Vigipirate

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Train soldiers of the French Army on patrol in front of the Louvre 20th October 2007.

Vigipirate (French: Plan Vigipirate) is France's national security alert system. Created in 1978 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, it has since been updated three times: in 1995 (following a terror bombing campaign), 2000 and 2004.[1]

Until 2014 the system defined four levels of threats represented by five colors: white, yellow, orange, red, scarlet. The levels called for specific security measures, including increased police or police/military mixed patrols in subways, train stations and other vulnerable locations.

In February 2014 the levels were simplified to 'vigilance' and 'attack alert'.[2]

"Vigipirate" is a portmanteau of "vigilance" (vigilance) or "vigie" (watchtower) and "pirate" (pirate).

Levels of alert (to 2014)[edit]

Alert level Color Significance Measures taken
0
White No danger No danger
1
Yellow Vague threat / raise vigilance Raise security levels to face real yet still uncertain dangers, through measures that are local and minimally disruptive of normal activity, while preparing to switch to "orange" or "red" within a few days.
2
Orange Possible threat / prevent terrorist action Take measures against plausible risks of terrorist action, including the use of means that are moderately disruptive to normal public activities, while preparing to switch to "red" or "scarlet" on short notice where possible.
3
Red High chance of threat / prevent serious attack Take measures against a proven risk of one or more terrorist actions, including measures to protect public institutions and putting in place appropriate means for rescue and response, authorizing a significant level of disruption to social and economic activity.
4
Scarlet Definite threat / prevent major attack Notification of a risk of major attacks, simultaneous or otherwise, using non-conventional means and causing major devastation; preparing appropriate means of rescue and response, measures that are highly disruptive to public life are authorized.

Levels of alert (from 2014)[edit]

Vigipirate 2014.svg Vigipirate Alerte Attentat 2014.svg

  • Vigilance
  • Attack alert

History of alert levels[edit]

French Marine on Vigipirate duty at Gare de Lyon
Date Level Description
2 January 1991 Phase 1 First release phase 1 in the beginning of the Gulf War.
17 January 1991 Phase 2 Passage of phase 2 in the early war strikes.
26 April 1991 Lifting of level
8 September 1995 Release After the 1995 Paris Metro bombing.
15 January 1996 Relief
October 1996 Suspension
3 December 1996 Reactivation After an attack on the RER station Port Royal in Paris.
1998 Reinforcement Due to the 1998 World Cup.
24 April 1999 Reinforcement Due to the Kosovo War.
24 April 1999 Reactivation In the wake of the attacks in Corsica.
27 December 1999 Reactivation In the wake of the Y2K problem.
11 September 2001 Reinforcement After the September 11 attacks in the United States.
5 June 2002 Prorogation Prorogued by the new Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin.
9 September 2002 Prorogation Extension of Vigipirate strengthened after the attacks of September 11, 2001.
6 December 2002 Reinforcement Celebrations at the end of the year.
20 March 2003 Reinforcement At the beginning of the Iraq War.
20 March 2003 Orange level Reforming of Vigipirate and the introduction of color levels due to the Iraq war.
17 May 2003 Orange level After the 2003 Casablanca bombings.
2 October 2003 Yellow level Prime Ministerial decision.
1 December 2003 Orange level Due to the celebrations.
26 January 2004 Yellow level
12 March 2004 Red level Only in land transport, orange everywhere else. After the 2004 Madrid train bombings.
24 May 2004 Red level During the week-long anniversary of the invasion of Normandy.
8 June 2004 Orange level
8 July 2004 Orange level
7 July 2005 Red level After the 2005 London bombings.
10 October 2005 Red level New measures adopted.
8 November 2005 State of emergency State of emergency implemented due to the 2005 civil unrest in France.
4 January 2006 Red level End of the state of emergency.
July 2006 Red level New measures adopted.
16 December 2008 Red level After explosives are found at a Paris department store.
August 2010 Red level Measures of protection are reinforced.
September 2010 Red level Strengthening of security throughout the country.
November 2010 Red level After five terror suspects are arrested.
May 2011 Red level After the death of Osama Bin Laden.
19 March 2012 Scarlet level After the 2012 Midi-Pyrénées shootings. First time scarlet level is implemented.
24 March 2012 Red level Level lowered back to red after the 2012 Midi-Pyrénées shootings suspect has been apprehended.
20 February 2014 Vigilance Level set to "Vigilance" with the inauguration of the updated Vigipirate threat levels.
7 January 2015 Attack alert Alert level raised in Île-de-France, and in the Picardy region the following day, after the Charlie Hebdo shootings. The alert level was lowered back to Vigilance in Picardy on the 14 January 2015, while being maintained at the Attack level in Île de France.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mathieu Rigouste , « L’ennemi intérieur, de la guerre coloniale au contrôle sécuritaire », Cultures & Conflits, 67, automne 2007, [En ligne], mis en ligne le 04 janvier 2010. URL : http://conflits.revues.org/index3128.html
  2. ^ http://www.service-public.fr/actualites/001793.html