Vyborg

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For other uses of "Vyborg", see Vyborg (disambiguation).
Vyborg (English)
Выборг (Russian)
Viipuri (Finnish)
-  Town[1]  -
Vyborg June2012 View from Olaf Tower 06.jpg
A view of Vyborg from the castle tower
Map of Russia - Leningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Leningrad Oblast in Russia
Vyborg is located in Leningrad Oblast
Vyborg
Vyborg
Magnify-clip.png
Location of Vyborg in Leningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 60°43′N 28°46′E / 60.717°N 28.767°E / 60.717; 28.767Coordinates: 60°43′N 28°46′E / 60.717°N 28.767°E / 60.717; 28.767
Coat of arms of Vyborg.svg
Flag of Vyborg.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of June 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Leningrad Oblast[1]
Administrative district Vyborgsky District[1]
Settlement municipal formation Vyborgskoye Settlement Municipal Formation[1]
Administrative center of Vyborgsky District,[1] Vyborgskoye Settlement Municipal Formation[1]
Municipal status (as of June 2013)
Municipal district Vyborgsky Municipal District[2]
Urban settlement Vyborgskoye Urban Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Vyborgsky Municipal District,[2] Vyborgskoye Urban Settlement[2]
Head[4] Gennady Orlov[3]
Representative body Council of Deputies[4]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 79,962 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 208th
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[6]
Founded 11th or 12th century[7]
Previous names Viipuri[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[8] 188800–188802, 188804, 188805, 188807–188811, 188819, 188899
Dialing code(s) +7 81378[9]
Official website
Vyborg on WikiCommons

Vyborg (/ˈvbɔrɡ/;[10] Russian: Выборг; IPA: [ˈvɨbərk];[10] Finnish: Viipuri, [ˈʋiːpuri]; Swedish: Viborg; German: Wiborg; Estonian: Viiburi) is a town and the administrative center of Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of the Vyborg Bay, 130 kilometers (81 mi) to the northwest of St. Petersburg and 38 kilometers (24 mi) south of Russia's border with Finland, where the Saimaa Canal enters the Gulf of Finland. Population: 79,962 (2010 Census);[5] 79,224 (2002 Census);[11] 80,924 (1989 Census).[12]

The town lies in the boundary zone between the East Slavic/Russian and Finnish worlds and has changed hands several times in history, most recently in 1944 when it was taken by the Soviet Union from Finland during World War II.

The city hosts the Russian end of the 1,222 km Nord Stream gas pipeline, laid in 2011 and operated by a consortium led by Russia's Gazprom state hydrocarbons enterprise to pump 55 billion cu m of natural gas a year under the Baltic to Greifswald, Germany.[13]

History[edit]

Main article: Fief of Viborg

The area where Vyborg is located used to be a trading center on the Vuoksi River's western branch, which has dried up. The region was inhabited by the Karelians, a Balto-Finnic tribe which gradually came under the domination of Novgorod and Sweden. Vyborg itself appeared in the 11th–12th centuries as a mixed Karelian-Russian settlement.[7]

The first Vyborg Castle was founded during the so-called "Third Swedish Crusade" in 1293 by marshal Torkel Knutsson.[7] The castle was fought over for decades between Sweden and the Novgorod Republic. By the Treaty of Nöteborg in 1323, Vyborg was finally recognized as a part of Sweden. The town's trade privileges were chartered by the Pan-Scandinavian King Eric of Pomerania in 1403. It withstood a prolonged siege by Daniil Shchenya during the Russo–Swedish War of 1496–1497.

Town Hall Tower in Vyborg (c. 1500)

Under Swedish rule, Vyborg was closely associated with the noble family of Bååt, originally from Småland. The late-medieval commanders and fief holders of Vyborg were (almost always) descended from or married to the Bååt family. In practice, though not having this as their formal title, they functioned as Margraves, had feudal privileges, and kept all the crown's incomes from the fief to use for the defense of the realm's eastern border.

A copper engraving of Vyborg in 1709

Vyborg remained in Swedish hands until its capture in 1710 after the Siege of Vyborg by Tsar Peter the Great in the Great Northern War.[7] In the course of Peter's second administrative reform, Vyborg became the seat of Vyborg Province of St. Petersburg Governorate.[14] The 1721 Treaty of Nystad, which concluded the war with Sweden, finalized the transfer of the town and a part of Old Finland to Russia.[7]

In 1744, Vyborg became the seat of Vyborg Governorate.[14] In 1783, the governorate was transformed into Vyborg Viceroyalty,[14] then in 1801 back into Vyborg Governorate.[citation needed] In 1802, Vyborg Governorate was renamed Finland Governorate.[14]

One of the largest naval battles in history, the Battle of Vyborg Bay, was fought off the shore of the Vyborg Bay on July 4, 1790.

After the rest of Finland was ceded to Russia in 1809, Emperor Alexander I incorporated the town and the governorate into the newly created Grand Duchy of Finland in 1811.[15]

In the course of the 19th century, the town developed as the center of administration and trade for the eastern part of Finland. The inauguration of the Saimaa Canal in 1856 benefited the local economy as it opened the vast waterways of Eastern Finland to the sea. Vyborg was never a major industrial center and lacked large production facilities, but due to its location it served as a focal point of transports of all industries on the Karelian Isthmus, Ladoga Karelia, and southeastern Finland.

Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the fall of the Russian Empire, Finland declared itself independent. During the Finnish Civil War, Vyborg was in the hands of the Finnish Red Guards until it was captured by the White Guard on April 29, 1918.

In the inter-war decades, the town, then officially known as Viipuri, was the second biggest town in Finland and the seat of Viipuri Province. In 1939, Vyborg had some 80,000 inhabitants, including sizable minorities of Swedes, Germans, Russians, Gypsies, Tatars, and Jews. During this time, Alvar Aalto built the Vyborg Library—a masterpiece of modern architecture.

During the Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland in 1939–1940, over seventy thousand people were evacuated from Vyborg to western Finland. The Winter War was concluded by the Moscow Peace Treaty, which stipulated the transfer of Vyborg and the whole Karelian Isthmus—emptied of their residents—to Soviet control, where it was incorporated into the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic on March 31, 1940. As the town was still held by the Finns, the remaining Finnish population, some ten thousand people, had to be evacuated in haste before the handover. Thus, practically the whole population of Finnish Vyborg was resettled elsewhere in Finland. The town became the administrative center of Vyborgsky District.

The evacuees from Finnish Karelia came to be a vociferous political force and their wish to return to their homes was an important motive when Finland sought support from Nazi Germany against the Soviet threat. As a result, Finland and Nazi Germany fought on the same side in the Continuation War.

On August 29, 1941, Vyborg was recaptured by Finnish troops and, soon after, the Government of Finland formally annexed it along with the other areas lost in the Moscow Peace Treaty. At first, the Finnish Army did not allow civilians into the town. Of the 6,287 buildings, 3,807 had been destroyed. The first civilians started to arrive at the end of September and by the end of the year Vyborg had a population of about 9,700. By 1942, it had risen to 16,000. About 70% of the evacuees from Finnish Karelia returned after the re-conquest to rebuild their looted homes, but were again evacuated after the Red Army's Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive, timed to coincide with the Battle of Normandy. By the time of the Soviet offensive, the town had a population of nearly 28,000. The town was evacuated by June 19 and the defense of Vyborg was entrusted to the 20th Brigade. The town fell to the Red Army on June 20, 1944, but the Finns managed to halt the Soviet offensive at the Battle of Tali-Ihantala—the largest battle fought by any of the Nordic countries—in Viipuri rural municipality which surrounded the town. The town was seriously damaged, with many historic buildings, including the Vyborg Cathedral, destroyed.

In the subsequent Moscow Armistice of September 19, 1944, Finland returned to the borders set by the Moscow Peace Treaty and ceded more land than the treaty originally demanded. In the 1947 Paris Peace treaties, Finland relinquished all claims to Viipuri/Vyborg.

After the Winter War, Leningrad Oblast wanted to incorporate the area of Vyborg, but it took until November 1944 for it to be finally transferred from the Karelo-Finnish SSR.[15] During the Soviet era, the town was settled by people from all over the Soviet Union. The naval air bases of Pribilovo and Veshchevo were built nearby.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Vyborg serves as the administrative center of Vyborgsky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Vyborgsky District as Vyborgskoye Settlement Municipal Formation.[1] As a municipal division, Vyborgoye Settlement Municipal Formation is incorporated within Vyborgy Municipal District as Vyborgoye Urban Settlement.[2]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Vyborg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 6.5
(43.7)
10.0
(50)
13.8
(56.8)
22.1
(71.8)
29.0
(84.2)
32.9
(91.2)
34.6
(94.3)
33.4
(92.1)
27.2
(81)
19.0
(66.2)
11.1
(52)
8.4
(47.1)
34.6
(94.3)
Average high °C (°F) −4.0
(24.8)
−4.1
(24.6)
0.5
(32.9)
7.2
(45)
14.7
(58.5)
19.2
(66.6)
22.3
(72.1)
20.2
(68.4)
14.3
(57.7)
7.9
(46.2)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.1
(28.2)
8.2
(46.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.7
(19.9)
−7.3
(18.9)
−3.0
(26.6)
3.0
(37.4)
10.2
(50.4)
15.0
(59)
18.2
(64.8)
16.3
(61.3)
10.9
(51.6)
5.5
(41.9)
−0.4
(31.3)
−4.5
(23.9)
4.8
(40.6)
Average low °C (°F) −9.5
(14.9)
−10.5
(13.1)
−6.4
(20.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
5.9
(42.6)
11.1
(52)
14.3
(57.7)
12.7
(54.9)
7.9
(46.2)
3.2
(37.8)
−2.3
(27.9)
−7.1
(19.2)
1.6
(34.9)
Record low °C (°F) −36.8
(−34.2)
−34.0
(−29.2)
−29.0
(−20.2)
−20.0
(−4)
−5.0
(23)
0.0
(32)
5.8
(42.4)
0.0
(32)
−4.0
(24.8)
−11.4
(11.5)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−34.0
(−29.2)
−36.8
(−34.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 48
(1.89)
36
(1.42)
40
(1.57)
31
(1.22)
40
(1.57)
63
(2.48)
65
(2.56)
82
(3.23)
68
(2.68)
76
(2.99)
67
(2.64)
61
(2.4)
677
(26.65)
Avg. rainy days 6 5 7 10 14 15 15 15 17 17 13 9 143
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[16]

Economy and culture[edit]

Round Tower in Vyborg (ca. 1550)

Vyborg continues to be an important industrial producer of paper. Tourism is increasingly important, and the Russian film festival Window to Europe takes place in the town each year.

An HVDC back-to-back facility for the exchange of electricity between the Russian and Finnish power grids was completed near Vyborg in 1982. It consists of three bipolar HVDC back-to-back schemes with an operating voltage of 85 kV and a maximum transmission rate of 355 megawatts, so that the entire maximum transmission rate amounts to 1,420 megawatts.[citation needed]

Sights[edit]

View from the Olaf's tower

Vyborg's most prominent landmark is its Swedish-built castle, started in the 13th century and extensively reconstructed in 1891–1894. The Round Tower and the Rathaus Tower date from the mid-16th century and are parts of the Medieval Vyborg town wall. The Viipuri Library by Finnish architect Alvar Aalto and the Hermitage-Vyborg Center are a reference point in the history of modern architecture.

There are also Russian fortifications, completed by 1740, as well as the monuments to Peter the Great (1910) and Torkel Knutsson. Tourists can also visit the house where the founder of the Soviet state Vladimir Lenin prepared the Bolshevik revolution during his stay in Viipuri from September 24 to October 7, 1917.

Sprawling along the heights adjacent to the Gulf of Finland is Mon Repos, one of the most spacious English landscape gardens in Eastern Europe. The garden was laid out on behest of its owner, Baron Ludwig Heinrich von Nikolay, at the turn of the 19th century. Most of its structures were designed by the architect Giuseppe Antonio Martinelli. Previously, the estate belonged to the future king Frederick I (Maria Fyodorovna's brother), who called it Charlottendahl in honor of his second wife.

Notable people[edit]

Bolshevik revolutionary Vladimir Lenin lived in the town for a period following the failure of the February Revolution of 1917. Finnish Nobel prize winner Martti Ahtisaari was born in Viipuri in 1937. Cyclist Viatcheslav Ekimov and Formula One driver Vitaly Petrov were born in the town. Finnish soldier Lauri Törni, who received the Mannerheim Cross for his service during the Winter War, was born here, and later served in the Finnish, German, and United States armies.

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Vyborg's Finnish coat of arms

Vyborg is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Oblast Law #32-oz
  2. ^ a b c d e Law #17-oz
  3. ^ Official website of Vyborgskoye Urban Settlement. Head of the Municipal Formation, Gennady Vasilyevich Orlov (Russian)
  4. ^ a b Charter of Vyborgskoye Urban Settlement, Article 1
  5. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ a b c d e Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 95. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  9. ^ "Ленинградская область" (in Russian). ruspostindex.ru. Retrieved March 20, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b [1]
  11. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  12. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  13. ^ The Pipeline, Nord Stream AG official website, Undated.Accessed: 14 June 2014.
  14. ^ a b c d С. А. Тархов (2001). "Изменение административно-территориального деления России за последние 300 лет". Электронная версия журнала "География". 
  15. ^ a b "История Выборгского района, история Выборгской земли" (in Russian). Муниципальное образование Выборгский район Ленинградской Области. Retrieved March 20, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Weather and Climate – The Climate of Vyborg" (in Russian). May 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • Совет депутатов муниципального образования "Выборгское городское поселение". Решение №63 от 1 июня 2010 г. «Устав муниципального образования "Город Выборг" Выборгского района Ленинградской области». (Council of Deputies of the Municipal Formation of "Vyborgskoye Urban Settlement". Decision #63 of June 1, 2010 Charter of the Municipal Formation of the "Town of Vyborg" of Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast. ).
  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #32-oz of June 15, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Leningrad Oblast and on the Procedures for Its Change, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №17-оз от 10 марта 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципальных образований Всеволожский район и Выборгский район и муниципальных образований в их составе», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №27, 11 марта 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #17-oz of March 10, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of and Granting an Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formations of Vsevolozhsky District and Vyborgsky District and to the Municipal Formations Comprising It, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]