|Nickname(s): The Olive City|
|• Body||Concello de Vigo|
|• Mayor||Abel Caballero (PSOE)|
|• city||109.1 km2 (42.1 sq mi)|
|Elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|• Density||2,700/km2 (7,100/sq mi)|
|Demonym||vigués (m), viguesa (f)
olívico (m), olívica (f)
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code(s)||+34 986|
Vigo (Galician: [ˈbiɣo], locally: [ˈbiħo] or [ˈbixo]; Spanish: [ˈbiɣo]) is a city and municipality situated in north-west Spain, in the Spanish autonomous community of Galicia, and on the ria, or bay, of the same name, on the Atlantic Ocean.
Vigo is the most populous city in Galicia, and the 14th in Spain.
It is located in the south-west of Galicia, in the southern part of the Vigo Bay. In the north-east it borders with the municipality of Redondela, in the east with Mos, in the south with O Porriño and Gondomar, and in the south-west with Nigrán. On the other side of the bay, just in front of Vigo, the municipalities of Cangas and Moaña are located. They are all part of the southern Galician region called Rias Baixas.
Vigo and its metropolitan area is one of the main economic agents of the region.
- 1 History
- 2 Toponym
- 3 Population
- 4 Geography
- 5 Districts
- 6 Metropolitan area
- 7 Main sights
- 8 Transport
- 9 Governance
- 10 Economy
- 11 Education
- 12 Culture
- 13 Notable people
- 14 International relations
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 External links
During the Middle Ages the small village of Vigo was part of the territory of Portuguese speaking neighbouring towns, particularly Tui, and suffered several Viking attacks. However, the number of inhabitants was so small that, historically, Vigo was not considered to be a real village until around the 15th century, when the earliest records began.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, the city was attacked several times. In 1585 and 1589, Francis Drake raided the city and temporarily occupied it, leaving many buildings burnt. Several decades later a Turkish fleet tried to attack the city. As a result the walls of the city were built in 1656 during the reign of Philip IV of Spain. They are still partially preserved.
During this time, and in spite of the attacks, the city of Vigo developed its earliest commerce, and was given several privileges by the kings of Spain.
In 1702, the Battle of Vigo Bay occurred, and in 1719, because a Spanish fleet which departed from Vigo attempted to invade Scotland in support of the Jacobites, the city was occupied for ten days by a British force.
In 1808, the French Army annexed Spain to the Napoleonic Empire, although Vigo remained unconquered until January, 1809. Vigo was also the first city of Galicia to be freed from French rule in what is now celebrated as theReconquista (reconquest from the French in the context of the Peninsular War) on 28 March each year.
The city grew very rapidly in the 19th and 20th centuries. This resulted in continuous urban planning changes, making Vigo less structured than other Galician towns.
The nickname (cidade olívica) was used because it is said that, after the conflict between the Isabel de Castilla and Juana la Beltraneja where Galician nobility took part for the latter, the winner ordered to cut all the olive trees in Galicia because they symbolized the peace, but she couldn't unroot the one in Vigo because it was planted in sacred ground. The plant was then in the city seal and one descendant of that olive tree is still alive in Vigo city centre.
The city of Vigo has 297,124 inhabitants, with an extended metropolitan population of 468,654, making it the 14th-largest metropolitan area of Spain.
At the beginning of 20th century Vigo had less than 50,000 inhabitants; in 2012 its metropolitan area had almost half a million, making Vigo one of the fastest-growing towns in Europe.
By language, according to 2008 data, 7% of the population speak always in Galician, 43% speak always in Spanish and the rest use both interchangeably. This makes Vigo the least Galician-speaking city in Galicia.
- Demographic development of Vigo from 1842
Vigo's climate is usually classified as oceanic (Köppen climate classification Cfb); however, the summers tend to be warmer (and drier) and the winters milder than most areas of similar classification. In actuality, with its noticeable drying trend in the summer, Vigo's climate is more similar to the variant of the oceanic climate commonly seen in the Pacific Northwest region of North America; though with noticeably warmer winters. Substantial rainfall throughout the year prevents it from being classified as a Mediterranean climate, even though there is a drying trend in summer. The average annual temperature in Vigo is 15 °C (59 °F). Compared many other Galician towns, Vigo experiences warmer summer temperatures and milder winters. This is due to its sheltered location, surrounded by mountains inland and the Illas Cíes out in the bay towards the sea. The all time record high for the city is 39.7 °C (103 °F) set on July 5, 2013.
|Climate data for Vigo (Vigo Airport)|
|Average high °C (°F)||11.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||8.3
|Average low °C (°F)||5.0
|Rainfall mm (inches)||255
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||15||13||11||13||13||7||5||5||8||13||13||15||130|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||113||116||176||184||217||269||296||281||205||154||109||90||2,212|
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología|
Vigo is administratively divided into 21 districts (parroquias), which are further subdivided into wards (barrios)
- Alcabre: Ameixeira, Barreiro, Carregal, Castañal, Cristo, Forte, Gándara, Igrexa, Pardaíña, Roade, Sobreira, Viñagrande
- Beade: Babio, Balde, Carballo do Pazo, Coutada, Gándara, Porto, A Pena, Quintián, O Seixo, A Venda, Sáa
- Bembrive: Baruxans, Carballal, Chans, Xestoso, Mosteiro, Outeiro, San Cibrán, Segade, Areeiro, Eifonso, Mouteira, Recaré, Xesteira
- Cabral: Becerreira, Carballal, Sello, Figueiras
- Candeán: Igrexa, Candeán de Arriba, Rabadeira, Fonte Oscura
- Castrelos: Alvite, Castreliños, Costa, Chantada, Espedrigada o Pereiró, A Pousa, Falcoa, Macal, Pazó, Portoloureiro, Viloura
- Comesaña: Casas, Cocheiros, Comesaña, Eidos, Igrexa, Muíños, Pazo, Pedra Branca, Pedreira, Pereiras, Ponte, Romeu, Rodeira, Sanin, Tombo, Viña da Veiga
- Coruxo: Roteas, Río, Molans, Cean, Fontela, Breadouro, Silveira, Combro, Calzada, Cotarelo, Romeu, Verdeal, Melcas, Taberna, Burdes, Abade, Igrexa, Quintas, Carballal, Rozo, Coto de Arriba, Coto de Abaixo, Carrasqueira, Muiños, Gándara, Longra, Luz, Bouzas, Tarrío, Gato, San Lourenzo, Torre de Abaixo, Torre de Arriba, Laxes, Viño, Pedreira, Parrocha, Fragoselo, Tintureira
- Freixeiro: Mantelas, A Salgueira, Riobó
- Lavadores: Arriero, A Bagunda, Barreiro, Cambeses, A Ceboleira, O Couto, Gandariña, Gandarón, Naia, Pardavila, Riomaio, San Paio de Abaixo, San Paio, Igrexa
- Matamá: Balsa, Balvis, Barxa, Beirán, Campos, Carapuxa, Carneiras, Dehesa, Castro, Igrexa, Lagarella, Moo, Outeiro, Parada, Pazos, Pereiro, Revolta, Rivas, Ribelas, Roupeiro, San Amaro, Vilar
- Navia: Devesa, Gándara, Goberna, Pereiras, Quintela, Redondo, Samil, Tomada, Torre, Xuncal
- Oia: Bouzo, Cabo Estai, Canido Praia, Carretera Cortada, Cerqueiro, Cruceiro, Curras, Eiras, Estea, Esteriz, Estomada, Figueiras, Gontade, Grades, Hermida, Igrexa, Loureiro, Estación, Lantexa, Lavandeira, Liñares, A Maris, Matoca, Mide, Oia, Outeiro, Poza, Rochas, Rozo, Senra de Arriba, Senra de Abaixo, Silval, Toxal, Toucido, Verdella, Xistro
- Saiáns: Carballido, Cal do Outeiro, Garcias, Aral, Fontán, Gándara, Cova da Becha, Curbeira, Horta, Orxas, Castañal, Borreiros, Portiño, Tomada, San Xurxo, Capela, Misarelas, Estea, Pinal, Budiases, Souto, Cova da Barxa, Domeira, Cachoa, Dovesa, Fortiñon, Gondufe, Volta, Vilaverde
- San Paio
- San Xoán do Monte
- Teis: Cacharela, Mouta, Ferreira, Paradela, Fervenza, Ríos, Travesán, Presa, Chumba, Igrexa, Trapa, Arnel, Praixal, Rorís, Balbarda, A Guía, Oliveira, Espiñeiro, Frian, Santa Tegra, Bellavista, Calzada, Coutadas, Os Caños, Tovel, A Rabuda, Guixar, Barrio das Frores, Montecelo
- Vigo centro
- Zamáns: Casal de Abade, Cidáns, A Igrexa (San Mamede), As Lagoas, Marcosende, A Menda, Paredes, Vilariño, Vilaverde, Erville.
The following villages are in the Vigo metropolitan area:
- Babío (1,214 p.)
- Saa (1,296 p.)
- Penís (1,079 p.)
- Fonte Escura (1,242 p.)
- Pereiró (4,284 p.)
- Ponte (1,564 p.)
- Freixeiro (2,456 p.)
- Mantelas (1,595 p.)
- Salgueira (1,268 p.)
- Bagunda (2,762 p.)
- Bouciña (1,823 p.)
- Barreiro (1,383 p.)
- Ceboleira (2,989 p.)
- Pardavila (4,128 p.)
- Garrida (1,245 p.)
- Casco Vello (historic centre)
- Porta do Sol, Policarpo Sanz and Alameda area (modern centre)
- Príncipe and Urzaiz Streets (commercial area)
- Celtic Castro ruins
- Castro fortress
- Cathedral of Santa Maria de Vigo
- La Alameda and Montero Ríos
- Auditorium Mar de Vigo
- Naturnova Museum: Museum dedicated to environment. Interactive contents.
- Museum of the Sea: Museum dedicated to the Sea, and to tinned food and to naval. Important building designed by famous architects Aldo Rossi and Cesar Portela.
- Museum of Contemporary Art, Vigo: One of the most important museums of Contemporary Art in Spain.
- Museum of Castrelos.
- Verbum, Casa das palabras. A museum dedicated to languages and communication. Important building designed by famous architect Cesar Portela.
- Pinacoteca de Vigo
- Galician Center of Photography
- Ethnographic Museum Liste
- Pedro Barrié de la Maza Foundation
Romanesque architecture of Vigo
Vigo is not only one of the major industrial and economic cities in Galicia, but it is also one of the more important Roman centers of Pontevedra. Although within the city one will not find much Romanesque architecture, it can be seen a few kilometers away from the city center. In many of the municipality's neighborhoods and parishes a large number of Roman ruins remain. Such is the importance of the Roman remains in Vigo that many Spanish authors have come to coin the term Romanesque Vigo (románico vigués in Spanish). Vigo retains three of the most important examples of Romanesque churches in southern Galicia:
- Santa Maria de Castrelos
- Santiago de Bembrive
- San Salvador de Coruxo
- Samil beach
- Carril beach
- Canido beach
- Vao beach
Vigo is served by Vigo-Peinador Airport with flights to Paris and several domestic destinations. Due to increased passenger numbers in recent years, the terminal with the parking facilities are being expanded to provide the airport with a capacity of four million people by year.
A ferry service operates between the Port of Vigo and Cíes Islands, part of the Atlantic Islands of Galicia National Park, the only National Park in Galicia. The main beach in the central island was declared best beach in the world in 2007 by the British newspaper The Guardian. European route E01 goes through the town. This highway goes south through Lisbon and north to the A Coruña area.
The A-52 road goes inland, east to Ourense.
The city has commissioned the development of a blueprint and a feasibility study for possible construction of a metro. Meanwhile, urban transport is carried out through buses by Vitrasa progestin, which has the largest number of buses in northwest Spain.
The city is governed by a mayor-council form of government. Following the May 22, 2011 municipal elections the mayor of Vigo is Abel Caballero of the Socialist Party of Galicia (PSdeG). The city council (concello) is governed by the Socialist Party of Galicia (11 councilors, to the Popular Party of Galicia 13 and the Galician Nationalist Bloc 3).
Vigo is one of the leading industrial areas in Galicia, with car factories, shipyards, and auxiliary industry. Situated in Vigo is Galicia's leading employer, PSA Peugeot Citroën, which in 2007 produced a total of 545,000 vehicles, of which more than 82% were sold outside Spain.
Vigo has the largest fishing port in Europe as well, the home port of the world's largest fishing company, Pescanova and the most important centre of the Galician canned fish industry. The headquarters of the European Fisheries Agency are also located in the city.
The publishing industry, especially in Galician, is very prominent in the city, with Editorial Galaxia and Editorial Xerais among others.
The University of Vigo is situated in a mountainous area on the outskirts of the city. It is an important center for studies related to ocean-based industries. The university has other campuses in Pontevedra and Ourense. The campus of Vigo is a modern project of the architect Enric Miralles.
Arts and entertainment
"A movida viguesa" was a hedonistic cultural movement that took place in Vigo during the 1980s triggered by the explosion of liberties after the death of dictator Francisco Franco. The most important artists of this postmodern movement were musicians; particularly punk and new wave bands such as Siniestro Total, Golpes Bajos, Aerolíneas Federales, Semen Up or Os Resentidos.
At the moment, the city still has notorious bands like Iván Ferreiro (ex-singer of Los Piratas) and Mon.
The locally produced award-winning feature movie Mondays In The Sun (original title Los lunes al sol) depicts the life of several men who have lost their work at the Port of Vigo. This film is not based on a single individual's experiences but on the perceived collective experiences of many local port workers.
Vigo has two daily newspapers; the Faro de Vigo, the oldest newspaper in Spain still in circulation, and the Atlántico Diario. It has one local television station, Televigo, which covers news and current events in the Vigo metropolitan area.
Vigo has one of the most important women's basketball team, Celta, more commonly referred to today by its sponsorship name of Celta Indepo. They usually compete in the top category of women's championship. They won the championship three times. For the season 2012-2013, and after several economic problems, the team will play in the Spanish women basketball second division.
Vigo has a football team, Real Club Celta de Vigo, which currently (2012–13) plays in La Liga. The women's team from the area, Federación Viguesa de Peñas Recreativas El Olivo, was the first team from Galicia to compete in the Women's Primera División.
The Rías Baixas offer a privileged environment for the practice of the nautical sports. Institutions as the Real Club Nautico de Vigo (RCNV), founded in 1906, and the Liceo Marítimo de Bouzas (LMB), founded in 1907, are good examples of promotion of the nautical sports, especially sailing.
The RCNV organizes important events like the Atlantic Week, that in September 2006 received the World Championship of the Platu 25 class. The RCNV also organizes every year in August one of the races with more sailboats of the Iberian peninsula: the Regata Rías Baixas, that in the 2006 edition included the participation of 130 sailboats of different nationalities.
The LMB is a yacht club that agglutinates around 400 associates. The LMB has a long and intense activity in sailing and recreational fishing. The LMB organizes two important regattas of the Galician calendar of sail: the Regata Vila de Bouzas and a Regata de Solitarios y a Dos.
The Regata Vila de Bouzas honors the neighborhood where is located the LMB. The Regata de Solitarios y a Dos is sponsored by the firm Aister and is for crews of one and two members. It is a difficult race with two steps. One step consists of a race through the coastal inside the bay of Vigo and the other step is longer race around the Cies Islands (and/or Ons Islands). Likewise, the LMB has schools of sailing and fishing. Yearly it organizes a cephalopods fishing competition.
- Ernesto Bao Curuxeira, painter
- Manuel Mur Oti, film director, screenwriter
- Manuel Manquiña, actor
- Serafín Avendaño, painter
- Martín Codax, poet
- Antonio M. Pérez, CEO of Eastman Kodak
- Iván Ferreiro, singer-songwriter
- Carlos Núñez, musician
- Iago Falqué Silva, footballer
- Concepcion Picciotto, peace activist
- Roberto Losada Rodríguez, footballer
Twin towns – Sister cities
Vigo is twinned with:
- INEbase. Variaciones intercensales. Alteraciones de los municipios en los censos de población desde 1842. Online: http://www.ine.es/intercensal/ Retrieved 17-06-2011.
- "Geography". vigo.com.
- "Vigo". galiciaguide.com. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
- "Vigo". http://www.aemet.es. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
- "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Pontevedra - Vigo / Aeropuerto".
- "Igrexas Romanicas en Vigo". Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- "Abel Caballero achieves the best results for the socialists in twenty years" (in Spanish). FarodeVigo.es. 2011-05-23.
- "Quiero que sepan que hay futuro en el fútbol femenino". lavozdegalicia.es. Retrieved 2011-12-09.
- "International Relations of the City of Porto". © 2006-2009 Municipal Directorate of the Presidency Services International Relations Office. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vigo.|
- Official city site
- Vigo Map
- University of Vigo
- Vigo Photos
- Museo de Arte Contemporánea (MARCO)
- Museo Municipal «Quiñones de León»
- Museo Etnográfico Liste
- Info about Vigo at Spanish Tourism Board Official Website