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Its settlement was motivated by the hereditary lands of the House of Braganza, whose began occupying their seat in 1461. The Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa was, for centuries, the seat of this noble house, before it was inherited by the Portuguese Crown.
Main façade of the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa (16th-17th centuries).
- Martim Afonso de Sousa, 16th-century Portuguese explorer.
- King John IV of Portugal, first king of the House of Braganza.
- Catherine of Braganza, Queen of England in the 17th century.
- Henrique Pousão, 19th-century painter.
- Florbela Espanca, notable, early 20th-century poet.
- Bento de Jesus Caraça, mathematician and economist.
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