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Metropolitan City
Clockwise from Top Left:Vijayawada City View, Kanakadurga Temple on Indrakeeladri, Akkanna and Madanna Caves, Vijayawada Junction Railway Station, VMC Pylon
Clockwise from Top Left:Vijayawada City View, Kanakadurga Temple on Indrakeeladri, Akkanna and Madanna Caves, Vijayawada Junction Railway Station, VMC Pylon
Vijayawada విజయవాడ is located in Andhra Pradesh
Vijayawada విజయవాడ
Location of Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates: 16°31′8.50″N 80°37′17.38″E / 16.5190278°N 80.6214944°E / 16.5190278; 80.6214944Coordinates: 16°31′8.50″N 80°37′17.38″E / 16.5190278°N 80.6214944°E / 16.5190278; 80.6214944
Country  India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Coastal Andhra
District Krishna
Named for Victory
 • Type Council
 • Body Municipal Corporation
 • Metropolitan City 261.88 km2 (101.11 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Metropolitan City 1,048,240
 • Rank 43
 • Metro 1,491,202
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone code +91-866-XXX XXXX
Vehicle registration AP 16 (AP 17, AP 18 and AP 19 reserved)
Precipitation 603 millimetres (23.7 in)
Avg. annual temperature 26.0 °C (78.8 °F)
Avg. summer temperature 35.9 °C (96.6 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 25.3 °C (77.5 °F)

Vijayawada (About this sound pronunciation )(Telugu:విజయవాడ) is a commercial city in the Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh, and the third largest after Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam, with an area of 261.88 km2. The city municipal limits has a population of 1,048,240 (2011 Census),[1] while the population of the metropolitan area is 1,491,202.[2] The city is also popularly known by its historic name Bezawada, which is used by the Indian Railways in assigning its railway station code "BZA". The city is located on the bank of river Krishna.The city is also called as the land of victory

It is the commercial capital of Andhra Pradesh,[2] Vijayawada is politically active, sociologically dominant, agriculturally rich, and is an industrial transportation hub. The city is well connected to other regions by road, rail and air. Vijayawada has been recognised as a Global City of the Future by McKinsey Quarterly.[3]


Formerly kundin]] rulers. It was taken by Badami Chalukyas became the headquarters of Eastern Chalukya. |url= |title=Sculptures in a cavern at Bezawara [Vijayawada] supposed to belong to the Jain Religion. 21st August 1815 |publisher= |accessdate=2013-09-02 }}</ref>


There are many tales behind the origin of the name Vijayawada. Goddesses Durga killed the demon and relaxed in this place for some time. As she was victorious (Vijaya), the place got the name as Vijayawada (Vijaya: victory and Wada: city/place/location) which literally means "City of Victory". The Epic of Mahabharata refers to Indrakiladri hills as the place where Arjuna secured "Pasupathastra" from Lord Siva.[4]

In some legends, Vijayawada was referred to as Vijayavata and Rajendracholapura.[5]

A tale behind its acquiring the name "Bezawada" is that Goddesses Krishnaveni (River Krishna) requested Arjuna to make a passage for her to merge into the Bay of Bengal. Hence Arjuna made a bejjam (hole) through the mountains and the place came to be known as Bejjamwada which later changed to Bezawada.

Geography and climate[edit]

Vijayawada is surrounded by the Krishna river on the east and west and the Budameru River on the north. The northern, northwestern, and southwestern parts of the city are covered by a low range of hills, while the central, southwestern and northwestern parts are covered by rich and fertile agriculture lands with three major irrigation canals. The topography of Vijayawada is flat, with a few small to medium-sized hills. The Krishna River runs through the city. These hills are part of the Eastern Ghats cut through by the Krishna river. They have very low elevation compared to the average elevation of the ghats. Three canals originating from the north side of the Prakasham barrage reservoir, Eluru, Bandar and Ryves, run through the city.[6]

Vijaywada has a tropical climate with hot summers and a monsoon season. Temperatures can reach 47 °C (117 °F) in May–June, while the winter temperatures rarely fall below 15 °C (59 °F). The average humidity is 78% and the average annual rainfall is 106.7 cm. Vijayawada gets its rainfall from both the southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon.

Climate data for Vijayawada (1951–1980)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30
Average low °C (°F) 18.9
Precipitation mm (inches) 1
Avg. precipitation days 0.1 0.4 0.5 1.0 3.1 7.6 12.6 11.5 8.8 7.1 2.8 0.6 56.1


Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1871 8,206 —    
1881 9,366 +14.1%
1891 20,224 +115.9%
1901 24,224 +19.8%
1911 32,867 +35.7%
1921 44,159 +34.4%
1931 60,427 +36.8%
1941 86,184 +42.6%
1951 161,198 +87.0%
1961 234,360 +45.4%
1971 344,607 +47.0%
1981 543,008 +57.6%
1991 845,756 +55.8%
2001 1,039,518 +22.9%
2011 1,491,202 +43.5%
Since 1871, the population is that of Vijayawada Urban Agglomeration

Sources: Rao, Kondapalli Ranga; 1. Rao, M. S. A. (1984). Cities and Slums: A study of a Squatters' Settlement in the City of Vijayawada. Concept Publishing Company. p. 12. 

2. Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011 City Name:VIJAYAWADA

As per provisional data of 2011 census, Vijayawada urban agglomeration had a population of 1,491,202, out of which males were 750,770 and females were 740,432. The literacy rate was 81.60 per cent. Vijayawada municipal corporation had a population of 1,048,240.[8] The city's population is expected to reach 2.5 million by 2025.[3]

Average literacy rate is 82.59 percent. The sex ration of Vijayawada city is 997 females per 1000 males. Children form 8.86 percent of total population.[9]

Civic Administration[edit]

Muncipality: Governing Body in the city is Vijayawada Municipal Corporation.[10] The Municipality of Vijayawada was constituted on 1 April 1888 and was upgraded as a selection grade municipality in the year 1960. The municipality was upgraded to a corporation in 1981 with the merger of Gunadala, Patamata and Bhavanipuram village panchayats and two villages Payakapuram and Kundavari kandrika in the corporation in 1985. More than 400,000 people reside outside corporation limits. Many areas on outskirts or yet to be merged into corporation limits. The total area of the corporation is 61.8 square kilometres (23.9 sq mi) and the population of the whole city (along with Vijayawada sub-urban and Vijayawada rural) is more than 2.5 million. It is a city of Jawaharlal National Urban Renewal Mission. The Government is planning to convert the city into Greater in the name of Mahanagar, merging almost 45 villages of near by.

Law & Order: The city is divided into 59 political wards. Each ward of the Municipal Corporation is represented by an area corporator. An elected body headed by the mayor performs the administration of the corporation. The Commissioner acts as the executive head and oversees the day-to-day functioning of the local body. The Commissioner is an IAS officer of Joint Collector rank appointed by the State Government. It has a dedicated Sub-Collector's office for administration of State and Central Government programmes. The staff strength of the Corporation is over 5,000. Vijayawada is one of the three cities in Andhra Pradesh to be provided with its own Police Commissionerate. The Vijayawada City Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer of DIG rank along with two Deputy Commissioners of Police who are also IPS officers.

Utilities: Water, drainage and waste collection services are provided by Vijayawada Municipal Corporation. Fire fighting services are maintained by the Andhra Pradesh Fire Services Department. There are at present five fire stations here. India Post provides physical mail services.


The GDP of Vijayawada for 2008 was estimated at Rs 5526 crores.[11] The GDP of Vijayawada was $3 billion (Rs. 18,000 crore) in 2010 and is projected to grow to $17 billion (Rs. 1,02,000 crore) by 2025.[3] The fact that Vijayawada is well connected through rail and road makes it one of the main hubs of commercial activities. The second largest wagon workshop of Indian railways is at Rayanapadu near Vijayawada.[12]

Automobile Industry[edit]

Vijayawada is famous for automobile body building, garment, iron and hardware small scale industries. The Jawahar Lal Nehru Auto Nagar Industrial Estate in Vijayawada is one of the largest hubs of automobile industry of Asia.[13] There are about 3000 automobile accessory units in and around the city and about 100,000 workers are employed in these industries. Apart from workers of the city, people from other parts of the state come to work in the industrial estate. The main markets are in the Old City (popularly known as One Town) and near Besant Road. The industrial estate in Kondapalli, an industrial suburb, is spread over 450 acres (1.8 km2) and is base to more than 800 industries.[14]


The region around the city has fertile soil and irrigation is supported by the river Krishna and its canals. Major crops include sugarcane, rice and mango.

Wholesale Businesses[edit]

The city has many wholesale businesses. They include garments, iron market, pulses, cereals, and other edible products, fancy markets, fertilizers, mango exports, pharmacy and metal. An estimate of nearly INR 10 crores of garment business takes place in the Vastralatha building alone in 'One Town' area daily. Garments are mainly sold in Besant Road and Governor Pet, but most upmarket stores have shifted their shops to Bunder Road.

Thermal power plant[edit]

A 1800MW capacity Vijayawada thermal power station (VTPS) and 368.144 MW gas-based LANCO power plant which is under expansion to 768.144 MW are located here.[15] In March 2011 Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) announced that it signed an agreement with APGENCO for setting up a 182 MW plant at Vijayawada as a technology demonstration project.[16] Kondapalli suburb also houses Andhra Pradesh Heavy Machinery & Engineering Limited (APHMEL) factory besides being a hub for storage, bottling and transportation of petroleum products.

Property prices in Vijayawada are very high and are comparable with top cities of India. According to the data prepared by the NHB, the property prices[17] increase was observed in Pune, by 10.5%, followed by Bangalore (8.7%), Patna (8.6%), Ahmedabad (6.4%), Ludhiana (5.3%), Lucknow (4.1%), Mumbai (3.7%), Delhi (2.6%), Kolkata (2.6%), Bhubaneswar (1.7%), Bhopal (1.7%), Chennai (1.7%), Surat (1.2%), Guwahati (1.2%), Vijayawada (1.1%), and Kochi (1.1%).



1932 model bus India named as Deccan Queen and was used in passenger service by nijam govt. of hyderabad kingdom
Garuda Plus - Mercedes Benz - Vijayawada

Vijayawada is well connected to the rest of the country by National Highways. Two National Highways, the NH-5 from Chennai to Kolkata and the NH-9 from Machilipatnam to Mumbai, pass through the city connecting it to other parts of the country. NH 5 is a part of the Golden Quadrilateral Project undertaken by National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). NH 221 connects the city to Jagdalpur in Chhattisgarh. It is connected to other areas of the state by state highways and district roads.

The city has second biggest and busiest bus terminal in the Asia,[18] next to Chennai (CMBT). It was inaugurated on 23 September 1990 and is officially named as Telugu Satavahana Prayana Pranganam with its current name of Pandit Nehru Bus Station. Transport by road from Vijayawada is available in the form of Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) buses. APSRTC runs more than 450 city buses in the city which include Ordinary, Metro Express and City Sheetal (A/C Buses). It is the first city in the south to introduce CNG buses in its fleet. Vijayawada Municipal Corporation (VMC) is planning to launch Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) with dedicated bus corridors.[19]

Private bus operators also provide transport services. Motor-driven auto-rickshaws and manual-driven cycle-rickshaws are the other alternative means of transport within Vijayawada. Private lorries, cars and two-wheelers are common.


Vijayawada Junction is an important junction of South central railway zone
New look of Vijayawada Railway Station

Vijayawada Junction is the heart of Indian Railways & also one of the biggest railway junction in India and contributes the highest revenues in the South Central Railway. It has an Electric Loco Shed with a capacity to maintain 100 Electric Locomotives and a Wagon workshop at Guntupalli near Vijayawada. Situated along the ChennaiHowrah and ChennaiDelhi rail route, Vijayawada Junction is the largest railway junction on the South Central Railway network. Vijayawada junction had been given A-1 status by the central government.[20] Madhuranagar, Gunadala, Rayanapadu, Kondapalli, Nidamanuru, Krishna canal junction Ramavarappadu, Kolanukonda, Mangalagiri, Gannavaram are the other railway stations in the city. The railway station has ten platforms for passenger trains and is the only station to have five entrance gates with booking counters in India and it is the busiest station to handle more than 320 trains including both passenger and freight trains per day next to Howrah and Mumbai. Vijayawada railway station, expected of becoming headquarters of the Coastal Railway Zone (CRZ) proposed for Seemandhra after bifurcation of the State. Visakhapatnam is a very strong contender in terms of revenue but being a terminal station, vijayawada have edge over it.[21]


Vijayawada is well connected by air. The domestic airport at Gannavaram, about 19 km from the city, connects Vijayawada to Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai, Jaipur and Delhi. Vijayawada Airport is served by Jet Airways, SpiceJet, Air Costa and Air India. Annually, about 380,000 passengers use this airport. A plan for its expansion has been proposed which will enable the landing of larger aircraft and also provide night landing facilities. Air Costa, headquartered at Vijayawada, started its operations to Hyderabad, Chennai, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad and Jaipur from October 2013 and is planning to start services to Pune, Goa, Madurai, Trivandrum and Visakhapatnam soon.[22]


Vijayawada is the main center of movies, also referred as "Cine Rajadhani" means "Capital of Films". First theater of the state "Maruthi talkies" was built in the year 1921 at One-town. There is a belief in Film industry that the stamina and run of the films depend upon the talk in Vijayawada which shows the citizens interest towards films. Telugu films have the biggest market here with a market share greater than 95% followed by Hindi and English. There are around 45 theaters in Vijayawada including 3 multiplexes. 3 multiplexes are going to start their operations next year.

Malls in Vijayawada[edit]

Name Location Year Size (Gross Floor Area) Number of Screens Source
Urvasi Inox Mall Governerpet 2010 100,000 sq ft (9,300 m2) 3
LEPL ICON Mall Near Saibaba Temple 2011 120,000 sq ft (11,000 m2) 4 [23]
LEPL Centro Mall M. G. Road 2012 100,000 sq ft (9,300 m2) No Screens Available [24]
Ripples Mall Near Nalanda Degree college,
M. G. Road
2013 200,000 sq ft (19,000 m2) 4 [25]
PVP Square Opp. Chennupati Petrol Bunk,
M. G. Road
2014 230,000 sq ft (21,000 m2) [26]


There are sixty parks in Vijayawada city, and the main parks to be mentioned are:[27]

  • Rajiv Gandhi Park – It has roller skating rink, Bungee Trampoline, and a garden.
  • K.L. Rao Park – It has boating, swimming pool, and a garden.
  • Dr. B.R. Ambedkar & Raghavaiah Park – The main attraction is the hanging bridge connecting the two parts of the park on ether side of the canal.
  • Mahatma Gandhi Park – This is the oldest park in the city located in I town. The park is fully crowded in the evenings. It has a gym, used by a lot of people.
  • G.V.S. Sastry Park – This park is located near Satynarayanapuram old Railway station and the park is done in an innovative way. The main attraction is the skating ring used by many children in this park.


The city has includes many tourist attractions. Some famous landmarks and places to visit in Vijayawada are:


  • Prakasham Barrage: The barrage across the Krishna, built by "Sir Arthur Cotton" more than a hundred years ago and later reconstructed in the 1950s. Prakasam Barrage is 1223.5 m long and was completed in the year 1957. It facilitate the passage of water into the cooling canal which carries water to the Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS) at Ibrahimpatnam. Prakasham Barrage has created a panoramic lake. Its three canals that run through the city give Vijayawada a Venetian look.
Rear view of Prakasam Barrage
  • Krishnaveni Mandapam: Also known as "River Museum" is situated beside Prakasam Barrage. It is constructed by the The Krishna Industrial and Agricultural Exhibition society located in autonagar. It has 4 rooms containing the vivid history of river krishna along the entire route through Geographical maps. The Krishnaveni statue at the Prakasam barrage is the idol for the river Krishna. As, the river is also referred to as "Krishnaveni" in its original nomenclature.
  • Gandhi Hill: The first Gandhi Memorial with seven stupas in the country was constructed on this hill at a height of 500 ft (150 m). The 52 ft (16 m) stupa was unveiled on 6 October 1968 by Dr. Zakir Hussain, the President of India. Gandhi Memorial Library, a Sound and Light Show on Mahatma Gandhi's life and a planetarium are the other attractions.
  • Rajiv Gandhi Park: Created by the Vijayawada Municipal Corporation, this park welcomes the tourists at the entrance of the city with its impressive horticultural. A mini zoo and a musical water fountain were added to it. It operates from 2pm to 8pm.
  • Victoria Museum: A place for archaeology lovers, Victoria Museum has a carefully preserved collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery, and inscriptions.This museum is closed temporarily due to repair works.
Kondapalli toys at a house in Vijayawada
  • Undavalli Caves: about 8 km. from Vijayawada, are said to be carved in 7th century A.D. Buddhist monks used this two-storeyed cave structure as a rest house during the monsoon. A huge monolith of the Lord Buddha in reclining posture is a magnificent sight.[28]
  • Mogalarajapuram Caves: These caves are said to be excavated in 5th century A.D. The caves are reputed to be the first of their kind in South India. The idols of Lord Nataraja, Vinayaka & Arthanareeswara are carved here, but none of the statue are available here.
  • Bhavani Island: Perhaps one of the largest islands on a river, Bhavani Island is located on Krishna River close to the city. AP Tourism is converting this 133-acre (54 hectare) island into an attractive tourist spot and a River Front Resort.
  • Kondapalli Forest & Fort: Kondapalli reserve forest is about 20 km from Vijayawada. It is spread over 121.5 square kilometres (30,000 acres). This pristine forest is home to leopards, wild dogs, jackals, wild boar, wolves etc.[29] Kondapalli Fort in Kondapalli village is a 7th-century fort on the hill with an impressive three-storeyed rock tower was witness to the glory of many dynasties. This fort was built by King Krishna Deva Raya. It served as a business centre. Finally the fort was used as a military training base by the British rulers. A good picnic spot, the village is famous for toy making with light-weight wood available on the hill forest. These toys are famous all over the world as "Kondapalli toys".

Religious Landmarks[edit]

Vijayawada - Kanaka Durga Temple
  • Kanaka Durga Temple: One of the most popular temples in the state, it is located on Indrakeeladri hill. Inscriptions of different dynasties are found in the temple. During Dasara Festival, thousands of devotees visit the temple after a holy dip in the River Krishna.
A 21st century painting of Sri Panakala Lakshmi Narasimhaswamy
  • Panakala Narasimha Swamy Temple: Located in Mangalagiri, 12 km from Vijayawada is the temple of Lord Narasimha in Mangalagiri, on a hillock. The unique feature of this temple is that the mouth of the idol accepts half the quantity of panakam (jaggery dissolved in water) offered by devotees, irrespective of the size of the vessel.
  • Marakata Rajarajeswari Temple: Unique temple of goddess completely built with stone with intricate architecture symbolizing SRICHAKRA - the abode of mother Goddess.
  • Subramanya Swamy Temple: One of the most popular temples in Vijayawada, it is located on a hill (Indrakeeladri) overlooking the city as well as the River Krishna. One can take to the steps on foot. During Skanda Shashti Festival, thousands of devotees from the city. Many regular devotees visit here from Tamil Nadu. This Temple is being maintained by Iddipilli Family.
  • Sri Nagarala Sri Maha Lakshmi Ammavaru Temple: One of the most popular temples in Vijayawada, it is located in the area of Chiitinagar. During Dasara Festival, thousands of devotees from the city visit this temple. It is maintained by the Nagaralu community.
Amareshvaraalaya gopuram
  • Amareswara Temple: Amaravati in Guntur district, formerly called as Dhanyakataka and Andhranagari, is one of the most important Buddhist sites in the country. Acharya Nagarjuna constructed the country's largest stupa here, 2000 years back. Amaravati is considered the most sacred pilgrim centre for Buddhists in South India. It also has an Amareswara temple.
  • Hazarat Bal Mosque: A holy relic of the Prophet Mohammed is kept here which is displayed once a year. A large number of non-Muslims too join the celebrations.
  • Gunadala Mary Matha Church: In 1925, Rf. Arlati, the Rector of St. Joseph's Orphanage at Gunadala, installed a statue of Our Lady and later a church was built and consecrated in 1971, now popularly known as St. Mary's church. Since then the Feast of Our Lady of Lourdes became an annual event here, attended by hundreds of people. The church is situated on a hillock on the eastern side of the city.
  • Hinkar Thirtha (Jain Temple), Namburu, Guntur district: A Jain temple here with great artistic work, it is slated to be the biggest Jain temple in the region.


Vijayawada, also called "Vidyala wada" (Place of Education), occupies a large amount of the education infrastructure of Andhra Pradesh. The city was named "The Educational Sahara".[citation needed] Both government and private institutions operate in the city to provide standard education. Vijayawada Municipal Corporation(VMC) takes care of the government educational institutions.


Government schools in the city are:[30]

  • High schools: 28 (including 1 Urdu medium, 2 schools English/Telugu medium, 1 Tamil medium, 1 Bengali medium)
  • Upper primary schools: 15 (including 3 Urdu medium, 1 Tamil medium & 1 Bengali medium)
  • Elementary schools: 75 (10 Urdu medium, 2 English)

There are "aided" schools in Vijayawada, meaning schools funded by government and private partnerships. A majority of them implement the Andhra Pradesh State Syllabus for their students.[citation needed] There are only a few schools accredited to the Central Board of Secondary Education in the city.[citation needed]

Colleges & Universities

The first college built in Vijayawada was SRR & CVR Government College. Andhra Loyola College was established in 1953. The first private engineering college in Andhra Pradesh was V R Siddhartha Engineering College, is located here. School of Planning and Architecture,Vijayawada (SPAV) was established in 2008, a higher education institute in Vijayawada. It is one of the three School of Planning and Architecture (SPAs) established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development in 2008 as an autonomous institute and a fully Central funded Institution.

Famous Universities are :

NTR University of Health Sciences

Other colleges are :

Andhra Loyola College Entrance Bridge
  • KBN College
  • Satavahana College
  • Raamans college of Financial Planning.
  • Maris Stella College
  • Lakkireddy Balireddy College of Engineering
  • Gudlavalleru Engineering College
  • SRK Institute of Technology
  • Andhra Loyola Institute of Engineering & Technology
  • Dhanekula Institute of Engineering & Technology
  • NRI Institute of Technology
  • Daita Mahdusudana Sastry Sri Venkateswara Hindu College of Engineering
  • Usha Rama College of Engineering & Technology
  • Potti Sriramulu College of Engineering & Technology
  • Amrita Sai Institute of Science & Technology
  • Sri Vasavi Institute of Engineering & Technology
  • MVR college of Engineering and Technology
  • SK.Nagur Basha College of Engineering & technology,JNTU
  • Velagapudi Ramakrishna Siddhartha Engineering College
    (royal college of vijayawada)
  • Prasad.V.Potluri Siddhartha Institute of Technology
  • P.B.Siddhartha Engineering College


Print Media[edit]

Telugu News Papers
English News Papers

Electronic Media[edit]


Cricket is the most popular sport, with national-level matches played at Indira Gandhi Stadium.[31] It is also the stadium for Krishna district cricket association. Mangalagiri International Cricket Stadium is being built in a 20-acre (81,000 m2) site in Navuluru, village of Mangalagiri town, Guntur district, about 15 km from the city of Vijayawada. The exclusive stadium of the Andhra Cricket Association will be the venue for international and Ranji matches.[32] Only one international cricket match was played between India and West Indies on 24 November 2002 at Indira Gandhi stadium. It was won by West Indies. On 12 December 1997 Women's Cricket Worldcup only a group match was played between England Women's Cricket Team and Pakistan Women's Cricket Team, and it was won by England.Indian Womens cricket acadamy is located in Guntur the twin city of vijayawada

Badminton, volleyball and chess are also popular.

Formation of new Capital city[edit]

Centre Appoints 5-Member Expert Panel on 28 March to select Capital of the residual Andhra Pradesh, once Telangana is formed on 2 June. [33] Nellore, Tirupati, Kurnool, Ongole, Vijayawada, Guntur, Amaravathi, Visakhapatnam and a new greenfield city are doing the rounds in media reports as the probable capital of Seemandhra.

See also[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

United States Modesto, California, joined 1993[34]


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  34. ^ "Modesto Sister Cities Vijayawada". Retrieved 2013-08-08. 

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