Vincent Nogueira, who has Portuguese heritage, began his youth career at the training center of FC Sochaux. With the Sochaux youth team he won the Coupe Gambardella in 2007. Following his displays with the youth team Nogueira was promoted to the first team in 2007. He was limited by injuries for the next few seasons. During 2009/10 he had a promising start to the season as he was named best Sochaux player for August 2009. He scored his first goal in Ligue 1 the last day of the 2010/2011 in a 1-3 victory over AC Arles-Avignon. During the 2012-2013 season Nogueira scored his first double in Ligue 1 on 26 April 2013 in a 3-3 draw with Lille, scoring on two late freekicks.