Vijayabahu I of Polonnaruwa

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Vijayabahu I
King of Polonnaruwa
Polonnaruwa Velaikkara Slab Inscription.jpg
Polonnaruwa Velakara (Tamil) inscription of Vijayabahu I
Reign 1055–1110
Coronation 1072/3
Predecessor Kassapa VII
Successor Jayabâhu I
Consort Lilavati,Thilokasundari
House Polonnaruwa Kingdom
Father Moggallana II
Mother Queen Lokitha
Born 1039
Ruhuna
Died 1110
Polonnaruwa

Vijayabahu I (born, Prince Kitti ) (ruled 1055–1110) was a medieval king of Sri Lanka. Born to a royal bloodline, he grew up at a time when, part of the country was occupied by invaders from the Chola Kingdom of Tamilakam. He assumed rulership of the Ruhuna principality in the southern parts of the country in 1055. Following a seventeen-year-long campaign, he successfully drove the Chola out of the island in 1070,[1][2][3][4] reuniting the country for the first time in over a century.[5][6] During his reign, he re-established Buddhism in Sri Lanka and repaired much of the damage caused to infrastructure during the wars.

Early life[edit]

Vijayabahu was born around 1039, by the name of Kitti (Keethi) in Ruhuna principality, the southern part of the country. He was the son of King Moggallana, a ruler of Ruhuna and Queen Lokitha. Sri Lanka was then under control of Chola invaders from South India, but Ruhuna was controlled by Sinhala kings resisting the Chola rule.When he was fifteen years of age Kitti defeated the last of such rulers, Lokissara, with the aim of becoming the king of Ruhuna. Subsequently in 1055, he became king of Ruhuna and attained the name of ‘’’Vijayabahu’’’.

According to the "Panakaduwa Thamba Sannasa" (Panakaduwa inscription which written on copper sheets about the gifts,offerings and given by King Vijayabahu I to his higher military officer) King Vijayabahu I's own words says that prince Kiththi and King Moggallana's whole family was under the protection of "Commandor Budalna(Buddha Raja Naga)" and he provided a great support to the King to make the country under the same flag..

The Chola army frequently attacked Vijayabahu’s troops in Ruhuna. However, he managed to free Ruhuna from the Cholas by 1058 and take it under his complete control.

First attempt to capture Polonnaruwa[edit]

After securing Ruhuna, his intention was to capture Polonnaruwa, the capital of the country. In 1066, he launched the first attack on Polonnaruwa,[7] and captured and held the city for a brief time. However, after receiving reinforcements from South India, the strengthened Chola army attacked again, forcing Vijayabahu to flee.

He established himself in Wakirigala after this and concentrated on organizing his army for a fresh attempt to capture Polonnaruwa. During this time, he also had to face rebellions from other Sinhala leaders fighting for the throne. Overcoming these rebellions, Vijayabahu continued to muster his armies in order to retake the Capital, but was not strong enough to attempt another attack against the Chola army.And he made Katharagama in Ruhuna as his capital and also he started to organize an army to defeat the Cholas.

Second attack on Polonnaruwa[edit]

Vijayabahu I sent three armies to attack Polonnaruwa. One was sent along the western shore to Mahatittha and Polonnaruwa, another from the east across Magama and the third and main force across Mahiyanga.

Civil war broke out during 1069–1070 in the Chola empire in South India, throwing the country into turmoil.[7] The concerns within India prevented the empire from focusing on Sri Lanka, providing an opportunity for Vijayabahu to attack again while the Chola forces in Polonnaruwa were more or less isolated. He has gained the support of many kingdoms to defeat the Cholas such as Burma and Pandya who also wanted to defeat Cholas in their kingdom.

Starting from Mahanagakula on the south of the Walawe river, Vijayabahu dispatched three armies to attack Polonnaruwa from three fronts. One army was sent along the western shore of the country to Mahathittha port to deal with any reinforcements arriving from South India. Afterwards, part of this army moved towards Polonnaruwa and attacked from the North-west, while the other part held the ports to prevent reinforcements from arriving. A second army was sent from the east across Magama to attack Polonnaruwa from the east. The third and main force advanced across the country, led by the king. Surrounded by these three armies, Polonnaruwa was besieged for seven months before king Vijayabahu’s forces entered the city. In 1070, Vijayabahu became the ruler of Polonnaruwa.[7][8] at that time Sri Lanka is known as thambapani

Ruling of the country[edit]

After the victory at Polonnaruwa, Vijayabahu had to face more rebellions. This caused him to delay his coronation, which took place in 1072 or 1073, eighteen years after being crowned as Vijayabahu in Ruhuna and after a military campaign that lasted seventeen years. Polonnaruwa was renamed “Vijayarajapura” and chosen as the capital, making Vijayabahu the first Sinhala king of the Polonnaruwa Kingdom. The coronation ceremony was held in a palace built for this purpose in Anuradhapura, the former capital of the country.[9] Vijayabahu took Lilavati, the daughter of Jagatipala of Kanauj as his queen. He also married Tilokasundari, a princess from Kalinga, with the view of strengthening ties with the Kalingas.

During the Chola rule and the wars, Buddhism in the country had suffered a lot and Buddhist monks were few. Five ordained monks—necessary for the upasampada (ordination) of Buddhist monks—could not be found in the whole country. To re-establish Buddhism in the country, Vijayabahu sought help from King Anawrahta in Burma. As a result, ordained monks were sent from Burma to Sri Lanka. These monks helped to re-establish Buddhism by ordaining new monks and teaching the Pitaka.[10] In addition to this, Vijayabahu also repaired several Buddhist temples that were abandoned and destroyed. A new temple was also constructed in Polonnaruwa for the keeping of the sacred tooth relic of the Buddha.The history says that the monks in both countries got together to make an acceptable version in the scriptures when the interpretation of the "Thripitaka" are different with each other.

Vijayabahu also reconstructed a number of tanks in Rajarata destroyed during the wars, in addition to constructing several new tanks. This reconstruction of the irrigation system in Rajarata area was important to the development of the country since the country depended mainly on paddy cultivation.

Around 1084/1085, another quarrel with the Chola kingdom erupted when some ambassadors of Vijayabahu sent to West Chalukya were harassed by them. However, the king’s decision for another war against the Chola Empire caused the Velakkara mercenaries serving in Vijayabahu’s army to rebel against him.[7] Several generals of the army were killed by the mutineers and the royal palace was burnt down. Vijayabahu fled to Wakirigala again but returned to Polonnaruwa and recaptured it, suppressing the rebellion. The rebel leaders were captured and executed.

Vijayabahu is also noted for constructing roads to Sri Pada and building resting places called ‘’ambalama’’ for the benefit of the pilgrims.[11] He also granted villages and cultivations for the service of the pilgrims and the shrine.This is recorded in the "Ambagamu" inscription which situated by the King Vijayabahu I.

Vijayabahu died in 1110, having reigned as king of Sri Lanka for fifty-five years. He was then known as “Mahalu Vijayabahu” (Vijayabahu the old) due to his age and long rule of the country. He is also commonly referred to as Maha Vijayabahu (Vijayabahu the great). The Vijayabahu Infantry Regiment of the Sri Lanka Army is named after him.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ K. M. De Silva (1981). A History of Sri Lanka. University of California Press. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-0-520-04320-6. Retrieved 19 April 2012.  "In their expulsion from the island"
  2. ^ Bangalore Suryanarain Row (1905). A History of Vijayanagar: The Never to be Forgotten Empire. Asian Educational Services. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-81-206-0860-3. 
  3. ^ Akira Hirakawa; Paul Groner (1993). A History of Indian Buddhism: From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 126–. ISBN 978-81-208-0955-0. 
  4. ^ "The Politics of Plunder: The Cholas in Eleventh-Century Ceylon, Authour: George W. Spencer". The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 35, No. 3 (May, 1976), pp. 405-419.  When the Cholas were finally driven out of the Island. page 412
  5. ^ Codrington, H.W (1926). A Short History of Ceylon. London: Macmillan & Co. ISBN 9780836955965. OCLC 2154168. 
  6. ^ "A BRIEF HISTORY OF SRI LANKA". Tim Lambert. localhistories.org. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  7. ^ a b c d "THE POLONNARUWA KINGS". Rhajiv Ratnatunga. lakdiva.org. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  8. ^ "Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka". 
  9. ^ "The Royal Palace of King Vijayabahu I". www.amazinglanka.com. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  10. ^ Bokay, Mon (1966). Relations between Ceylon and Burma in the 11th Century A.D. Artibus Asiae Publishers. p. 93. 
  11. ^ "Adam's Peak:Myth, Legend and Geography". Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
Vijayabahu I of Polonnaruwa
Born: ? 1039 Died: ? 1110
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Kassapa VII
King of Polonnaruwa
1055–1110
Succeeded by
Jayabâhu I