Vinegar is a liquid consisting mainly of acetic acid (CH3COOH) and water. The acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. Vinegar is now mainly used as a cooking ingredient, but historically, as the most easily available mild acid, it had a great variety of industrial, medical, and domestic uses, some of which (such as a general household cleanser) are still promoted today.
Commercial vinegar is produced either by fast or slow fermentation processes. In general, slow methods are used with traditional vinegars, and fermentation proceeds slowly over the course of months or a year. The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a nontoxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria. Fast methods add mother of vinegar (i.e., bacterial culture) to the source liquid before adding air using a venturi pump system or a turbine to promote oxygenation to obtain the fastest fermentation. In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced in a period ranging from 20 hours to three days.
- 1 Varieties
- 2 Uses
- 2.1 Culinary
- 2.2 Medical
- 2.3 Scientific
- 2.4 Cleaning
- 2.5 Agricultural and horticultural
- 3 Miscellaneous
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2011)|
Apple cider vinegar is made from cider or apple must, and has a brownish-gold color. It is often sold unfiltered and unpasteurized with the mother of vinegar present, as a natural product. Because of its acidity, apple cider vinegar may be very harsh, even burning, to the throat. It is often diluted with fruit juice or water, and/or sweetened (usually with honey) for consumption as a health beverage.
Balsamic vinegar is an aromatic aged vinegar produced in the Modena and Reggio Emilia provinces of Italy. The original product—Traditional Balsamic Vinegar—is made from the concentrated juice, or must of white Trebbiano grapes. It is very dark brown, rich, sweet, and complex, with the finest grades being aged in successive casks made variously of oak, mulberry, chestnut, cherry, juniper, ash, and acacia wood. Originally a costly product available to only the Italian upper classes, traditional balsamic vinegar is marked "tradizionale" or "DOC" to denote its Protected Designation of Origin status, and is aged for 12 to 25 years. A cheaper non-DOC commercial form described as "aceto balsamico di Modena" (balsamic vinegar of Modena) became widely known and available around the world in the late 20th century, typically made with concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar, then coloured and slightly sweetened with caramel and sugar.
Regardless of how it is produced, balsamic vinegar must be made from a grape product. It contains no balsam fruit. A high acidity level is somewhat hidden by the sweetness of the other ingredients, making it very mellow.
Vinegar made from beer is produced in the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Although its flavor depends on the particular type of beer from which it is made, it is often described as having a malty taste. That produced in Bavaria is a light golden color with a very sharp and not-overly-complex flavor.
Cane vinegar, made from sugarcane juice, is most popular in the Philippines, in particular, the Ilocos Region of the northern Philippines (where it is called sukang iloko), although it also is produced in France and the United States. It ranges from dark yellow to golden brown in color, and has a mellow flavor, similar in some respects to rice vinegar, though with a somewhat "fresher" taste. Because it contains no residual sugar, it is no sweeter than any other vinegar. In the Philippines, it often is labeled as sukang maasim (Tagalog for "sour vinegar").
Cane vinegars from Ilocos are made in two different ways. One way is to simply place sugar cane juice in large jars and it will directly become sour by the direct action of bacteria on the sugar. The other way is through fermentation to produce a local wine known as 'basi'. Low quality 'basi' is then allowed to undergo acetic acid fermentation that converts alcohol into acetic acid. Contaminated 'basi' also become vinegar.
A white variation has become quite popular in Brazil in recent years, where it is the cheapest type of vinegar sold. It is now common for other types of vinegar (made from wine, rice and apple cider) to be sold mixed with cane vinegar to lower the costs.
Coconut vinegar, made from fermented coconut water, is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine (particularly in the Philippines and Sri Lanka, major producers, where it is called suka ng niyog or vinakiri), as well as in some cuisines of India, especially Goan cuisine. A cloudy white liquid, it has a particularly sharp, acidic taste with a slightly yeasty note.
The term "distilled vinegar" is something of a misnomer, because it is not produced by distillation but by fermentation of distilled alcohol. The fermentate is then diluted to produce a colorless solution of 5% to 8% acetic acid in water, with a pH of about 2.4. This is variously known as distilled spirit, "virgin" vinegar, or white vinegar, and is used in cooking, baking, meat preservation, and pickling, as well as medicinal, laboratory, and cleaning purposes. The most common starting material in some regions, because of its low cost, is malt; in the United States, corn (maize), such as the Heinz brand. It is sometimes derived from petroleum.
East Asian black
Chinese black vinegar is an aged product made from rice, wheat, millet, sorghum, or a combination thereof. It has an inky black color and a complex, malty flavor. There is no fixed recipe, so some Chinese black vinegars may contain added sugar, spices, or caramel color. The most popular variety, Zhenjiang vinegar, originates in the city of Zhenjiang in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Shanxi aged vinegar (山西老陈醋) is another popular type of Chinese vinegar that is made exclusively from sorghum.
A somewhat lighter form of black vinegar, made from rice, is produced in Japan, where it is called kurozu. Since 2004, it has been marketed as a healthful drink; its manufacturers claim it contains high concentrations of amino acids. Recent research on kurozu has revealed its anticancer properties in vivo on rats. and in vitro on human cancer cells.
Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wines, usually without any additional flavoring. Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, blackcurrant, raspberry, quince, and tomato. Typically, the flavors of the original fruits remain in the final product.
Most fruit vinegars are produced in Europe, where there is a growing market for high-price vinegars made solely from specific fruits (as opposed to non-fruit vinegars that are infused with fruits or fruit flavors). Several varieties, however, also are produced in Asia. Persimmon vinegar, called gam sikcho (감식초), is popular in South Korea. Jujube vinegar, called zaocu or hongzaocu (simplified Chinese: 枣醋 / 红枣醋; traditional Chinese: 棗醋 / 紅棗醋), and wolfberry vinegar, called gouqicu (Chinese: 枸杞醋), are produced in China.
Vinegar made from honey is rare, although commercially available honey vinegars are produced in Italy, France, Romania, and Spain.
In Japan, an aged vinegar also is made from Job's tears, a tall, grain-bearing, tropical plant. The vinegar is similar in flavor to rice vinegar.
A byproduct of commercial kiwifruit growing is a large amount of waste in the form of, first, misshapen or otherwise-rejected fruit that may constitute up to 30 percent of the crop and, second, kiwifruit pomace, which is the presscake residue left after kiwifruit juice manufacture. One of the uses for this waste is the production of kiwifruit vinegar, produced commercially in New Zealand. since, at least, the early 1990s, and in China in 2008.
Kombucha vinegar is made from kombucha, a symbiotic culture of yeast and bacteria. The bacteria produce a complex array of nutrients and populate the vinegar with bacteria that some claim promote a healthy digestive tract, although no scientific studies have confirmed this. Kombucha vinegar primarily is used to make a vinaigrette, and is flavored by adding strawberries, blackberries, mint, or blueberries at the beginning of fermentation.
Malt vinegar, also called Alegar, is made by malting barley, causing the starch in the grain to turn to maltose. Then an ale is brewed from the maltose and allowed to turn into vinegar, which is then aged. It is typically light-brown in color. In the United Kingdom, salt and malt vinegar is a traditional seasoning for fish and chips, but some commercial fish and chip shops will use non-brewed condiment.
Palm vinegar, made from the fermented sap from flower clusters of the nipa palm (also called attap palm), is used most often in the Philippines, where it is produced, and where it is called sukang paombong. Its pH is between five and six.
Vinegar made from raisins, called khall ʻinab (Arabic: خل عنب "grape vinegar") is used in cuisines of the Middle East, and is produced there. It is cloudy and medium brown in color, with a mild flavor.
Rice vinegar is most popular in the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. It is available in "white" (light yellow), red, and black varieties. The Japanese prefer a light rice vinegar for the preparation of sushi rice and salad dressings. Red rice vinegar traditionally is colored with red yeast rice. Black rice vinegar (made with black glutinous rice) is most popular in China, and it is also widely used in other East Asian countries.
White rice vinegar has a mild acidity with a somewhat "flat" and uncomplex flavor. Some varieties of rice vinegar are sweetened or otherwise seasoned with spices or other added flavorings.
Sherry vinegar is linked to the production of sherrywines of Jerez. Dark-mahogany in color, it is made exclusively from the acetic fermentation of wines. It is concentrated and has generous aromas, including a note of wood, ideal for vinaigrettes and flavoring various foods.
See Distilled vinegar.
Wine vinegar is made from red or white wine, and is the most commonly used vinegar in Southern and Central Europe. As with wine, there is a considerable range in quality. Better-quality wine vinegars are matured in wood for up to two years, and exhibit a complex, mellow flavor. Wine vinegar tends to have a lower acidity than white or cider vinegars. More expensive wine vinegars are made from individual varieties of wine, such as champagne, sherry, or pinot gris.
Vinegar is commonly used in food preparation, in particular in pickling processes, vinaigrettes, and other salad dressings. It is an ingredient in sauces such as mustard, ketchup, and mayonnaise. Vinegar is sometimes used while making chutneys. It is often used as a condiment. Marinades often contain vinegar. In terms of its shelf life, vinegar's acidic nature allows it to last indefinitely without the use of refrigeration.
- Condiment for beetroot — cold, cooked beetroot is commonly eaten with vinegar
- Condiment for fish and chips (UK: chips; US: French fries) — in Britain, Ireland, Canada and Australia, salt and malt vinegar is sprinkled on chips. In Canada, white vinegar is often used.
- Flavoring for potato chips (UK: potato crisps; US: potato chips) — many American, Canadian, British and Australian manufacturers of packaged potato chips include a variety flavored with vinegar and salt.
- Vinegar pie — a North American variant on the dessert called chess pie. It is flavored with a small amount of cider vinegar and some versions also contain raisins, spices and sour cream.
- Pickling — any vinegar can be used to pickle foods.
- Cider vinegar and sauces — cider vinegar usually is not suitable for use in delicate sauces.
- Apple cider vinegar — Usually placed on the table in small bowls or cups so that people can dip their crab meat into it. Also mixed with water and used to steam crabs.
- Substitute for fresh lemon juice — cider vinegar can usually be substituted for fresh lemon juice in recipes and obtain a pleasing effect although it lacks the vitamin C.
- Saucing roast lamb — pouring cider vinegar over the meat when roasting lamb, especially when combined with honey or when sliced onions have been added to the roasting pan, produces a sauce.
- Sweetened vinegar is used in the dish of pork knuckles and ginger stew, which is made among Chinese people of Cantonese backgrounds to celebrate the arrival of a new child.
- Sushi rice — Japanese use rice vinegar as an essential ingredient for sushi rice.
- Red vinegar — Sometimes used in Chinese soups.
- Flavoring — used in the Southern U.S. to flavor collard greens, green beans, black-eyed peas, or cabbage to taste.
- Commonly put into mint sauce, for general palate preference.
- Vinegar — especially the coconut, cane, or palm variety — is one of the principal ingredients of Philippine cuisine.
- White vinegar can be used as flavoring in ham and beans.
Several beverages are made using vinegar, for instance Posca. Other preparations range from simply mixing sugar water or honey water with small amounts of fruity vinegar to making syrup by laying fruit or mint in vinegar essence for several days, then sieving off solid parts, and adding considerable amounts of sugar. Some prefer to also boil the result as a final step. These recipes have lost much of their popularity with the rise of carbonated beverages, such as soft drinks.
Many remedies and treatments have been ascribed to vinegar over millennia and in many different cultures; however, few have been verifiable using controlled medical trials and many that are effective to some degree have significant side-effects and carry the possibility of serious health risks.
Possible cholesterol and triacylglycerol effects
A 2006 study concluded that a test group of rats fed with acetic acid (the main component of vinegar) had "significantly lower values for serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol" and other health benefits. Rats fed vinegar or acetic acid have lower blood pressure than controls, although the effect has not been tested in humans. Reduced risk of fatal ischemic heart disease was observed among human participants in a trial who ate vinegar and oil salad dressings frequently.
Blood glucose control and diabetic management
Prior to hypoglycemic agents, diabetics used vinegar teas to control their symptoms. Small amounts of vinegar (approximately 25g of domestic vinegar) added to food, or taken along with a meal, have been shown by a number of medical trials to reduce the glycemic index of carbohydrate food for people with and without diabetes. This also has been expressed as lower glycemic index ratings in the region of 30%.
Multiple trials indicate that taking vinegar with food increases satiety (the feeling of fullness) and, so, reduces the amount of food consumed. Daily intake of 15 mL of vinegar (750 mg acetic acid) might be useful in the prevention of metabolic syndrome by reducing obesity.
Antimicrobial and medicinal
Vinegar was thought to be useful for treating infections in ancient times. Hippocrates (460–377 BC) prescribed it for curing pleurisy, fever, ulcers, and constipation; it was used by the ancient Egyptians to kill bacteria. When combined with honey to create oxymel, it was a common cough medicine in the ancient world. Vinegar also had multiple uses in ancient Babylon, where it was made from wine beginning around 5000 BC. The Babylonians used vinegar to preserve food and as a component of medicines.
Researchers at the Food Biotechnology Department, Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC) in Seville, Spain conducted research on the antimicrobial activity of several food products, including vinegar. The following microorganisms were used in the study: S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, S. Enteritidis, E.coli 0157:H7, S. sonnei, and Yersinia sp. Vinegar (5% acetic acid) showed bactericidal activity against all strains tested, which was attributed to its acidity.
The phenolic composition analysis of vinegar shows the presence of gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, catechin, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, anisaldehyde, epicatechin, sinapic acid, salicylaldehyde, scopoletin, veratraldehyde and o-coumaric acid.
The active ingredient in vinegar, acetic acid, can effectively kill mycobacteria, even highly drug-resistant strains. Acetic acid could therefore be used as an inexpensive and non-toxic disinfectant against drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) bacteria as well as other stubborn, disinfectant-resistant mycobacteria.
See cleaning uses for further references regarding antimicrobial use.
Applying vinegar to common jellyfish stings deactivates the nematocysts; however, placing the affected areas in hot water is a more effective treatment because the venom is deactivated by heat. The latter requires immersion in 45 °C (113 °F) water for at least four minutes for the pain to be reduced to less than what would be accomplished using vinegar. This does not apply to the Portuguese man o' war, which, although generally considered to be a jellyfish, is not; vinegar applied to Portuguese man o' war stings can cause their nematocysts to discharge venom, making the pain worse.
Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets has been reported, and, because vinegar products sold for medicinal purposes are neither regulated nor standardized, they vary widely in content, pH, and other respects. Long-term heavy vinegar ingestion has one recorded case of possibly causing hypokalemia, hyperreninemia, and osteoporosis.
Cervical cancer screening tool
Diluted vinegar 3% to 5%, has also been tested as an effective screening tool for cervical cancer. Vinegar changes the color of affected tissue to white, making diagnosis by inspection possible, reducing by 35% the mortality for early detection against control group.
In traditional Islamic medicine
Ibn Sina, in his famous eleventh-century book The Canon of Medicine, mentioned several beneficial medicinal uses for vinegar, claiming that it was a powerful clotting agent, healed burns and skin inflammations, and it relieved headaches caused by heat. He also considered vinegar a good digestive supplement. Fourteenth-century Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya also mentions the merits of vinegar in his book, Al Tibb al Nabawi (The Prophetic Medicine). In this book, he claimed that wine vinegar helps against gastric inflammation and bile, and prevents the effects of toxic medications and poisonous mushrooms.
The electrical conductivity of many materials increases as an applied external electric field increases in strength. This is known as the "second Wien effect" and Lars Onsager investigated this effect using acetic acid solutions in 1934.
White vinegar is often used as a household cleaning agent. Because it is acidic, it can dissolve mineral deposits from glass, coffee makers, and other smooth surfaces. For most uses, dilution with water is recommended for safety and to avoid damaging the surfaces being cleaned.
Vinegar is an excellent solvent for cleaning epoxy resin and hardener, even after the epoxy has begun to harden. Malt vinegar sprinkled onto crumpled newspaper is a traditional, and still-popular, method of cleaning grease-smeared windows and mirrors in the United Kingdom. Vinegar can be used for polishing brass or bronze. Vinegar is widely known as an effective cleaner of stainless steel and glass.
Vinegar has been reputed to have strong antibacterial properties. One test by Good Housekeeping's microbiologist found that 5% vinegar is 90% effective against mold and 99.9% effective against bacteria, while a study showed that vinegar is less effective than Clorox and Lysol against poliovirus. In modern times experts have advised against using vinegar as a household disinfectant against human pathogens, as it is less effective than chemical disinfectants.
Vinegar has been marketed as an environmentally-friendly solution for many household cleaning problems. For example, vinegar has been cited recently as an eco-friendly urine cleaner for pets.[unreliable source?]
Vinegar is effective in removing clogs from drains, polishing silver, copper and brass as well as ungluing sticker-type price tags.
Agricultural and horticultural
Most commercial vinegar solutions available to consumers for household use do not exceed 5%. Stronger solutions are available from some retailers, but it should be noted that solutions of 10% and above require careful handling, because they are corrosive and damaging to the skin.
Vinegar eels (Turbatrix aceti), a form of nematode, may occur in some forms of vinegar unless the vinegar is kept covered. These feed on the mother of vinegar and can occur in naturally fermenting vinegar.
Some countries prohibit the selling of vinegar over a certain percentage acidity. As an example, the government of Canada limits the acetic acid of vinegars to between 4.1% and 12.3%.
According to legend, in France during the Black Plague, four thieves were able to rob houses of plague victims without being infected themselves. When finally caught, the judge offered to grant the men their freedom, on the condition that they revealed how they managed to stay healthy. They claimed that a medicine woman sold them a potion made of garlic soaked in soured red wine (vinegar). Variants of the recipe, called Four Thieves Vinegar, have been passed down for hundreds of years and are a staple of New Orleans hoodoo practices.
Water-slide decal application as used on scale models, musical instruments, etc. One part white distilled vinegar (5% acidity) diluted with two parts of distilled/filtered water creates a suitable solution for the application of water-slide decals to hard surfaces. The solution is very similar to the commercial products, often described as "decal softener", sold by hobby shops. The slight acidity of the solution softens the decal and enhances its flexibility, permitting the decal to cling to contours more efficiently.
- http://jb.oxfordjournals.org/content/46/9/1217.extract vinegar Studies on acetic acid-bacteria Retrieved Oct. 21, 2011.
- "Why Apple Cider Vinegar Is So Good For Weight Loss".
- Sejo Regular del Vino y Brandy de Jerez (Council regulating the production of Jerez wine and braef
- BBC: GoodFood: Balsmaic vinegar
- Das, Bhagwan; Sarin, J. L. (1936). "Vinegar from Dates". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 28 (7): 814. doi:10.1021/ie50319a016.
- Forbes, Robert James (1971). Studies in Ancient Technology.
- Allgeier RJ et al., Newer Developments in Vinegar Manufacture, 1960 ("manufacture of white or spirit vinegar"), in Umbreit WW, Advances in Microbiology: Volume 2, Elsevier/Academic Press Inc., ISBN 0-12-002602-3, accessed at Google Books 2009-04-22[page needed]
- Sinclair C, International Dictionary of Food and Cooking, Peter Collin Publishing, 1998 ISBN 0-948549-87-4[page needed]
- "Vinegar 101". Heinz. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
- AsianWeek.com[dead link]
- Shimoji, Yumi; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Nanda, Kumiko; Nishikawa, Yasushi; Ohigashi, Hajime; Uenakai, Kazuo; Tanaka, Takuji (2004). "Extract of Kurosu, a Vinegar From Unpolished Rice, Inhibits Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Male F344 Rats". Nutrition and Cancer 49 (2): 170–3. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc4902_8. PMID 15489210.
- Fukuyama, N; Jujo, S; Ito, I; Shizuma, T; Myojin, K; Ishiwata, K; Nagano, M; Nakazawa, H; Mori, H (2007). "Kurozu moromimatsu inhibits tumor growth of Lovo cells in a mouse model in vivo". Nutrition 23 (1): 81–6. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2006.10.004. PMID 17189090.
- Nanda, K; Miyoshi, N; Nakamura, Y; Shimoji, Y; Tamura, Y; Nishikawa, Y; Uenakai, K; Kohno, H; Tanaka, T (2004). "Extract of vinegar "Kurosu" from unpolished rice inhibits the proliferation of human cancer cells". Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research 23 (1): 69–75. PMID 15149153.
- "What is Fruit Vinegar?". vinegarbook.net. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- H. Panda (2004). Handbook On Ayurvedic Medicines With Formulae, Processes And Their Uses. National Institute Of Industrial Research, 2004. ISBN 978-81-86623-63-3. "... Sirka Jamun ... ailments associated with stomach, liver, spleen ..."
- "Biotechnology in New Zealand" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "The Vinegar Institute". Versatilevinegar.org. 2008-10-20. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- Ellsey's, Products. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- "Shelf Life of Vinegar". Eatbydate.com.
- Claiborne, Craig (1961). The New York Times Cook Book. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 530. ISBN 0-06-010790-1.
- http://www.patchun.com.hk/ie/new_baby.htm New babies[dead link]
- Johnston, Carol S.; Gaas, Cindy A. (2006). "Vinegar: medicinal uses and antiglycemic effect". MedGenMed 8 (2): 61. PMC 1785201. PMID 16926800.
- Fushimi, Takashi; Suruga, Kazuhito; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Fukiharu, Momoko; Tsukamoto, Yoshinori; Goda, Toshinao (2006). "Dietary acetic acid reduces serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols in rats feda cholesterol-rich diet". British Journal of Nutrition 95 (5): 916–24. doi:10.1079/BJN20061740. PMID 16611381.
- Liljeberg, H; Björck, I (1998). "Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52 (5): 368–71. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600572. PMID 9630389.
- Leeman, M; Ostman, E; Björck, I (2005). "Vinegar dressing and cold storage of potatoes lowers postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy subjects". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 (11): 1266–71. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602238. PMID 16034360.
- Johnston, C. S.; Kim, C. M.; Buller, A. J. (2004). "Vinegar Improves Insulin Sensitivity to a High-Carbohydrate Meal in Subjects With Insulin Resistance or Type 2 Diabetes". Diabetes Care 27 (1): 281–2. doi:10.2337/diacare.27.1.281. PMID 14694010.
- Sugiyama, M; Tang, A C; Wakaki, Y; Koyama, W (2003). "Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57 (6): 743–52. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601606. PMID 12792658.
- Östman, Elin M.; Liljeberg Elmståhl, Helena G. M. Liljeberg; Björck, Inger M. E. (July 2001). "Inconsistency between glycemic and insulinemic responses to regular and fermented milk products". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74 (1): 96–100. PMID 11451723.
- Östman, E; Granfeldt, Y; Persson, L; Björck, I (2005). "Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 (9): 983–8. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602197. PMID 16015276.
- Roberts, Susan B. (2009). "High-glycemic Index Foods, Hunger, and Obesity: Is There a Connection?". Nutrition Reviews 58 (6): 163–9. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2000.tb01855.x. PMID 10885323.
- Kondo, T; Kishi, M; Fushimi, T; Ugajin, S; Kaga, T (2009). "Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 73 (8): 1837–43. doi:10.1271/bbb.90231. PMID 19661687.
- Myers, Richard L. (2007). The 100 Most Important Chemical Compounds: A Reference Guide. Greenwood. ISBN 9780313080579.
- Medina E, Romero C, Brenes M, De Castro A (May 2007). "Antimicrobial activity of olive oil, vinegar, and various beverages against foodborne pathogens". Journal of Food Protection 70 (5): 1194–9. PMID 17536679.
- g�Lvez, Miguel Carrero; Barroso, Carmelo Garcia; p�Rez-Bustamante, Juan Antonio (1994). "Analysis of polyphenolic compounds of different vinegar samples". Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung 199: 29. doi:10.1007/BF01192948.
- Cerezo, Ana B.; Tesfaye, Wendu; Torija, M. Jesús; Mateo, Estíbaliz; García-Parrilla, M. Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M. (2008). "The phenolic composition of red wine vinegar produced in barrels made from different woods". Food Chemistry 109 (3): 606. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.01.013.
- Cortesia, C.; Vilcheze, C.; Bernut, A.; Contreras, W.; Gomez, K.; De Waard, J.; Jacobs, W. R.; Kremer, L.; Takiff, H. (2014). "Acetic Acid, the Active Component of Vinegar, is an Effective Tuberculocidal Disinfectant". MBio 5 (2): e00013–e00014. doi:10.1128/mBio.00013-14.
- "Vinegar kills tuberculosis, other mycobacteria." ScienceDaily, 25 February 2014
- Nomura, J; Sato, RL; Ahern, RM; Snow, JL; Kuwaye, TT; Yamamoto, LG (2002). "A randomized paired comparison trial of cutaneous treatments for acute jellyfish (Carybdea alata) stings". The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 20 (7): 624–6. doi:10.1053/ajem.2002.35710. PMID 12442242.
- "Portuguese Man 'o Wars and their sting treatment". Cinemaquatics.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- Takanolee, M; Edman, J; Mullens, B; Clark, J (2004). "Home Remedies to Control Head Lice Assessment of Home Remedies to Control the Human Head Louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae)". Journal of Pediatric Nursing 19 (6): 393–8. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2004.11.002. PMID 15637580.
- Steele, K.; Shirodaria, P.; O'Hare, M.; Merrett, J.D.; Irwin, W.G.; Simpson, D.I.H.; Pfister, H. (1988). "Monochloroacetic acid and 60% salicylic acid as a treatment for simple plantar warts: effectiveness and mode of action". British Journal of Dermatology 118 (4): 537–43. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1988.tb02464.x. PMID 3377974.
- "Schaffer Library of Drug Policy". Druglibrary.org. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "Fooling the Bladder Cops". Erowid.org. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- Hill, L; Woodruff, L; Foote, J; Barreto-Alcoba, M (2005). "Esophageal Injury by Apple Cider Vinegar Tablets and Subsequent Evaluation of Products". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105 (7): 1141–4. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2005.04.003. PMID 15983536.
- Lhotta, Karl; Höfle, Günther; Gasser, Rudolf; Finkenstedt, Gerd (1998). "Hypokalemia, Hyperreninemia and Osteoporosis in a Patient Ingesting Large Amounts of Cider Vinegar". Nephron 80 (2): 242–3. doi:10.1159/000045180. PMID 9736833.
- Szarewski, Anne (2007). "Cervical screening by visual inspection with acetic acid". The Lancet 370 (9585): 365–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61171-4.
- Vinegars of the World by Paolo Giudici, Lisa Solieri, L. Solieri, Springer, 2009, p 29-31.
- "My Environment: Cleaning Products", Ontario Ministry of the Environment
- "Trade Secrets: Betty's Tips", BBC/Lifestyle/Homes/Housekeeping. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- "Heloise Hears A Hint - 48 Hours". CBS News. 2000-12-28. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- William A. Rutala, Susan L. Barbee, Newman C. Aguiar, Mark D. Sobsey, David J. Weber, (2000). "Antimicrobial Activity of Home Disinfectants and Natural Products Against Potential Human Pathogens". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America) 21 (1): 33–38. doi:10.1086/501694. JSTOR 501694. PMID 10656352.
- "Cleaning Up After Your Pet...the Natural Way!", KeenforGreen.com
- "Spray Weeds With Vinegar?". Ars.usda.gov. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "Vinegar as herbicide". Cahe.nmsu.edu. 2004-04-10. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "Conquer Weeds with Vinegar?". Hort.purdue.edu. 2006-03-24. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "Vinegar Information". Reinhart Foods. 2004-01-01. Retrieved 2013-06-23.
- "FDA: Sec. 525.825 Vinegar, Definitions - Adulteration with Vinegar Eels (CPG 7109.22)". Fda.gov. 2009-07-27. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "Departmental Consolidation of the Food and Drugs Act and the Food and Drug Regulations - Part B - Division 19". Health Canada. March 2003. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
- Hunter, Robert (1894). The Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Toronto: T.J. Ford. ISBN 0-665-85186-3.[page needed]
- Kacirk, Jeffery (2000). The Word Museum:The most remarkable English ever forgotten. Touchstone. ISBN 0-684-85761-8.[page needed]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vinegar.|
|Wikisource has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article Vinegar.|
- Fernald, Frederik Atherton (January 1887) " Vinegar and its Mother" Popular Science Monthly Volume 30 Wikisource ISSN 0161-7370 [scan]
- Gasoline from Vinegar MIT Technology Review
- Vinegars of the World. Solieri and Giudici, ISBN 978-88-470-0865-6