
  • September–December: Vietnamese troops withdrew from Cambodia.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ since 1982, the KR, the KPNLF and the ANS formed the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea.
  2. ^ Puangthong Rungswasdisab, Thailand's Response to the Cambodian Genocide
  3. ^ Cambodia Refugee Crisis: History
  4. ^ Pilger, John, Heroes, South End Press, Cambridge, MA, 2001, p. 421
  5. ^ Thai/Cambodia Border Refugee Camps 1975–1999 – Information and Documentation Website
  6. ^ Henry Kamm, New York Times, June 24, 1980, cites Associated Press figures of 130 Thai soldiers, 72 Vietnamese, and up to 400 refugees killed; Time Magazine, July 7, 1980 claims 22 Thais killed and 100 Vietnamese.
  7. ^ Mason L, Brown R. Rice, Rivalry and Politics: Managing Cambodian Relief. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1983, p. 76.
  8. ^ Vietnam, Thai clash continues.
  9. ^ "Courage that Spelt Relief for the Starving," Coventry Evening Telegraph, March 10, 1981.
  10. ^ Vietnam Said to Seize Photographers and Relief Workers at Thai Border; U.S. Envoy Asks Halt Border Is Reported Crossed Repatriation Is Denounced, June 27, 1980, Friday; Page A6, 647 words
  11. ^ Vietnam Troops Clash With Thai.
  12. ^ Thais Report 2 Troops Slain Repelling Vietnamese Force, UPI, Published: January 4, 1981
  13. ^ Thai Troops Placed on Alert After Raid by Vietnamese, UPI, Published: Monday, January 5, 1981
  14. ^ Vietnam Attacks Thai Plane, UPI, Published: October 21, 1982
  15. ^ Van der Kroeff, J. "Refugees and Rebels: Dimensions of the Thai-Kampuchean Border Conflict", Asian Affairs, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Spring. 1983), pp. 19–36.
  16. ^ a b "Vietnam Troops Attack Cambodia Refugee Camp", Reuters, Tuesday, February 1, 1983.
  17. ^ The Bangkok Post, April 1, 1983, quoted in Justus van der Kroef, "Kampuchea: Southeast Asia's Flashpoint", Parameters, Journal of the US Army War College, Spring 1984, p. 62.
  18. ^ "Vietnamese Battle Thais", AP, Sunday, April 3, 1983
  19. ^ Kenneth Conboy, The NVA and Viet Cong, (1992) p. 29.
  20. ^ "Vietnam Moves Troops Into Thai Border Area", Reuters, Tuesday, December 27, 1983
  21. ^ Kampuchea Between China and Vietnam, p. 153
  22. ^ Asia: Non-PC Crises, p. 557
  23. ^ Conboy, p. 29.
  24. ^ "Vietnamese Attack Cambodian Rebel Base", Reuters, Sunday, April 15, 1984
  25. ^ "Kampuchean Villagers Flee for Shelter", Xinhua Radio News, Beijing, August 10, 1984, 14:31 GMT.
  26. ^ "Thai Border Police Capture Vietnamese Soldiers", Bangkok Post, October 29, 1984, Section A.
  27. ^ Another source cited 3 killed and 31 wounded.Thai/Cambodian Border History
  28. ^ "Thailand Sends Troops To Counter Vietnamese", Reuters, November 7, 1984
  29. ^ "Rebels at Nong Chan Hold Out: Assault by Vietnamese Troops on the Kampuchean Resistance Base", The Guardian, November 26, 1984.
  30. ^ "Vietnamese Suffer Heavy Casualties Near Nong Chan," Xinhua General News Service, December 10, 1984.
  31. ^ Thai/Cambodia Border Refugee Camps 1975–1999
  32. ^ "VIETNAM ATTACKS CAMBODIAN REBELS NEAR THAI BORDER," Associated Press, December 25, 1984.
  33. ^ “In Cambodia the Resistance Goes On”, Letter to the Editor by Sichan Siv, The New York Times, January 18, 1985.
  34. ^ Sichan Siv, 1985.
  35. ^ "Southeast Asia dry-Season Rite", Time, Jan. 7, 1985
  36. ^ "Vietnam Tries to Split Kampuchea Resistance", Christian Science Monitor, December 28, 1984 p. 1.
  37. ^ "Cambodian Rebels Await Major Push by Viet Troops", LA Times, January 7, 1985, p. 10.
  38. ^ "A Rebel Camp in Cambodia Awaits Attack," New York Times, January 6, 1985, p. 1.
  39. ^ "Cambodian Rebels Reported Under Heavy Viet Shelling," LA Times, January 4, 1985, p. 13.
  40. ^ "KPNLF says Vietnamese Using Suffocant Gas", Bangkok World, January 4, 1985, p. 1.
  41. ^ "Ampil's State of Siege," Newsweek, January 14, 1985.
  42. ^ "Fighting at Samet Continues", Bangkok Post, Dec 30, 1984, p. 1.
  43. ^ "CAMBODIAN REBELS BATTLE HANOI'S TROOPS FOR 7TH DAY", New York Times, Barbara Crossette, January 1, 1985
  44. ^ "Vietnamese battle Cambodians as Thais Prepare Protest", Daily News, Jan 3, 1985, p. 10A
  45. ^ One source states that 12 tanks and 20 APCs were used in the assault: "Vietnamese Troops Overrun Key Cambodia Rebel Base", William Branigin, The Washington Post, Jan 9, 1985, p. A1.
  46. ^ "Hanoi Deals Blow to Guerrilla Camp," Paul Quinn-Judge, Christian Science Monitor, January 8, 1985, p. 9.
  47. ^ "Guerrilla Losses are more Military than Political," Paul Quinn-Judge, Christian Science Monitor, January 8, 1985, p. 9.
  48. ^ a b "Guerrillas Rally after Rout by Viets", Chicago Tribune, Jan 9, 1985, p. 3.
  49. ^ "Vietnamese Attack Cambodia Camp," Barabara Crossette, New York Times, Jan 8, 1985, p. A1.
  50. ^ "Hanoi Goes for the Jugular," Newsweek, January 21, 1985, p. 8.
  51. ^ "Hanoi Goes for the Jugular", Newsweek, January 21, 1985, p. 8.
  52. ^ From Reuters, January 8, 1985.
  53. ^ "Vietnamese Troops Shell Sanror Changan," Xinhua General Overseas News Service,Jan 27, 1985, Item No: 012734.
  54. ^ "Vietnamese Attack Cambodian Rebel Camp", Reuters, January 26, 1985.
  55. ^ "Sihanouk Rejects Offer of Talks With Cambodian Regime", Peter Eng, Associated Press, January 31, 1985, Thursday, AM cycle.
  56. ^ "Viets Accused of Using Gas Against Rebels", Associated Press, February 19, 1985.
  57. ^ "Vietnamese Troops Battle Rebel Resistance", Associated Press, Feb 18, 1985, AM cycle
  58. ^ "Thais Report a Clash with Vietnamese Troops", Associated Press, February 20, 1985.
  59. ^ "Vietnamese and Thais Battle on the Border", AP, Thursday, February 21, 1985
  60. ^ US Department of State Bulletin, July 1985
  61. ^ "Thais Strike by Air and Ground Against Intruding Viet Forces", Los Angeles Times, Mar 7, 1985, p. 19.
  62. ^ THAI FORCES CLASH WITH VIETNAM
  63. ^ "Thai Forces Still Trying to Drive Back Vietnam Troops; 3 Hills Retaken" March 8, 1985, Washington Post
  64. ^ "Thais Kill Vietnam Soldier", UPI, Published: April 6, 1985
  65. ^ a b c d "Thai Jets, Artillery Pound Viet Intruders"
  66. ^ "Thai Troops Force Vietnamese Soldiers Out", UPI, May 17, 1985
  67. ^ "Vietnamese Force Kills 5 Thai Soldiers", REUTERS, May 26, 1985
  68. ^ "Thai-Vietnamese Clash", UPI, June 13, 1985
  69. ^ a b "Vietnamese Artillery Kills 3 at Thai Post", UPI, Saturday, January 25, 1986
  70. ^ "Stop Backing Rebels, Vietnamese Tell Thais" Los Angeles Times
  71. ^ "2 Thai Deals Enlarge China's Asian Arms" Role Los Angeles Times
  72. ^ "Thai Border Clash", New York Times Saturday, May 30, 1987
  73. ^ "Thailand: Potential External Threats"
  74. ^ "4 Thais Killed in Border Clash with Vietnamese" Los Angeles Times
  75. ^ VIETNAM SHELLS THAI VILLAGE.
  76. ^ "38 Killed, 42 Wounded in Fierce Thai Border Clash" Los Angeles Times

References[edit]

External links[edit]