Vietnamese Braille

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Vietnamese Braille
Type
alphabet
Languages Vietnamese
Parent systems
Braille
Print basis
Vietnamese alphabet

Vietnamese Braille is the braille alphabet used for the Vietnamese language. It is very close to French Braille (and thus to a lesser degree to English Braille), but with the addition of tone letters. Vietnamese Braille is known in Vietnamese as chữ nổi, literally "raised letters", while electronic braille displays are called màn hình chữ nổi.

Alphabet[edit]

Apart from đ and d (for French Braille d and z)[1] and the addition of five tone letters, the Vietnamese Braille alphabet is nearly identical to French Braille: the only other difference is the substitution of Vietnamese ư ơ for French ü œ, and the dropping of those letters which are not needed in Vietnamese. However, because of the tone letters, the design is different: Vietnamese Braille has separate letters for vowels and tones, so the French Braille letters for é à è ù are not used; they are written instead as tone ◌́ or ◌̀ plus the vowels a e u.

Vietnamese Braille[2][3]
⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
a
⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
b
⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)
c
⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
đ
⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
e
⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
g
⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)
h
⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
i
  
⠅ (braille pattern dots-13)
k
⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
l
⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
m
⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345)
n
⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
o
⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234)
p
⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345)
q
⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
r
⠎ (braille pattern dots-234)
s
⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)
t
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46)
(caps)
⠥ (braille pattern dots-136)
u
⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
v
⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
x
⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
y
⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)
d
⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456)
(num)
⠡ (braille pattern dots-16)
â
⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)
ê
⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456)
ô
⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256)
ư
⠪ (braille pattern dots-246)
ơ
⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
ă
⠂ (braille pattern dots-2)
,
⠆ (braille pattern dots-23)
 ;
⠒ (braille pattern dots-25)
 :
⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)
.
⠢ (braille pattern dots-26)
◌̉
⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)
 
⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356)
 
⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)
 
⠔ (braille pattern dots-35)
◌́
⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)
 
⠰ (braille pattern dots-56)
◌̀
⠄ (braille pattern dots-3)
 
⠤ (braille pattern dots-36)
◌̃
⠠ (braille pattern dots-6)
◌̣
⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
1
⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
2
⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)
3
⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
4
⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
5
⠋ (braille pattern dots-124)
6
⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
7
⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)
8
⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
9
⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
0
⠀ (braille pattern blank)
(space)
  • One braille letter is used for each Latin letter.
  • Tone letters (transcribing the diacritics ◌̉ ◌́ ◌̀ ◌̃ ◌̣) are written immediately before the vowel.

For example,

Màn hình chữ nổi.
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠍ (braille pattern dots-134) ⠰ (braille pattern dots-56) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345) ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125) ⠰ (braille pattern dots-56) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345) ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125) ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14) ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256) ⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345) ⠢ (braille pattern dots-26) ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)
cap–m–◌̀–a–n h–◌̀–i–n–h c–h–◌̃–ư n–◌̉–ô–i–stop

Punctuation[edit]

⠂ (braille pattern dots-2)
,
⠆ (braille pattern dots-23)
 ;
⠒ (braille pattern dots-25)
 :
⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)
.
⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)
“...”
⠢ (braille pattern dots-26)
 ?
⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)
 !
⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3)
...
⠤ (braille pattern dots-36)
-
⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)
*
⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356)
(...)
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
[...]
⠸ (braille pattern dots-456) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠸ (braille pattern dots-456) ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
{...}
⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
/

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Vietnamese Braille đ is written and pronounced as French Braille d, Vietnamese Braille d as French Braille z. Print z does not occur in Vietnamese, but if it needs to be transcribed, it is written in Vietnamese Braille (Unesco 2013).
  2. ^ A photo of a braille chart at a Vietnamese school
  3. ^ Sao Mai Education Fund