Vijayawada

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Vijayawada
విజయవాడ
Bezawada[1]
Metropolis
Clockwise from Top Left:Vijayawada City View, Kanakadurga Temple on Indrakeeladri, Akkanna and Madanna Caves, Vijayawada Junction Railway Station, VMC Pylon
Clockwise from Top Left:Vijayawada City View, Kanakadurga Temple on Indrakeeladri, Akkanna and Madanna Caves, Vijayawada Junction Railway Station, VMC Pylon
Nickname(s): The Place of Victory[1]
Vijayawada is located in Andhra Pradesh
Vijayawada
Vijayawada
Location of Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates: 16°30′30″N 80°38′30″E / 16.50833°N 80.64167°E / 16.50833; 80.64167Coordinates: 16°30′30″N 80°38′30″E / 16.50833°N 80.64167°E / 16.50833; 80.64167
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Coastal Andhra
District Krishna
Named for Victory
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body Vijayawada Municipal Corporation[2]
 • MP Kesineni Srinivas
 • Mayor Koneru Sridhar
 • Police commissioner A B Venkateswara Rao
Area[2]
 • Metropolis 61.88 km2 (23.89 sq mi)
Elevation[3] 23 m (75 ft)
Population (2011)[4]
 • Metropolis 1,048,240
 • Rank 42
 • Metro[5] 1,491,202
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 520 XXX
Telephone code +91-866
Vehicle registration AP 16 (AP 17, AP 18 and AP 19 reserved)
Website www.ourvmc.org

Vijayawada is the the second largest city and de facto administrative centre of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh[6] It is located on the banks of the Krishna river and Budameru River .[7] The name Vijayawada translates as "The Place of Victory" and most popularly from the historic times, the city name was known as "Bezawada".[8][9] It is the second largest city in Andhra Pradesh with an area of 61.88 km2. As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 1,048,240 and urban agglomeration population of 1,491,202.[4][5]

The city has been recognised as the "Global City of the Future" by McKinsey Quarterly.[10] It is one of the commercial hubs of Andhra Pradesh with a GDP of $3 billion in 2010, and is expected to grow up to $17 billion by 2025.[11] According to Ministry of Urban Development, it is the cleanest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh with a total of 49.060 points.[12] The political, agricultural, industrial sectors are a boon for its recognition. It is the hub of transportation with one of the largest railway junction in India.

Etymology[edit]

There are many tales behind the origin of the name Vijayawada. Goddesses Durga killed the demon and relaxed in this place for some time. As she was victorious (Vijaya), the place got the name as Vijayawada (Vijaya: victory and Wada: place/location) which literally means "The Place of Victory". The Epic of Mahabharata refers to Indrakiladri hills as the place where Arjuna secured "Pasupathastra" from Lord Siva.[1]

In some legends, Vijayawada was referred to as Vijayavata and Rajendracholapura. A tale behind its acquiring the name "Bezawada" is that Goddesses Krishnaveni (River Krishna) requested Arjuna to make a passage for her to merge into the Bay of Bengal. Hence, Arjuna made a bejjam (hole) through the mountains and the place came to be known as Bejjamwada which later changed to Bezawada.[13]

History[edit]

Vijayawada history reveals that Bezawada (Vijayawada) was ruled by King Madhava Varma (Ancestor of Pusapatis of Vizianagaram).[14] The remains of the pre-historic man and society of the Stone Age is found all along the River Krishna, which dominates the landscape of Vijayawada.

The history of Vijayawada is largely shaped by the changes that were brought about in the city by the British rule. The British period was marked by significant growth in the basic infrastructure and facilities in the city. A major project, the Prakasam Barrage was completed and a railway bridge over the River Krishna that connected Guntur City and its district was also constructed. The famous Chinese Huin Tsang had visited this place in 639 A.D. when Buddhism was at its zenith.[15]

Geography[edit]

Vijayawada is surrounded by the Krishna river on the east and west and the Budameru River on the north. The northern, northwestern, and southwestern parts of the city are covered by a low range of hills, while the central, southwestern and northwestern parts are covered by rich and fertile agriculture lands with three major irrigation canals. The topography of Vijayawada is flat, with a few small to medium-sized hills. The Krishna River runs through the city. These hills are part of the Eastern Ghats cut through by the Krishna river. They have very low elevation compared to the average elevation of the ghats. Three canals originating from the north side of the Prakasham barrage reservoir, Eluru, Bandar and Ryves, run through the city.[16]

Climate[edit]

Vijayawada has a tropical climate with hot summers and a monsoon season. Temperatures can reach 47 °C (117 °F) in May–June, while the winter temperatures rarely fall below 15 °C (59 °F). The average humidity is 78% and the average annual rainfall is 106.7 cm. Vijayawada gets its rainfall from both the southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon. With its hot and humid conditions, the city is often referred as Blazewada.[17]

Climate data for Vijayawada (1951–1980)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30
(86)
32.8
(91)
35.4
(95.7)
40.5
(104.9)
46.6
(115.9)
42.5
(108.5)
36.9
(98.4)
32.4
(90.3)
32.6
(90.7)
31.8
(89.2)
30.4
(86.7)
29.5
(85.1)
35.12
(95.2)
Average low °C (°F) 18.9
(66)
20.1
(68.2)
22.6
(72.7)
25.8
(78.4)
27.9
(82.2)
27.4
(81.3)
25.4
(77.7)
25.2
(77.4)
25.2
(77.4)
24.2
(75.6)
20.9
(69.6)
18.8
(65.8)
23.53
(74.36)
Precipitation mm (inches) 1
(0.04)
4
(0.16)
5
(0.2)
15
(0.59)
71
(2.8)
136
(5.35)
250
(9.84)
197
(7.76)
164
(6.46)
169
(6.65)
45
(1.77)
10
(0.39)
1,067
(42.01)
Avg. precipitation days 0.1 0.4 0.5 1.0 3.1 7.6 12.6 11.5 8.8 7.1 2.8 0.6 56.1
Source: climate-data.org.[18]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1871 8,206 —    
1881 9,366 +14.1%
1891 20,224 +115.9%
1901 24,224 +19.8%
1911 32,867 +35.7%
1921 44,159 +34.4%
1931 60,427 +36.8%
1941 86,184 +42.6%
1951 161,198 +87.0%
1961 234,360 +45.4%
1971 344,607 +47.0%
1981 543,008 +57.6%
1991 845,756 +55.8%
2001 1,039,518 +22.9%
2011 1,491,202 +43.5%
Since 1871, the population is that of Vijayawada Urban Agglomeration

Sources: Rao, Kondapalli Ranga; 1. Rao, M. S. A. (1984). Cities and Slums: A study of a Squatters' Settlement in the City of Vijayawada. Concept Publishing Company. p. 12. 

2. Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011 City Name:VIJAYAWADA

As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 1,048,240. The total population constitute, 524,918 males and 523,322 females —a sex ratio of 997 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000.[4][19] 92,848 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 47,582 are boys and 45,266 are girls—a ratio of 951 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 82.59% with 789,038 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.[4][20]

The Vijayawada Urban Agglomeration had a population of 1,491,202, of which males constitute 750,770, females constitute 740,432 —a sex ratio of 986 females per 1000 males and 133,396 are under the age group of 0–6 years. There are a total of 1,107,903 literates with an average literacy rate of 81.60%.[21] The city's population is expected to reach 2.5 million by 2025.[10] The Muslims constitute about 250,000 of the total 1.2 million population in the Vijayawada.[22]

Civic Administration[edit]

Vijayawada Municipal Corporation is the governing body in the city limits. The Municipality of Vijayawada was constituted on 1 April 1888 and was upgraded as a selection grade municipality in the year 1960. The municipality was upgraded to a corporation in 1981 with the merger of Gunadala, Patamata and Bhavanipuram village panchayats and two villages Payakapuram and Kundavari kandrika in the corporation in 1985. More than 400,000 people reside outside corporation limits.[2] Many areas on outskirts are yet to be merged into corporation limits. The total area of the corporation is 61.8 square kilometres (23.9 sq mi). It is a city of Jawaharlal National Urban Renewal Mission. The Government is planning to convert the city into Greater in the name of Mahanagar merging near by villages.[23]

Law & Order: The city is divided into 59 political wards. Each ward of the Municipal Corporation is represented by an area corporator. An elected body headed by the mayor performs the administration of the corporation. The Commissioner acts as the executive head and oversees the day-to-day functioning of the local body. The Commissioner is an IAS officer of Joint Collector rank appointed by the State Government. It has a dedicated Sub-Collector's office for administration of State and Central Government programmes. The staff strength of the Corporation is over 5,000. Vijayawada is one of the two cities in Andhra Pradesh to be provided with its own Police Commissionerate. The Vijayawada City Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer of DIG rank along with two Deputy Commissioners of Police who are also IPS officers.

Utilities: Water, drainage and waste collection services are provided by Vijayawada Municipal Corporation. Fire fighting services are maintained by the Andhra Pradesh Fire Services Department with five fire stations operating around the city. India Post provides physical mail services.

Economy[edit]

Agriculture, commercial trade, tourism, industries, transportation and tertiary sectors etc., are the major sectors that contribute to the economy of the city. Vijayawada is famous for processing of agricultural products, automobile body building, hardware, textile, consumer goods and small scale industries. GDP of Vijayawada for 2008 was stimated at Rs 55.26 billion and it was $3 billion (Rs. 180 billion) in 2010.[10][24] The fact that Vijayawada is well connected through rail and road, makes it one of the main hubs of commercial activities. Textile market reports more than INR100 million (US$1.7 million) of trade every day.

Agro-based industries such as Cotton, Turmeric, Virginia Tobacco etc., are located in the surrounding areas. There are also oil, dal and rice mills located at Kondapalli. Real Estate is another sector in Vijayawada which is very high in property prices and are comparable with top cities of India. According to the data prepared by the NHB, the property prices increase was observed in Vijayawada is 1.1%.[25]

Industrial estates

The two well equipped industrial estates in Vijayawada are Auto-Nagar and other near Kondapalli. The Jawahar Lal Nehru Auto Nagar Industrial Estate in Vijayawada is one of the largest auto industry hubs of Asia.[26] While, the industrial estate in Kondapalli suburb, is spread over 450 acres (1.8 km2) and is base to more than 800 industries. The Kondapalli Estate houses thermal power plants and is base to more than 800 industrial units. Kondapalli suburb also houses Andhra Pradesh Heavy Machinery & Engineering Limited (APHMEL) factory.[27] It is also a hub for storage, bottling and transportation of petroleum products of all major companies like BPCL, GAIL, HPCL, IOC, Reliance etc.[28]

Transportation[edit]

Road[edit]

1932 model bus India named as Deccan Queen and was used in passenger service by the Nizam govt. of Hyderabad kingdom

Vijayawada is well connected to the rest of the country by National Highways. Two National Highways, the NH 5 (Now NH-16) from Chennai to Kolkata and the NH 9 (Now NH-65) from Machilipatnam to Pune, pass through the city connecting it to other parts of the country. Benz Cirlce is the intersection of NH 5 and NH 9, which happens to be the busiest area in the city. NH 16 is a part of the Golden Quadrilateral Project undertaken by National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). NH 221 (Now NH-30) connects the city to Jagdalpur in Chhattisgarh. It is connected to other areas of the state by state highways and district roads.

Garuda Plus bus service of the APSRTC

The Pandit Nehru Bus Station was inaugurated on 23 September 1990 and was officially named as Telugu Satavahana Prayana Pranganam later renamed to its current name. It is fifth largest and busiest bus terminals in Asia alongside Delhi, Israel's Tel Aviv, CMBT (Chennai) and MGBS, Hyderabad . State run APSRTC buses are operated from the terminal. APSRTC runs more than 450 city buses in the city which include Ordinary, Metro Express and City Sheetal (A/C Buses). It is the first city in the south India to introduce CNG buses in its fleet. Vijayawada Municipal Corporation (VMC) is planning to launch BRTS with dedicated bus corridors.[29]

Private bus operators also provide transport services. Motor-driven auto-rickshaws and manual-driven cycle-rickshaws are the other alternative means of transport within Vijayawada. Private lorries, cars and two-wheelers are common.

Rail[edit]

Main article: Vijayawada Junction
Train hauled at Vijayawada Railway Junction
New look of Vijayawada Railway Station

Vijayawada railway station is the important junction in South Central Railway zone of Indian Railways. With A-1 status, it is one of the important Railway Junction Stations in India, situated along the Howrah-Chennai main line and Delhi–Chennai line.[30] It is the busiest station, handling more than 320 trains (both passenger and freight trains) per day next to Howrah and Mumbai. It has an Electric Loco Shed with a capacity to maintain 100 Electric Locomotives and a Wagon workshop at Guntupalli, near Vijayawada. Madhuranagar, Gunadala, Rayanapadu, Kondapalli, Nidamanuru, Krishna Canal, Ramavarappadu, Kolanukonda, Mangalagiri, Gannavaram are the other railway stations in the city.

Air[edit]

Main article: Vijayawada Airport

Vijayawada is well connected by air. The domestic airport at Gannavaram, about 19 km from the city, connects Vijayawada to Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai, Jaipur and Delhi. Vijayawada Airport is served by Jet Airways, SpiceJet, Air Costa and Air India. Annually, about 380,000 passengers use this airport. A plan for its expansion has been proposed which will enable the landing of larger aircraft and also provide night landing facilities. Air Costa, headquartered at Vijayawada, started its operations to Hyderabad, Chennai, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad, Visakhapatnam, Madurai and Jaipur from October 2013 and is planning to start services to Pune, Goa, Trivandrum soon.[31]

Landmarks and tourism[edit]

Prakasam Barrage
Idol of Krishnaveni on the banks of Krishna River
Vijayawada – Kanaka Durga Temple

The city has many tourist attractions with famous landmarks both in and around the city. Some of the notable places includes, Prakasham Barrage, the barrage across the Krishna river, built by "Sir Arthur Cotton". Krishnaveni Mandapam, also known as "River Museum" is situated beside Prakasam Barrage, houses vivid history of Krishna river. The Krishnaveni statue at the Prakasam barrage is the idol for the river Krishna. As, the river is also referred to as "Krishnaveni" in its original nomenclature. Kanaka Durga Temple, located on Indrakeeladri hill at the banks of Krishna river, is famous for Vijayadashami festival celebrations.[1] Hazarat Bal Mosque, a holy relic of the Prophet Mohammed and Gunadala Mary Matha Church installed by St. Joseph's Orphanage at Gunadala are other religious landmarks.

Gandhi Hill is the first Gandhi Memorial in the country, constructed on a hill, located at an elevation of of 500 ft (150 m) in the city. Victoria Jubilee Museum is an archaeological museum which has preserved collections of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons and inscriptions. Many beautiful parks are located in the city to protect the environment such as Rajiv Gandhi Park with a mini zoo in the city is under Vijayawada Municipal Corporation. Many more parks are also located such as, Dr.B.R Ambedkar & Raghavaiah park, Mahatma Gandhi park etc.[32] Bhavani Island is one of the largest island, located in midst of the Krishna River. It is at the upstream of Prakasam Barrage of the city which is being developed by APTDC into a tourist spot and a Riverfront resort.

Nearby landmarks in the surrounding suburbs include Mogalarajapuram Caves (5th century A.D.), Undavalli Caves (7th century A.D. Buddhist landmark), Kondapalli Fort (7th century A.D.) in Kondapalli village etc.,[33] Lord Narasimha temple in Mangalagiri, located 14 km from the city, is the abode of Lord Narasimha. Kondapalli Forest, located 20 km from Vijayawada, is spread over 121.5 square kilometres (30,000 acres). The fauna include of this forest include leopards, wild dogs, jackals, wild boar, wolves etc.[34]

Education[edit]

Vijayawada, also called "Vidyala wada" (Place of Education), occupies a large amount of the education infrastructure of Andhra Pradesh. The city was named "The Educational Sahara".[35] Both government and private institutions operate in the city to provide standard education. Vijayawada Municipal Corporation(VMC) takes care of the government educational institutions. They run many Government schools with many High schools and also Urdu, English / Telugu, Tamil, Bengali medium schools as well. There are many Upper primary and Elementary schools as well alongside some aided schools.

Colleges & Universities

Andhra Loyola College Entrance Bridge

The first college built in Vijayawada was SRR & CVR Government College. Andhra Loyola College was established in 1953. The first private engineering college in Andhra Pradesh was V R Siddhartha Engineering College, is located here. School of Planning and Architecture,Vijayawada (SPAV) was established in 2008, a higher education institute in Vijayawada. It is one of the three School of Planning and Architecture (SPAs) established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development in 2008 as an autonomous institute and a fully Central funded Institution.

Some of the famous Universities are

NTR University of Health Sciences

There are many other colleges namely Velagapudi Ramakrishna Siddhartha Engineering College, Prasad V. Potluri Siddhartha Institute of Technology, Maris Stella College, P.B.Siddhartha College of Arts and Sciences, Potti Sriramulu College of Engineering & Technology etc.

Media[edit]

The major Telugu newspapers in city are Eenadu, Andhra Jyothi, Sakshi, Andhra Bhoomi, Andhra Prabha, Vaartha, Suryaa, Prajasakti and Vishalandra. The major English newspapers in the city are The Hindu, The Times of India, Deccan Chronicle, The Hindu Business Line, The New Indian Express and The Hans India. Electronic Media include ABN Andhra Jyothi.

Sports[edit]

Cricket is the most popular sport, with national-level matches played at Indira Gandhi Stadium.[36] It is also the stadium for Krishna District Cricket Association. Mangalagiri International Cricket Stadium is being built in a 20-acre (8.1 ha) site in Navuluru, village of Mangalagiri town, Guntur district, about 15 km from the city of Vijayawada. The exclusive stadium of the Andhra Cricket Association will be the venue for international and Ranji matches.[37] Only one international cricket match was played between India and West Indies on 24 November 2002 at Indira Gandhi stadium. It was won by West Indies. On 12 December 1997 Women's Cricket Worldcup only a group match was played between England Women's Cricket Team and Pakistan women's cricket team, and it was won by England. Indian Women's cricket academy is located in Guntur the twin city of vijayawada. Vijaya Madhavi Tennis Academy is situated in Layola College, lead by Shri. Radha Krishna Murthy, a prominent tennis player.

Badminton, volleyball and chess are also popular.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Vijayawada tourism". AP Tourism Department. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c "Vijayawada Municipal Corporation". Ourvmc.org. Retrieved 30 January 2012. 
  3. ^ "Elevation for Vijayawada". Veloroutes. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (pdf). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (pdf). censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  6. ^ http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/andhra-pradesh/vijayawada-to-be-ad-hoc-capital-of-andhra-pradesh/article6309786.ece
  7. ^ http://web2py.iiit.ac.in/research_centres/publications/download/inproceedings.pdf.bb2cf16e75bbb133.47454f544543484e4943414c205349544520434841524143544552495a4154494f4e20464f522056494a41594157414441202e706466.pdf
  8. ^ "Former name of city". thefreedictionary. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  9. ^ "About Vijayawada". vgtmuda. Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c r=2758&story=true&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.mckinseyquarterly.com%2fCities_the_next_frontier_for_global_growth_2758%3fpagenum%3d1%23interactive&pgn=cine11_exhibit "Global cities of the future: An interactive map | McKinsey & Company". Mckinseyquarterly.com. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  11. ^ "Economy of the City" (pdf). City Development Initiative For Asia. Retrieved 31 July 2014. 
  12. ^ http://pib.nic.in/archieve/others/2010/may/d2010051103.pdf
  13. ^ Ayyar, P. V. Jagadisa (1993). South Indian Shrines (Rev. and enl. ed. ed.). New Delhi [u.a.]: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0151-3. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  14. ^ Sculptures in a cavern at Bezawara [Vijayawada] supposed to belong to the Jain Religion. 21 August 1815, retrieved 2 September 2013 
  15. ^ Vijayawada history, retrieved 29 April 2014 
  16. ^ "Andhra Pradesh / Vijayawada News : Canal bunds hot beds for growth of slums spotlight". The Hindu. 23 August 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  17. ^ "Vijayawada weather". deccanchronicle. 4 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  18. ^ Climate: Vijayawada – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table
  19. ^ "Sex Ratio". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  20. ^ "Chapter–3 (Literates and Literacy rate)" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  21. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  22. ^ "Seat allocation: Muslims a miffed lot in Vijayawada". http://www.thehindu.com. Retrieved 14 March 2014. 
  23. ^ Isher Judge Ahluwalia. "Vijayawada's inclusive expansion". The Indian Express. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  24. ^ "The rapidly growing, stable markets of southern India – Economy and Politics". livemint.com. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 30 January 2012. 
  25. ^ ET (31 August 2012). "Despite slowdown, housing prices bullish across cities – Economic Times". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  26. ^ "Economy of Vijayawada". vijayawadaonline. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  27. ^ "APHMEL". Andhra Pradesh Heavy Machinery & Engineering Limited. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  28. ^ "Industrial Scenario" (pdf). apind.gov.in. p. 12. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  29. ^ "BRTS services in city". Vijayawada Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  30. ^ "Andhra Pradesh / Vijayawada News: Plans to develop railway station". The Hindu. 24 March 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2012. 
  31. ^ Air Costa to start flights from Vijayawada | Deccan Chronicle
  32. ^ "Parks in Vijayawada". ourvmc. Retrieved 27 June 2014. 
  33. ^ Vijayawada Tourism
  34. ^ "Andhra Pradesh / Vijayawada News: Presence of leopards, wild dogs detected in Krishna forests". The Hindu. 25 May 2006. Retrieved 30 January 2012. 
  35. ^ MBA Colleges in Vijayawada, Top B Schools in Vijayawada
  36. ^ "Vijayawada cricket stadium". Content-ind.cricinfo.com. Retrieved 30 January 2012. 
  37. ^ "Andhra Pradesh / Vijayawada News: Keeping home turf in top shape". The Hindu. 4 February 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2012. 

External links[edit]