|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2010)|
|City of Vinkovci|
|• Mayor||Mladen Karlić (HDZ)|
|• City||94.21 km2 (36.37 sq mi)|
|Elevation||90 m (300 ft)|
|• Density||370/km2 (970/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Vinkovci (Croatian pronunciation: [v̞îːnkɔːv̞t͡si]) is a city in Slavonia, in the Vukovar-Srijem County of Croatia. In the 2011 census, the total population of the city was 35,312, making it the largest town of the county. Surrounded by many large villages, it is a local transport hub, particularly because of its railways.
The area of Vinkovci (German: Winkowcze, Hungarian: Vinkovce, Latin: Colonia Aurelia Cibalae) has been inhabited continually from the Neolithic period, well before the Roman period. The Romans named the town Colonia Aurelia Cibalae, birthplace of Roman emperors Valentinian I and Valens. The thermal bath is still preserved underground and several other Roman buildings (located near the center of today's Vinkovci).
It was part of Ottoman Empire between 1526 and 1687 and was managed in Sirem sanjak (whose center was Dimitrofça) in Budin Eyalet. It was captured by the Habsburg Empire in 1687, as confirmed by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Until 1918, Vinkovci (named WINKOWCZE before 1850) remained in the Austrian monarchy (Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia after the compromise of 1867), in the Slavonian Military Frontier, under the administration of the Brooder Grenz-Infanterie-Regiment N°VII until 1881.
From 1941 to 1945, Vinkovci was part of the Independent State of Croatia. From April 17, 1944 the city was heavily bombed by the Allies due to its important position in transportation. Vinkovci Synagogue was among the largest and the most prestigious synagogues in Croatia. It was destroyed in 1941-42.
The city and its surroundings were gravely impacted by the Croatian War of Independence. The city was close to the front lines between the Republic of Croatia and the rebel Serbs, but it managed to avoid the fate of Vukovar (in the infamous Battle of Vukovar). The eastern sections of the town were substantially damaged by shelling, and the nearby village of Cerić was almost completely destroyed. The most significant destruction in the center of the city were the city library, which burned down to the ground, the law courts, the Catholic and Orthodox churches (the Church of Saints Eusebius and Polion and the Church of Pentecost, respectively), both hospitals, the theatre, two cinemas and a host of businesses and factories.
In December 1995 – 1996, the Vinkovci rail station served as a rail offloading base for the United States Army's 1st Armored Division in route to Županja to cross the Sava River into Bosnia during Operation Joint Endeavor.
The Croatian Ground Army has stationed the headquarters of its Armored-Mechanized Guard Brigade in the Vinkovci barracks "Bosut". The current brigade was formed in 2007 and it incorporates two former guards brigades (3rd and 5th) as well as several other units formed during the war of independence.
Vinkovci is situated in the eastern part of Slavonia region, 19 km (12 mi) southwest of Vukovar, 24 km (15 mi) north of Županja and 43 km (27 mi) south of Osijek. The city lies in a flatland on the Bosut river, at an elevation of approx. 90 metres (300 ft), and has a mild continental climate. Vinkovci is also part of the subregion of Syrmia.
It is connected to all main railroad routes in the region, while the state roads D46 and D55 connect it to the motorways; river Bosut is not a waterway. The nearby villages and adjacent municipalities include Ivankovo, Jarmina, Markušica, Nuštar, Privlaka and Stari Jankovci.
|Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005 & Popis stanovništva 2011|
- Mirkovci, population 3,283
- Vinkovci, population 32,029
In 2001, it was the 14th largest city in Croatia, and had a population density of 381.04 per square kilometer.
Economy and transportation
Its economy is primarily based on trade, transport and food and metal processing. Industries include foodstuff, building material, wood and timber, metal-processing, leather and textile. Due to the surrounding farmland, also notable are farming and livestock breeding, and the town hosts a Crop Improvement Centre.
Vinkovci is the main railway junction of eastern Croatia, of railroads leading from Bosnia and Herzegovina toward Hungary and from the capital Zagreb toward Belgrade. The large railway junction, after Zagreb the second largest in Croatia, underlies the importance of transit in Vinkovci. Vinkovci is also the meeting point of the Posavina and Podravina roads and the intersection of the main road D55 Županja–Vinkovci–Vukovar and several regional roads.
The town features extremely rich cultural and historical heritage, the most interesting attraction being the pre-Romanesque church on Meraja from 1100, with the coats of arms of the kings Koloman and Ladislas, as one of the most important medieval cultural monuments in Croatia. Unfortunately, this monument has recently had the ancient timber beams removed and a new, modern, brick upper section and roof added, totally destroying its appearance. Luckily, the building is hidden in summer by mature trees.
The most famous annual event, one of the biggest in Slavonia, is the folk music festival "Vinkovci Autumns" (Vinkovačke Jeseni), which includes the folklore show and the presentation of folk customs of Slavonia. It is characterized by a number of original folk music performances, beautiful traditional costumes, a beauty contest, competitions of the manufacturers of kulen (smoked paprika-flavoured sausage), plum brandy and other traditional foodstuffs, and especially by the magnificent closing parade.
Vinkovci's music school Josip Runjanin is named after the composer of the Croatian national anthem Lijepa naša domovino. The Vinkovci gymnasium is named after Matija Antun Reljković, a Slavonian writer who lived in the city in the 18th century.
Monuments and Sights
Notable natives and residents
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2011)|
- Goran Bare, rock singer (Majke, Hali Gali Halid)
- Vanja Drach, actor
- Mirko Filipović, Kickboxer and Mixed Martial-Arts fighter
- Mavro Frankfurter, last Vinkovci Rabbi
- Theodoric the Great, ostrogothic ruler and king of Italy
- Carl Heitzmann, pathologist and dermatologist
- Ivan Hetrich, producer
- Lavoslav Kadelburg, lawyer, judge, polyglot and activist
- Branko Karačić, footballer/manager
- Mario Kasun, basketballer
- Josip Kozarac, writer
- Ivan Kozarac, writer
- Dubravko Mataković, cartoonist
- Dina Merhav, Israeli sculptor
- Eugen Miskolczy, physician
- Otto Miskolczy, entrepreneur and World War II Partisan
- Josip Runjanin, composer of Croatian anthem
- Rade Šerbedžija, actor
- Erich Šlomović, art collector
- Josip Šokčević, Croatian viceroy
- Sava Šumanović
- Valens, Roman Emperor
- Valentinian, Roman Emperor
Twin towns — Sister cities
Vinkovci is twinned with:
- "Vinkovci" (in Croatian). Vukovar-Srijem County. 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-12.
- "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Vinkovci". Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
- Ivana Iskra Janosic, Urbanization of Cibalae and development of centers for pottery production, Zagreb-Vinkovci 2001, 31-33, 147-150
- Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864, by Edwin MUELLER, 1961.
- Marica Karakaš. "Saveznička bombardiranja Srijema u Drugome svjetskom ratu" (PDF) (in Croatian (summaries in English and German)). Zagreb, Croatia: Political Science Research Centre. Retrieved 2010-08-12.
- "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census: County of Vukovar-Sirmium". Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vinkovci.|
- Vinkovci – Official site (Croatian) (German) (English)