Vikramaśīla University

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Vikramaśīla University
विक्रमशिला विश्वविद्यालय
Vikramshila-7.jpg
Ruins of Vikramshila University
Vikramaśīla University is located in Bihar
Vikramaśīla University
Shown within India Bihar
Location Bihar, India
Coordinates 25°19′29″N 87°17′05″E / 25.32472°N 87.28472°E / 25.32472; 87.28472Coordinates: 25°19′29″N 87°17′05″E / 25.32472°N 87.28472°E / 25.32472; 87.28472
Type Centre of learning
History
Founded 8th-9th century AD
Abandoned 13th century AD
Events Destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khilji around 1200 AD

Vikramaśīla University was one of the two most important centres of Buddhist learning in India during the Pala dynasty, along with Nālandā University. Vikramaśīla was established by King Dharmapala (783 to 820) in response to a supposed decline in the quality of scholarship at Nālandā. Atisha, the renowned pandita, is sometimes listed as a notable abbot.

Vikramasila (village Antichak, district Bhagalpur, Bihar) is located at about 50 km east of Bhagalpur and about 13 km north-east of Kahalgaon, a railway station on Bhagalpur-Sahebganj section of Eastern Railway. It is approachable through 11 km long motorable road diverting from N.H.80 at Anadipur about 2 km from Kahalgaon.

History[edit]

A number of monasteries grew up during the Pāla period in ancient Bengal and Magadha. According to Tibetan sources, five great Mahaviharas stood out: Vikramaśīla, the premier university of the era; Nalanda, past its prime but still illustrious, Somapura, Odantapurā, and Jaggadala.[1] The five monasteries formed a network; "all of them were under state supervision" and there existed "a system of co-ordination among them . . it seems from the evidence that the different seats of Buddhist learning that functioned in eastern India under the Pāla were regarded together as forming a network, an interlinked group of institutions," and it was common for great scholars to move easily from position to position among them.[2]

Vikramaśīla was founded by Pāla king Dharmapala in the late 8th or early 9th century. It prospered for about four centuries before it was destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khilji during fighting with the Sena dynasty along with the other major centers of Buddhism in India around 1200.[3][4]

Vikramaśīla is known to us mainly through Tibetan sources, especially the writings of Tāranātha, the Tibetan monk historian of the 16th-17th centuries.[5]

Vikramaśīla was one of the largest Buddhist universities, with more than one hundred teachers and about one thousand students. It produced eminent scholars who were often invited by foreign countries to spread Buddhist learning, culture and religion. The most distinguished and eminent among all was Atiśa Dipankara, a founder of the Sarma traditions of Tibetan Buddhism. Subjects like philosophy, grammar, metaphysics, Indian logic etc. were taught here, but the most important branch of learning was tantrism.

Organisation[edit]

According to scholar Sukumar Dutt, Vikramaśīla appears to have had a more clearly delineated hierarchy than other mahaviharas, as follows:[6]

  • Abbot (Adhyakṣa)
  • Six gate protectors or gate scholars (Dvārapāla or Dvārapaṇḍita), one each for the Eastern, Western, First Central, Second Central, Northern, and Southern Gates
  • Great Scholars (Mahapaṇḍita)
  • Scholars (Paṇḍita), roughly 108 in number
  • Professors or Teachers (Upādhyāya or Āchārya), roughly 160 in number including paṇḍitas
  • Resident monks (bhikṣu), roughly 1,000 in number

According to Tāranātha, at Vikramaśīla's peak during the reign of King Canaka (955-83), the dvārapāla were as follows: Ratnākaraśānti (Eastern Gate), Vāgīsvarakīrti (Western Gate), Ratnavajra (First Central Gate), Jñānaśrīmitra (Second Central Gate), Naropa (Northern Gate), and Prajñākaramati (Southern Gate).[6] If this is correct, it must have been toward the end of Canaka's reign given the generally accepted dates for Naropa (956-1041).

Tantric preceptors[edit]

Vikramaśīla was a centre for Vajrayana and employed Tantric preceptors. The first was Buddhajñānapāda, followed by Dīpaṁkarabhadra and Jayabadhra.[7] The first two were active during Dharmapāla's reign, the third in the early to mid portion of the 9th century. Jayabadhra was the first prominent commentator on the Cakrasamvara tantra.[7] Śrīdhara was the next preceptor, followed by Bhavabhaṭṭa.[8] The latter, also a prominent commentator on Cakrasamvara, may have been the mahāsiddha Bhadrapāda.[9] He in turn was succeed by three more prominent Cakrasamvara commentators, Bhavyakīrti, Durjayacandra, and Tathāgatarakṣita.[9] Durjayacandra collaborated with the renowned Tibetan translator Rinchen Zangpo (rin chen bzang po) and his commentary became particularly important for the Sakya school, and Tathāgatarakṣita collaborated with Rin-chen grags.[9]

In chronological order:

  1. Buddhajñānapāda
  2. Dīpaṁkarabhadra
  3. Jayabadhra
  4. Śrīdhara
  5. Bhavabhaṭṭa
  6. Bhavyakīrti
  7. Līlavājra
  8. Durjayacandra
  9. Samayavajra
  10. Tathāgatarakṣita
  11. Bodhibhadra
  12. Kamalarakṣita

Layout and excavation[edit]

The remains of the ancient university have been partially excavated at village Antichak in the Bhagalpur district, Bihar state, India, and the process is still underway. Meticulous excavation at the site was conducted initially by Patna University (1960–69) and subsequently by Archaeological Survey of India (1972–82). It has revealed a huge square monastery with a cruciform stupa in its centre, a library building and cluster of votive stupas.[10] To the north of monastery a number of scattered structures including a Tibetan and a Hindu temple have been found. The entire spread is over an area of more than one hundred acres.

The monastery, or residence for the Buddhist monks, is a huge square structure, each side measuring 330 metres having a series of 208 cells, 52 on each of the four sides opening into a common verandah. A few brick arched underground chambers beneath some of the cells have also been noticed which were probably meant for confined meditation by the monks.

The main stupa built for the purpose of worship is a brick structure laid in mud mortar which stands in the centre of the square monastery. This two-terraced stupa is cruciform on plan and about 15 metres high from the ground level accessible through a flight of steps on the north side. On each of the four cardinal directions there is a protruding chamber with a pillared antechamber and a separate pillared mandapa in front. In the four chambers of the stupa were placed colossal stucco images of seated Buddha of which three were found in situ but the remaining one on north side was possibly replaced by a stone image after the clay image was somehow damaged.

About 32 metres south of the monastery on its south west corner and attached with the main monastery through a narrow corridor is a rectangular structure identified as a library building. It was air-conditioned by cooled water of the adjoining reservoir through a range of vents in the back wall. The system was perhaps meant for preserving delicate manuscripts.

A large number of antiquities of different materials, unearthed from this place in the course of excavation, are displayed in the site museum maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India.

The Stupa[edit]

A The Main stupa at the center
The Main stupa at the center

The Stupa is a sacred solid structure raised over the body remains or belongings of Buddha or a distinguished monk; or to commemorate any event associated with them. But some stupas are merely symbolic made for worship by the monks. A votive stupa is a miniature stupa erected by a devotee in gratitude of fulfillment of his desire.

The Vikramshila stupa built for the purpose of worship is a brick structure laid in mud mortar and stands in the centre of the square monastery. This two terraced stupa is cruciform on plan and about 15 metres high from the ground level. The lower terrace is about 2.25 metres high from the ground level and the upper terrace is at a similar height from the lower side. At both terraces there is a circumbulatory path, the lower about 4.5 metres wide and the upper about 3 metres wide.

The main stupa placed over the upper terrace is accessible through a flight of steps on the north side on each of the four cardinal directions. There is a protruding chamber with a pillared antechamber and a separate pillared mandapa in front, placed beyond the circumbulatory passage. In the four chambers of stupa were placed colossal stucco images of seated Buddha of which three were found in situ, but the remaining of the north side was possibly replaced by a stone image after the clay image was somehow damaged. All the stucco images are unfortunately broken above the waist. The images are placed over a brick pedestal having traces of painting in red and black pigments. The walls and floors of the chamber and antechamber were plastered with lime.

A The wall Carvings of various deities
The wall carvings of various deities

The walls of both the terraces are decorated with mouldings and terracotta plaques which testify the high excellence of terracotta art flourishing in the region during Pala period (8th to 12th centuries). The plaques depict many Buddhist deities like Buddha, Avalokiteshvara, Manjusri, Maitreya, Jambala, Marichi, and Tara, scenes related to Buddhism, some social and hunting scenes, and a few Hindu deities like Vishnu, Parvati, Ardhanarisvara and Hanuman Many human figures, like those of ascetics, yogis, preachers, drummers, warriors, archers, snake charmers, etc., and animal figures like monkeys, elephants, horses, deer, boar, panthers, lions, wolves, and birds, are also depicted.

The architecture of the stupa and the terracotta plaques bear great resemblance to the Somapura Mahavihar, Paharpur (Bangladesh) which, too, was founded by the same king Dharmapala. In plan both are very much alike with the significant difference that Somapura is centered around a central temple rather than a stupa. Vikramasila monastery is also larger and has fort-like projections on its outer wall.

Restoration work[edit]

Vikramaśīla was neglected for years which contributed to extensive damages to the monument A.S.I. is now planning to develop the excavated site of Vikramshila University.[11][12][13]

Since 2009, there has been considerable work in maintaining and beautifying the place to attract tourism. There has been inflow of western tourist as well, during their river cruises on the Ganges River.

Cultural activities[edit]

The Vikramshila site is the place for Vikramshila Mahotsav,[14] which is held annually during the month of February.

How to reach there[edit]

The nearest big town is Kahalgaon about 13 km, It is approachable through 11 km long motorable road diverting from N.H. 80 at place Anadipur, about 2 km from Kahalgaon.

Lately river cruises from Kolkata to Varanasi have started, which also stop by the Vikramshila ruins. The river cruises are conducted by Pandaw cruises.[15] The river curises have started from September 2009 [16]

In popular culture[edit]

An Indian Railways train recognizes this place by running a Train No. 2367/2368 Vikramshila Express that runs from Delhi to Bhagalpur, Bihar.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vajrayogini: Her Visualization, Rituals, and Forms by Elizabeth English. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-329-X pg 15
  2. ^ Buddhist Monks And Monasteries Of India: Their History And Contribution To Indian Culture. by Dutt, Sukumar. George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London 1962. pg 352-3
  3. ^ [1][dead link]
  4. ^ Scott, David (May 1995). "Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons". Numen 42 (2). 
  5. ^ "Excavated Remains at Nalanda - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  6. ^ a b Buddhist Monks And Monasteries Of India: Their History And Contribution To Indian Culture. by Dutt, Sukumar. George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London 1962. pg 360-61
  7. ^ a b The Cakrasamvara Tantra (The Discourse of Śrī Heruka): A Study and Annotated Translation. by David B. Gray, Columbia University: 2007 pgs 11-12
  8. ^ The Cakrasamvara Tantra (The Discourse of Śrī Heruka): A Study and Annotated Translation. by David B. Gray, Columbia University: 2007 pgs 21-22
  9. ^ a b c The Cakrasamvara Tantra (The Discourse of Śrī Heruka): A Study and Annotated Translation. by David B. Gray, Columbia University: 2007 pg 12
  10. ^ "ASI to excavates ruins near Vikramshila University". Retrieved 21 march 2012. 
  11. ^ "Archive for Vikramshila University". Bihar-tourism.com. 2009-10-11. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  12. ^ "Excavated Remains at Nalanda - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  13. ^ Rajesh, Kumar (11 October 2009). "ASI team visits ancient Vikramshila varisty site". The Times Of India. 
  14. ^ "Domain Name Registration India Mumbai Delhi | Web Hosting | Digital Certificates". Jaibihar.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  15. ^ India Travel Packages and Tours | Goway Travel. Goway.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  16. ^ Chaudhary, Pranava K (28 November 2009). "River cruise boosts Bihar handicrafts sale". The Times Of India. 

External links[edit]