|This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2013)|
|City of Vigan|
Spanish colonial architecture of Vigan
|Nickname(s): Ciudad Fernandina de Vigan|
Map of Ilocos Sur showing the location of Vigan
|Region||Ilocos (Region I)|
|District||1st District of Ilocos Sur|
|Cityhood||January 22, 2001|
|• Mayor||Eva Marie Singson-Medina|
|• Land||25.12 km2 (9.70 sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
The City of Vigan (Ilokano: Ciudad ti Bigan; Tagalog: Vīgân) is a fourth class city in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. It is the capital of the Province of Ilocos Sur. The city is located on the western coast of the large island of Luzon, facing the South China Sea. According to the 2010 Philippines census, it has a population of 49,747 people.
It is a World Heritage Site in that it is one of the few Hispanic towns left in the Philippines where its structures remained intact, and is well known for its cobblestone streets, and a unique architecture that fuses Philippine and Oriental building designs and construction, with colonial European architecture.
Former Philippine president Elpidio Quirino, the sixth president of the Philippines, was born in Vigan, at the current location of the Provincial Jail (his father was a warden); and resided in the Syquia Mansion.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Tourist activities
- 7 Points of interest
- 8 Major schools based in Vigan
- 9 Communications and mass media
- 10 Sister cities
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The area of Vigan was originally a settlement of traders coming from the Fujian Province, China. At the time of Spanish colonisation, the Chinese settlers, whose language was Southern Fujianese (Min Nan, often referred to as "Hokkien" by most Filipinos), referred to the area as "Bee Gan" (Chinese: 美岸; pinyin: Měi'àn), which means "Beautiful Shore." Since the Spanish conquistadors interchanged V and the B to refer to the B sound, they spelled the Hokkien Chinese name "Bee Gan" as "Vigan", which is the name used to this day.
Vigan's Chinese heritage is still evident from the numerous elite Chinese creole families who come from the area, many of whom adopted Hispanic family names. Others, such as the Sy-Quia family, have retained Chinese-derived surnames, though most, if not all, of the Christian Chinese creole families fully Hispanicised themselves culturally.
The most commonly known source of the city's name is from the Biga'a plant, which once grew abundantly along the banks of the Meztiso River, from which captain Juan de Salcedo derived the city's name (after a misunderstanding with the locals, thinking he was asking the name of the plants).
The city's full name at the time of its Spanish foundation was "Villa Fernandina", or "Town of Ferdinand", in honor of Prince Ferdinand, the firstborn son of King Philip II of Spain. As the city grew, and the seat of the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia transferred to Vigan, it was later renamed "Ciudad Fernandina de Vigan" ("Ferdinand's City of Vigan").
|Historic Town of Vigan|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
|Inscription||1999 (23rd Session)|
Due to silting of the Mestizo River, Vigan City is no longer an island and no longer separated from the mainland. The city is unique in the Philippines because it is one of many extensive surviving Philippine historic cities, dating back to the 16th century.
Vigan was a coastal trading post long before the Spaniards arrived; Chinese traders sailing from the South China Sea came to Isla de Vigan (Island of Vigan) via the Mestizo River that surrounded it. On board their ships were seafaring merchants who came to trade goods from other Asian kingdoms in exchange for gold, beeswax, and other mountain products brought by the indigenous peoples from the Cordilleras region.
In the book The Philippine Island (Vol. III, p. 276, Blair and Robertson) two letters from Governor General Guido de Lavezaris to King Philip II of Spain mention: "It seemed best to send Captain Juan de Salcedo with 70 or 80 soldiers to explore the coast of Los Ilocanos on the shores of the river called Bigan." The Spaniards marched north from Manila on May 20, 1572 and arrived in Vigan on June 12, 1572.
Thus, after the successful expedition and the exploration of the North, Juan de Salcedo founded "Villa Fernandina de Vigan" in honor of King Philip II’s son, Prince Ferdinand, who died at the age of four. From Vigan, Salcedo rounded the tip of Luzón and proceeded to pacify Camarines, Albay, and Catanduanes. As a reward for his services to the King of Spain, Salcedo was awarded the old province of Ilocos, which consisted of the modern provinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra, La Unión and part of Mountain Province as his hacienda (estate), and was accorded the title of "Justicia Mayor de esta Provincia de Ylocos" (Province Mayor of Ilocos).
In 1574, Salcedo returned to the capital of his encomienda (trusteeship), Vigan, bringing with him his soldiers and some Augustinian missionaries to pioneer the evangelization of the Ilocos region. He established a Spanish city for the purpose of controlling the neighboring country.
Governor General Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas, in his account of encomienda dated in Manila on May 31, 1591, states: "The town of Vigan called Villa Fernandina consisted of Spanish settlers; a priest; a Justice Alcalde Mayor (Governor); and a Deputy. The King collects 800 tributes (equivalent to 3,200 subjects)." During this period, Vigan was composed of 19 barrios (districts).
Between 1645 to 1660, Vigan was divided into 21 "Cabezas de Barrio" (Town Mayors) as mentioned in the Libro de Casamiento (Book of Marriage); from the records of the parish house of Vigan found in its archives. Separated from the indigenous population, the Chinese migrants were residents in a neighbourhood called El Pariancillo, los Sangleyes del parian (The Sangleyes of the Parian); and the Spanish settlers were residents in a town called Los Españoles de la Villa (The Town Spaniards).
During the Philippine Revolution, revolutionary forces under Manuel Tinio, supported by the Ilocano rebels, attacked and defeated the Spanish colonial forces and captured the city in the Siege of Vigan. During the Philippine-American War, American forces led by Commander McCracken and Lt. Col. James Parker occupied the town in Nov. 1899.
During World War II, Japanese Imperial Army planes bombed Vigan on December 1941 and Japanese troops occupied the town in 1942. In 1945, combined U.S. and Philippine Commonwealth ground troops, aided by Ilocano resistance fighters, defeated the Japanese Imperial forces and liberated Vigan.
In the 2010 movie by Bonda Fajardo Iliw, Colonel Takahashi and Fr. Joseph Klecamf protected "Vigan" from being burned by the Japanese Army or attacked by the U.S. Army.
1999 Vigan City was listed by UNESCO as the best preserved example of Spanish colonial towns in Asia. Its architecture is the conglomeration of cultural elements from the Philippines, China, and Spain, making it unique in the world.
Vigan can be found 120 23’ 15’’ east longitude and 17 34’ 30’’ north latitude. It is in the northern part of Luzon, the Philippines’ largest island. It serves as the capital of Ilocos Sur and has been a major political and trading center since before the Spanish colonizers arrived in the Philippines.
Its favorable geographical features and location continues to make it a very accessible center. It is only 408 kilometers away from Manila, 88 kilometers away from Laoag City, and 139 kilometers away from San Fernando, La Union, the regional capital.
Its 2,511 hectares of land consists mostly of plains with gentle hills. Its boundaries on the north, east, south, and west are the municipalities of Bantay, Santa, Caoayan, and Sta. Catalina, respectively. The South China Sea is on its southwest portion.
Majority of its land, 60 percent of it, is used for agriculture. Around 32 percent is made up of residential area, nearly three percent are for commercial and industrial use, and around one percent is for institutional purposes. There are also forest reserves and fishponds included in Vigan’s land area.
Vigan is made up of 39 barangays. Thirty of them are classified as rural, but they occupy only 23.66 hectares. The remaining nine are classified as poblacion barangays and are together 144.75 hectares big.
The barangays of Pagburnayan, Paoa, and Tamag are on the area of rolling plains. On the other hand, portions of Barangays Tamag and the barangays of Bulala and Salindeg are found on the city's hilly parts.
Its most dominant hill feature is the Vigan Gap Hill in the eastern part, just 10 kilometers away from the city. Vigan used to be separated from the rest of the mainland by the rivers of Abra, Mestizo and Govantes, making it an island during that time. The Govantes River cuts the current Vigan plain from North to South.
The large Abra and Mestizo rivers, together with the rivers of Bantay, Bantaoay, Nauman and Sto. Tomas serve as part of a network that drain the Vigan plains. These rivers are not only important in safekeeping the city from floods, they also served as important ways of transport for trade-related activities from the 1400s to the 1800s, that helped make Vigan a thriving center. The most vital of these rivers is said to be the Mestizo River which was used by the small vessels to transport goods and people.
There is a faulting trend in the Vigan plain that ends in Sta. Catalina.
The land area of Vigan is generally flat. Slopes of 20 are found at Brgy. V, Tamag, and Paoa. There are no forest reserves in the city in terms of potential and raw materials. Bamboo is the only forest product in Vigan.
There are five soil types in the city. First, the Bantay Loam, located at the southern portion of Raois, has a land area of 36.67 hectares, and is good as pastureland. The second, Umingan sandy, with a land area of 1191.57 hectares, is good for upland rice and vegetables. The third, San Manuel clay loam, which is best for bananas, cotton and vegetables, has an area of 1244.57 hectares. The fourth, Bantog clay—considered as the most significant type for soil, and the best clay material for making pots, jars and all earthenware, has a land area of 31.65 hectares. The fifth, beach sand, with a land area of 7.28 hectares, is generally found on the shores of all the beaches of Vigan, and is best for coconut plantation.
- Ayusan Norte
- Ayusan Sur
- Barrio I (Población)
- Barrio II (Aminance)
- Barrio III (Población)
- Barrio IV (Solid West)
- Barrio V (Pagpartian)
- Barrio VI (Pagpandayan)
- Beddeng Laud
- Beddeng Daya
- Cabaroan Daya
- Cabaroan Laud
- Pantay Daya
- Pantay Fatima
- Pantay Laud
- San José
- San Julian Norte
- San Julian Sur
- San Pedro
- Barrio VII (Pagburnayan)
- Barrio VIII (Sta. Elena/Cabasaan)
- Barrio IX (Cuta)
When Juan de Salcedo founded Vigan in 1572, he decided to pattern its urban plan with that of Intramuros, the walled city in Manila. There were not many to copy from as Vigan or Ciudad Fernandina, as it was earlier named, was amongst the earliest settlements built by the Spaniards in the country.
The urban planners of the Spanish government also followed a basic pattern that can be observed in most old towns in the country, whose establishment dates back to the Spanish colonial period. This pattern is detailed in the Ley de las Indias, the Law of the Indies, and was put into force in the 18th century. Under the Law of the Indies streets were to follow a grid pattern, the center of which being a plaza or central park.
In Vigan, the central park is the Plaza Salcedo. Next to it are the administrative buildings—the Casa Real or provincial administrative office, and the municipio (municipal hall). A stone's throw away are the religious buildings—the seminary of the archdiocese, the Arzobispado (Archbishop's Palace), and the St. Paul's Cathedral. Beside these religious structures is the church-run school, the Saint Paul College, known in its early days as the Colegio de Niñas. (It is currently being occupied by a retail store chain.)
A unique thing is the existence of another plaza, the Plaza Burgos, which is immediately beside the St. Paul's Cathedral. After the first tier emanating from Plaza Salcedo are the houses of prominent residents that now make up the preserved heritage houses of Vigan. This urban plan remained relatively intact despite wars and natural calamities that have been endured by Vigan since its foundation.
The major changes to the original urban landscape were caused by fires. The Casa Real was replaced with a provincial capitol building during the American period when the original structure burned down. The archdiocese seminary was also destroyed by fire in 1968, and it lay in ruins until the late 1990s, when part of a shopping mall was built on the site.
The residential areas were not spared. Some of the houses on Crisologo Street were casualties of fire during the Japanese period; several houses on Quezon Avenue were destroyed by fire as well in 1952; while in 1971, some houses near Plaza Burgos burned down as well. The houses along Crisologo Street that were burned were later reconstructed faithfully following the architecture of the former structures.
Presently, there are other major areas of activities other than the two plazas, though these are still where most recreation and shopping are done. One may also go to the southern part of the city to reach the commercial area and public market. The current Public Market is a new one, as the old one (formerly the Imelda Socio-Commercial Complex), on the same site, was (also) destroyed by fire. The very first Public Market, found in the center of the business district, is now the site of new commercial buildings and the site of a tricycle-for-hire terminal.
Geologic base and mineral resources
The sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that are present in the city are Alluvium, fluviatille, lacuatine, pludal and beach deposits such as coral, stools, and beach rock. These are predominantly found along the coastal areas of Vigan. An important non-metallic mineral resource found in Vigan is the kind of clay that is used in making earthen jars locally called burnay. Earthenware of different uses and sizes are made of this kind of clay. Known as Bantog clay, the mineral is the basic material in making bricks. These bricks are the original materials in building the cool Hispanic houses of Vigan.
Vigan is a unique environment in both its natural and man-made features. It is traversed by two river systems, namely the Govantes and Mestizo Rivers. Its tributaries flow into the Pangada River in Sta. Catalina, Caoayan River in Caoayan, Buquig River in Bantay, and Bantaoay River in San Vicente.
Unlike other municipalities with towering mountains, Vigan is mostly plains with gently rising hills on the southern portion. Most of its lands outside of the urban center or poblacion are devoted to agriculture. The coastal plains found along the western side of the city bounded by the South China Sea are predominantly settled with Mindoro Beach as its location.
Vigan is situated in a Quarterly Age sedimentary plain called the Vigan-Bantay Plain which is part of the Ilocos coastal plain. The Vigan-Bantay Plain is bounded on the east by a moderately rugged Miocene sediments consisting of interbedded sandstones and shale to very rugged Meta-volcanics and Meta sediment topography; on the south is the Municipality of Santa where the north-south trending fault terminates; to the west is the South China Sea; while the northern boundary opens to the northern extension of the Ilocos coastal plain.
The central part of the plain is characterized by a dissected ridge of Plio-Pleistocene age that trends in a northeast-southwest direction. The ridge divides the Vigan-Bantay Plain into northern and southern plains.
The northern part of the plain is drained by minor rivers namely: Bantaoay, Sto. Tomas, and Nauman rivers, while the Abra River is the main drainage network of the southern portion of the plain. The Abra River meanders into the hinterland but exhibits a braided pattern across the plain.
The drainage network of the eastern margin of Vigan-Bantay plain consist of deeply cut valleys whose pattern is strongly controlled by main faulting trends, particularly those in the northerly and easterly directions.
Vigan is being drained by the Vigan River and Bantay River, respectively, on the north and on the south by Mestizo River whose water discharge comes from the Bantaoay head waters.
The relief of the Vigan-Bantay plain is actively level to undulating with a slope ranging from 0% to 8%. Vigan in particular is generally in level with several hills in Barangays Tamag, Bulala, and Salindeg, sometimes reaching about 50 meters in elevation and has a slope ranging from 3% to 8%.
The eastern margin of the plain characterized by a steep to very steep slope, about 40% to 60%, the relief often reaches an elevation of more that 600 meters especially the northerly and easterly portion.
The dominant topographic feature in the eastern margin of the town is the Vigan Gap Hill where the continuously shifting Vigan River cuts its way. The Gap Hill is located approximately 10 kilometers east of Vigan.
Weather and climate
The city of Vigan falls under the first climate type in the Philippines which is characterized by two pronounced seasons—the dry season which starts from the month of November and ends in April; and the wet season which spans the months of May to October. The average annual rainfall is 190.683 mm. and the heaviest registered rainfall is 693. 3 mm.
The average temperature is 26°C. The average warmest temperature is 30.9°C and the average coldest temperature is 21.1°C. An average of 7-10 typhoons visit Vigan annually. The average relative humidity is 81%.
|Population census of Vigan City|
|Source: National Statistics Office|
Modes of transport within the city are purely land-based. Vehicles for public use include jeepneys, tricycles, vans-for-hire (or PUVs/public utility vehicles) and calesas (horse-drawn vehicles). Buses, mini-buses and jeepneys provide transportation to and from Vigan. The metro Vigan transport system is mostly served by tricycles, which are color- and number-coded to identify their municipality of origin.
Vigan City is well-served by a network of roads and a major highway that connects to Maharlika Highway and Manila North Road, two highways leading to Manila and the rest of the country. Bus companies such as Dominion Bus Lines, Viron Transit, Partas, and Aniceto/St. Joseph operate terminals in Vigan. Bus companies such as Philippine Rabbit Bus Line, Florida, Maria de Leon, and Fariñas pass by Vigan on their way to Laoag. GMW Florida Transport operates a terminal at the entrance to Vigan. They operate direct and/or indirect bus services from Vigan City to points in Luzon, mostly to Manila, Baguio, and Laoag and vice versa.
A secondary airport called Mindoro Airport (also known as Vigan Airport) is located at Brgy. Mindoro. It has one asphalted runway, 900 meters long and 30 meters wide. The airport was once a sleeping asset of the city for it does not generate revenue, with only chartered and private planes using it; it is currently being upgraded and is on its way toward commercialization, to attract tourists and to lighten the burden of traveling to Vigan from Manila and most parts of the Philippines.
Vigan City Fiesta / Longganisa Festival
The Biguenos celebrate Longganisa Festival every January 22 in accordance to the city-hood of Vigan. With a colorful street dancing competition along the Calle Crisologo, this festival features one of city's products, the very well-known Vigan Longganisa. On the 25th, Vigan celebrates its town fiesta in honor to its patron saint, Saint Paul.
Viva Vigan! 'Binatbatan' Festival of the Arts
Every first week of May, Vigan plays host to visitors for this festival featuring painting and product exhibits, a Calesa parade, and other cultural activities.
St. Paul’s Metropolitan Cathedral is the venue of religious rites during the Holy Week. The Good Friday procession features decorated carrozas bearing life-size statues of Spanish vintage. On Easter Sunday, the dawn celebration depicting the Resurrection of Christ, called "Sabet", is a scene to behold.
Points of interest
- Calle Crisologo - It is what Vigan City is known for—streets lined with Spanish Era ancestral houses (with ancient tile roofs, massive hardwood floorings, balustrades and azoteas in varying Spanish, Mexican, and Chinese architectural styles) and cobble-stoned streets, which led to Vigan's inscription in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Tourists can buy souvenirs or even ride a calesa (horse-drawn buggy). This street is also known as 'Vigan Heritage Village.'
- Vigan Cathedral/St. Paul Metropolitan Cathedral - the seat of the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia. Burial place of the great Ilocano poet Leona Florentino. It also houses the replica of the Miraculous Santo Cristo Milagroso (the original being in Sinait, Ilocos Sur).
- Archbishop's Residence - Located next to the Vigan Cathedral, The Archbishop's Palace of the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia is the oldest continually inhabited Archbishop's residence in the Philippines, with the building itself dating to the 16th century. It was completed in 1793 after a span of 7 years. It features sliding capiz windows and cut-out decorations with floral motifs. It has a back entrance that leads to the nearby Govantes Dike, which was once a docking port for water craft. The palace has a collection of priceless ecclesiastical artifacts and relics from other Ilocos churches.
- Father Jose Burgos' Residence - Located almost behind the Provincial Capitol. The birthplace of Father Jose Burgos, one of the three martyred Filipino priests at Bagumbayan (GOMBURZA). It also houses Ilocano artifacts and ethnic arts of the Tinggians.
- Plaza Burgos - dedicated to the memory of Father Jose Burgos. Located beside the Vigan Cathedral. Depending on the weather, the streets surrounding it (except for the street adjacent to the Empanadaan) is closed off to motorized traffic every Saturday and Sunday to allow people to walk the streets freely.
- Vigan Empanadaan - a reserved location where visitors can sample Vigan's famous empanada; as well as sinanglao (traditional hotpot made of beef innards). Located at the eastern part of Plaza Burgos.
- Baluarte - a zoo located in Salindeg where visitors can see a variety of animals (including tigers and ostriches). It is also a popular venue for special events such as seminars and conferences. The owner of Baluarte is former Ilocos Sur Governor Chavit Singson.
- Pagburnayan - a barangay at the southwestern end of Liberation Boulevard in Vigan, where the famous Ilocano jar called burnay, used for storing locally made vinegar, local wine (called basi), and fish sauce (bagoong); and as decorative ware, is produced. Tourists can see these factories making the burnay using pre-historic methods of production, using carabaos (water buffalos) to knead the clay, and foot-powered potter's wheels to turn the clay into burnay jars.
- Pagpartian - where the great conquistador Juan de Salcedo landed when he arrived in Vigan through the Mestizo River. Also the site of the city slaughterhouse, built during the Spanish Era.
- Hidden Garden - Located in Bulala (a barrio known for its making of bricks, pots, and other objects made of clay), it is a wonderland of greenery, with a mini-snack bar nestled somewhere in the middle.
- Quezon Avenue - the business center of Vigan.
- Vigan Public Market - where visitors can purchase delicacies like Vigan Longanisa (native pork sausages) and bagnet (deep-fried crispy pork).
- Plaza Salcedo - dedicated to the memory of the great conquistador Juan de Salcedo. It is also the site of Gabriela Silang's public hanging in 1763. Located in front of the Vigan Cathedral.
- Vigan Dancing Fountain - Located at the Plaza Salcedo Lagoon, this Korean-engineered attraction is the first of its kind in the country, and rivals the Bellagio Water Fountains in Las Vegas, Nevada.
- Syquia Mansion - the Vigan residence of Elpidio Quirino, 6th President of the Philippines.
- Crisologo Museum - the residence of the Crisologo family in Vigan converted into a museum. It houses the memorabilia of the Crisologos and original furnishings of a typical Vigan ancestral house.
- Quema House - the residence of the Quema family, considered by sociologist Fernando Zialcita as most representative of 18th-century Philippine architectural style.
- Mindoro Beach - the only seaside location in the city, just adjacent to the Vigan International Airport.
- Simbaan A Bassit - This cemetery chapel has a Bell-gable design, the only one of its kind in the Ilocos Region. The chapel's name is an Ilocano term meaning "small church."
Major schools based in Vigan
- University of Northern Philippines in Barangay Tamag is the oldest state university in Northern Luzon. It was founded by virtue of Republic Act 4449, authored by Congressman Floro Crisologo.
- Divine Word College of Vigan (formerly known as the Colegio dela Immaculada Conception) is the second oldest privately funded school in Ilocos Sur, founded by priests belonging to the Society of the Divine Word (SVD).
- Macro Colleges Inc. is the first computer college in the province, having evolved from being a shop that offered computer-based services. The school is currently located at Rondaris Building.
- Ilocos Sur National High School - ISNHS - the major national high school in the province.
Communications and mass media
Vigan City is home to three AM and three FM radio stations. However, Bantay town, part of metro Vigan, is the official address of the cable provider Eagle Vision which is the home of such cable channels as UPS-18, CORE TV, and Iluko Heritage Channel. ABS-CBN Vigan holds their office address in Bantay. The city is the home of some of the local print publications in the province, notably Timek ti Amianan, published by the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia.
- ABS-CBN Corporation: Channel 11 & 34
- TV5 Vigan: Channel 4
- GMA Network Inc: Channel 48
Cable providers and local cable stations
- Vigan Satellite
- Eagle Vision CATV Systems
- CORE TV
- Iluko Heritage Channel (IHC)
- Around Ilocandia Channel (AIC)
- TVi9an Channel 9
FM radio stations
- 94.1 DWVN Magik FM, located in Vigan, owned by the Century Broadcasting Network
- 94.9 DWVG THunder FM, owned by Unified Airwaves Network
- 95.7 DWVI Panalo FM, owned by Countryside Radio Group
- 96.5 DWGA Radyo Iloko, owned by Lokal Radio Broadcast Service
- 97.3 DWXV Astig FM, owned by PrimeCities Broadcasting Group
- 98.9 DWIS J FM (although is based in Bantay), owned by the Southern Broadcasting Network
- 99.7 DWRA Core FM
- 100.5 DWNP UNP Campus Radio — billed as the only education-oriented radio station in Ilocos Sur, it is owned and operated by the University of Northern Philippines.
- 101.3 DWNN NewsFM. owned by Unified Airwaves Network
AM radio stations
- DWRS — Commando Radio, founded as part of the Solidnorth Broadcasting System, located in Tamag since its incorporation in the 1980s. It is now a part of Radio Mindanao Network.
- DZVV — owned by Consolidated Broadcasting System, which is part of Bombo Radyo Philippines Network. "VV" means "Voice of Vigan." It was once on the current site of a private school but has transferred along with its radio mast (formerly at the banks of the Govantes River, near its boundary with Bantay) in Tamag.
- DZNS — owned by the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia, part of the Catholic Media Network, located in Pantay Daya. "NS" means "New Sound" and "Nueva Segovia."
- DZXE — "Radyo Tirador," owned by Fairwaves Broadcasting Network, currently off-air; located a few meters from the gate of Northern Tobacco Redrying Plant in Mira Hills. A former affiliate station of ABS-CBN's DZMM AM radio station.
- DZTA - "Tagrng it Amianan" owned by the Countryside Radio Group
- "Official City/Municipal 2013 Election Results". Intramuros, Manila, Philippines: Commission on Elections (COMELEC). 1 July 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Province: ILOCOS SUR". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Province of Ilocos Sur". Municipality Population Data. LWUA Research Division. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "A RESOLUTION EXTENDING AN INVITATION TO THE CITY OF TAGUIG TO BECOME A SISTER CITY OF VIGAN, ILOCOS SUR". City of Vigan. February 18, 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vigan City.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Vigan.|
- Article on Vigan with lots of Photographs
- Heritage City of Vigan
- Philippine Standard Geographic Code
- Philippine Census Information
- Local Governance Performance Management System
- Vigan | Lakwatsero Travel Blog
|South China Sea|