Vignetting

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A vignette is often added to an image to draw interest to the center and to frame the center portion of the photo.
Vignetting is a common feature of photographs produced by toy cameras such as this shot taken with a Holga.
This example shows both vignetting and restricted field of view (FOV). Here a "point-and-shoot camera" is used together with a microscope to create this image. Pronounced vignetting (fall off in brightness towards the edge) is visible as the optical system is not well adapted. Please note that furthermore a circular restriction of the FOV is visible (the black area in the image).

In photography and optics, vignetting (/vɪnˈjɛtɪŋ/; French: "vignette") is a reduction of an image's brightness or saturation at the periphery compared to the image center. The word vignette, from the same root as vine, originally referred to a decorative border in a book. Later, the word came to be used for a photographic portrait which is clear in the center, and fades off at the edges. A similar effect occurs when filming projected images or movies off a projection screen. The resulting so-called "hotspot" effect defines a cheap home-movie look where no proper telecine is used.

Vignetting is often an unintended and undesired effect caused by camera settings or lens limitations. However, it is sometimes deliberately introduced for creative effect, such as to draw attention to the center of the frame. A photographer may deliberately choose a lens which is known to produce vignetting to obtain the effect, or it may be introduced with the use of special filters or post-processing procedures.

When using superzoom lenses, vignetting may occur all along the zoom range, depending on the aperture and the focal length. However, it may not always be visible, except at the widest end (the shortest focal length). In these cases, vignetting may cause an exposure difference of up to 0.75EV. An example of vignetting characteristics, dependent on focal length, can be found here: http://slrgear.com/reviews/zproducts/pentax18-135f35-56wr/1vignet.gif

Causes[edit]

There are several causes of vignetting. Sidney F. Ray[1] distinguishes the following types:

  • Mechanical vignetting
  • Optical vignetting
  • Natural vignetting

A fourth cause is unique to digital imaging:

  • Pixel vignetting

A fifth cause is unique to analog imaging:

Mechanical vignetting[edit]

Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams emanating from object points located off-axis are partially blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, and improper lens hoods. This has the effect of changing the entrance pupil shape as a function of angle (resulting in the path of light being partially blocked). Darkening can be gradual or abrupt – the smaller the aperture, the more abrupt the vignetting as a function of angle.

When some points on an image receives no light at all due to mechanical vignetting (the paths of light to these image points is completely blocked), then this results in an restriction of the field of view (FOV) – parts of the image are then completely black.

Optical vignetting[edit]

This type of vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multiple element lens. Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease in light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the lens aperture and can often be cured by a reduction in aperture of 2–3 stops. (An increase in the F-number.)

Natural vignetting[edit]

Unlike the previous types, natural vignetting (also known as natural illumination falloff) is not due to the blocking of light rays. The falloff is approximated by the cos4 or "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Here, the light falloff is proportional to the fourth power of the cosine of the angle at which the light impinges on the film or sensor array. Wideangle rangefinder designs and the lens designs used in compact cameras are particularly prone to natural vignetting. Telephoto lenses, retrofocus wideangle lenses used on SLR cameras, and telecentric designs in general are less troubled by natural vignetting. A gradual grey filter or postprocessing techniques may be used to compensate for natural vignetting, as it cannot be cured by stopping down the lens. Some modern lenses are specifically designed so that the light strikes the image parallel or nearly so, eliminating or greatly reducing vignetting. Almost all lenses designed for the Four Thirds system are of this type, as telecentricity is a stated design goal.

Pixel vignetting[edit]

Pixel vignetting only affects digital cameras and is caused by angle-dependence of the digital sensors. Light incident on the sensor at normal incident produces a stronger signal than light hitting it at an oblique angle. Most digital cameras use built-in image processing to compensate for optical vignetting and pixel vignetting when converting raw sensor data to standard image formats such as JPEG or TIFF. The use of offset microlenses over the image sensor can also reduce the effect of pixel vignetting.

Vignetting can be used to artistic effect, as demonstrated in this panorama.
Vignetting can be applied in the post-shoot phase with digital imaging software.

Post-shoot[edit]

For artistic effect, vignetting is sometimes applied to an otherwise un-vignetted photograph and can be achieved by burning the outer edges of the photograph (with film stock) or using digital imaging techniques, such as masking darkened edges. The Lens Correction filter in Photoshop can also achieve the same effect.

In digital imaging, this technique is used to create a lo-fi appearance in the picture.

See also[edit]

References and sources[edit]

References
  1. ^ Sidney F. Ray, Applied photographic optics, 3rd ed., Focal Press (2002) ISBN 978-0-240-51540-3.
Sources

External links[edit]

  • Jerry Nelson, photojournalist, has some excellent examples of vignetting on his site "JourneyAmerica"