mind, life force,
(IPA: [wḭ ɲɪ̀ɴ])
|Chinese:||識(T) / 识(S)
|Glossary of Buddhism|
In the Pali Canon's Sutta Pitaka's first four nikayas, viññāṇa is one of three overlapping Pali terms used to refer to the mind, the others being manas and citta. Each is used in the generic and non-technical sense of "mind" in general, but the three are sometimes used in sequence to refer to one's mental processes as a whole. Their primary uses are, however, distinct.
- 1 Buddhism
- 1.1 Pali literature
- 1.2 Across Buddhist schools
- 1.3 Contemporary usages
- 2 Hinduism
- 3 See also
- 4 Notes
- 5 Sources
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Throughout Pali literature, viññāṇa can be found as one of a handful of synonyms for the mental force that animates the otherwise inert material body. In a number of Pali texts though, the term has a more nuanced and context-specific (or "technical") meaning. In particular, in the Pali Canon's "Discourse Basket" (Suttapitaka), viññāṇa (generally translated as "consciousness") is discussed in at least three related but different contexts:
- (1) as a derivative of the sense bases (āyatana), part of the experientially exhaustive "All" (sabba);
- (2) as one of the five aggregates (khandha) of clinging (upadana) at the root of suffering (dukkha); and,
- (3) as one of the twelve causes (nidana) of "Dependent Origination" (paticcasamuppāda) which provides a template for Buddhist notions of kamma, rebirth and release.
In the Pali Canon's Abhidhamma and in post-canonical Pali commentaries, consciousness (viññāṇa) is further analyzed into 89 different states which are categorized in accordance with their kammic results.
In Buddhism, the six sense bases (Pali: saḷāyatana; Skt.: ṣaḍāyatana) refer to the five physical sense organs (cf. receptive field) (belonging to the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body), the mind (referred to as the sixth sense base) and their associated objects (visual forms, sounds, odors, flavors, touch and mental objects). Based on the six sense bases, a number of mental factors arise including six "types" or "classes" of consciousness (viññāṇa-kāyā). More specifically, according to this analysis, the six types of consciousness are eye-consciousness (that is, consciousness based on the eye), ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness and mind-consciousness.
In this context, for instance, when an ear's receptive field (the proximal stimulus, more commonly known by Buddhists as a sense base, or sense organ) and sound (the distal stimulus, or sense object) are present, the associated (ear-related consciousness) arises. The arising of these three elements (dhātu) – e.g. ear, sound and ear-consciousness – lead to the percept, known as "contact" and in turn causes a pleasant or unpleasant or neutral "feeling" to arise. It is from such a feeling that "craving" arises. (See Fig. 1.)
In a discourse entitled, "The All" (Sabba Sutta, SN 35.23), the Buddha states that there is no "all" outside of the six pairs of sense bases (that is, six internal and six external sense bases). The "To Be Abandoned Discourse" (Pahanaya Sutta, SN 35.24) further expands the All to include first five aforementioned sextets (internal sense bases, external sense bases, consciousness, contact and feeling). In the famed "Fire Sermon" (Ādittapariyāya Sutta, SN 35.28) the Buddha declares that "the All is aflame" with passion, aversion, delusion and suffering (dukkha); to obtain release from this suffering, one should become disenchanted with the All.
Hence, in this context, viññāṇa includes the following characteristics:
- viññāṇa arises as a result of the material sense bases (āyatana)
- there are six types of consciousness, each unique to one of the internal sense organs
- consciousness (viññāṇa) is separate (and arises) from mind (mano)
- here, consciousness cognizes or is aware of its specific sense base (including the mind and mind objects)
- viññāṇa is a prerequisite for the arising of craving (taṇhā)
- hence, for the vanquishing of suffering (dukkha), one should neither identify with nor attach to viññāṇa
In Buddhism, consciousness (viññāṇa) is one of the five classically defined experiential "aggregates" (Pali: khandha; Skt.: skandha). As illustrated (Fig. 2), the four other aggregates are material "form" (rupa), "feeling" or "sensation" (vedana), "perception" (sanna), and "volitional formations" or "fabrications" (sankhara).
In SN 22.79, the Buddha distinguishes consciousness in the following manner:
- "And why do you call it 'consciousness'? Because it cognizes, thus it is called consciousness. What does it cognize? It cognizes what is sour, bitter, pungent, sweet, alkaline, non-alkaline, salty, & unsalty. Because it cognizes, it is called consciousness."
This type of awareness appears to be more refined and introspective than that associated with the aggregate of perception (saññā) which the Buddha describes in the same discourse as follows:
- "And why do you call it 'perception'? Because it perceives, thus it is called 'perception.' What does it perceive? It perceives blue, it perceives yellow, it perceives red, it perceives white. Because it perceives, it is called perception."
Similarly, in the traditionally venerated 5th-century CE commentary, the Visuddhimagga, there is an extended analogy about a child, an adult villager and an expert "money-changer" seeing a heap of coins; in this analogy, the child's experience is likened to perception, the villager's experience to consciousness, and the money-changer's experience to true understanding (paňňā). Thus, in this context, "consciousness" denotes more than the irreducible subjective experience of sense data suggested in the discourses of "the All" (see prior section); here, "consciousness" additionally entails a depth of awareness reflecting a degree of memory and recognition.
All of the aggregates are to be seen as empty of self-nature; that is, they arise dependent on causes (hetu) and conditions (paticca). In this scheme, the cause for the arising of consciousness (viññāṇa) is the arising of one of the other aggregates (physical or mental); and, the arising of consciousness in turn gives rise to one or more of the mental (nāma) aggregates. In this way, the chain of causation identified in the aggregate (khandha) model overlaps the chain of conditioning in the Dependent Origination (paticcasamuppāda) model, described more fully below.
Consciousness (viññāṇa) is the third of the traditionally enumerated Twelve Causes (nidāna) of Dependent Origination (Pali: paṭiccasamuppāda; Skt.: pratītyasamutpāda). Within the context of Dependent Origination, different canonical discourses represent different aspects of consciousness. The following aspects are traditionally highlighted:
Mental-fabrication conditioning and kamma
Numerous discourses state:
In three discourses in the Samyutta Nikaya, the Buddha highlights three particular manifestations of saṅkhāra as particularly creating a "basis for the maintenance of consciousness" (ārammaṇaṃ ... viññāṇassa ṭhitiyā) that could lead to future existence, to the perpetuation of bodily and mental processes, and to craving and its resultant suffering. As stated in the common text below (in English and Pali), these three manifestations are intending, planning and enactments of latent tendencies ("obsessing")
... [W]hat one intends, and what one plans, and whatever one has a tendency towards:
Yañca ... ceteti, yañca pakappeti, yañca anuseti,
Thus, for instance, in the "Intention Discourse" (Cetanā Sutta, SN 12.38), the Buddha more fully elaborates:
- Bhikkhus, what one intends, and what one plans, and whatever one has a tendency towards: this becomes a basis for the maintenance of consciousness. When there is a basis there is a support for the establishing of consciousness. When consciousness is established and has come to growth, there is the production of future renewed existence. When there is the production of future renewed existence, future birth, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.
The language of the post-canonical Samyutta Nikaya commentary and subcommentary further affirm that this text is discussing the means by which "kammic consciousness" "yield[s] fruit in one's mental continuum." In other words, certain intentional or obsessive acts on one's part inherently establish in present consciousness a basis for future consciousness's existence; in this way, the future existence is conditioned by certain aspects of the initial intention, including its wholesome and unwholesome qualities.
- "... owing to the abandonment of passion, the support is cut off, and there is no base for consciousness. Consciousness, thus unestablished, not proliferating, not performing any function, is released. Owing to its release, it is steady. Owing to its steadiness, it is contented. Owing to its contentment, it is not agitated. Not agitated, he (the monk) is totally unbound right within. He discerns that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.'"
Numerous discourses state:
In addition, a few discourses state that, simultaneously, the converse is true:
- "It is as if two sheaves of reeds were to stand leaning against one another. In the same way, from name-&-form as a requisite condition comes consciousness, from consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form....
- "If one were to pull away one of those sheaves of reeds, the other would fall; if one were to pull away the other, the first one would fall. In the same way, from the cessation of name-&-form comes the cessation of consciousness, from the cessation of consciousness comes the cessation of name-&-form...."
"Life force" aspect and rebirth
As described above in the discussion of mental fabrications' conditioning of consciousness, past intentional actions establish a kammic seed within consciousness that expresses itself in the future. Through consciousness's "life force" aspect, these future expressions are not only within a single lifespan but propel kammic impulses (kammavega) across samsaric rebirths.
- "... [U]nsurpassed is the Blessed Lord's way of teaching Dhamma in regard to the attainment of vision.... Here, some ascetic or Brahmin, by means of ardour, endeavour, application, vigilence and due attention, reaches such a level of concentration that he ... comes to know the unbroken stream of human consciousness as established both in this world and in the next...."
- "'From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-and-form.' Thus it has been said. And this is the way to understand how from consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-and-form. If consciousness were not to descend into the mother's womb, would name-and-form take shape in the womb?"
- "No, lord."
- "If, after descending into the womb, consciousness were to depart, would name-and-form be produced for this world?"
- "No, lord."
- "If the consciousness of the young boy or girl were to be cut off, would name-and-form ripen, grow, and reach maturity?"
- "No, lord."
- "Thus this is a cause, this is a reason, this is an origination, this is a requisite condition for name-and-form, i.e., consciousness."
Discourses such as this according to whom?] to describe a consciousness that is an animating phenomenon capable of spanning lives thus giving rise to rebirth.[
An Anguttara Nikaya discourse provides a memorable metaphor to describe the interplay of kamma, consciousness, craving and rebirth:
- [Ananda:] "One speaks, Lord, of 'becoming, becoming'. How does becoming tak[e] place?"
- [Buddha:] "... Ānanda, kamma is the field, consciousness the seed and craving the moisture for consciousness of beings hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving to become established in [one of the "three worlds"]. Thus, there is re-becoming in the future."
The Patthana, part of the Theravadin Abhidharma, analyzes the different states of consciousness and their functions. The Theravāda school method is to study every state of consciousness. Using this method, some states of consciousness are identified as positive, some negative and some neutral. This analysis is based on the principle of karma, the main point in understanding the different consciousness. All together according to the Abhidhamma, there are 89 kinds of consciousness, 54 are of the "sense sphere" (related to the five physical senses as well as craving for sensual pleasure), 15 of the "fine-material sphere" (related to the meditative absorptions based on material objects), 12 of the "immaterial sphere" (related to the immaterial meditative absorptions), and eight are supramundane (related to the realization of Nibbāna).
More specifically, a viññāṇa is a single moment of conceptual consciousness and normal mental activity is considered to consist of a continual succession of viññāṇas.
Viññāṇa has two components: the awareness itself, and the object of that awareness (which might be a perception, a feeling etc.). Thus, in this way, these viññāṇas are not considered as ultimate (underived) phenomena as they are based on mental factors (cetasika). For example, jhānic (meditative) states are described as based on the five ultimate mental factors of applied thought (vitakka), sustained thought (vicara), rapture (piti), serenity (sukha) and one-pointedness (ekaggatā).
Overlapping Pali terms for mind
According to Bhikkhu Bodhi, the post-canonical Pali commentary uses the three terms viññāṇa, mano and citta as synonyms for the mind sense base (mana-ayatana); however, in the Sutta Pitaka, these three terms are generally contextualized differently:
- Viññāṇa refers to awareness through a specific internal sense base, that is, through the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body or mind. Thus, there are six sense-specific types of Viññāṇa. It is also the basis for personal continuity within and across lives.
- Manas refers to mental "actions" (kamma), as opposed to those actions that are physical or verbal. It is also the sixth internal sense base (ayatana), that is, the "mind base," cognizing mental sensa (dhammā) as well as sensory information from the physical sense bases.
- Citta includes the formation of thought, emotion and volition; this is thus the subject of Buddhist mental development (bhava), the mechanism for release.
Across Buddhist schools
As described above, in reference to the "All" (sabba), the Sutta Pitaka identifies six vijñānas related to the six sense bases:
- Eye consciousness
- Ear consciousness
- Nose consciousness
- Tongue consciousness
- Body consciousness
- Mind consciousness describe the consciousness of "ideas" - Buddhism describes not five but six perceptions.
- a consciousness called klistamanas, which gathers the hindrances, the poisons, the karmic formations.
- the ālāyavijñāna is the consciousness "basis of everything" and has been translated as "store consciousness". Every consciousness is based on this one. It is the phenomenon which explains the rebirth.
The amalavijñāna (阿摩羅識), is considered by some Yogācāra's schools as a ninth consciousness. It is the pure state associated with the nirvāna. But some schools considers the amalavijñāna to be the pure aspect of the ālāyavijñāna.
Viññāna is used in Thai Buddhism to refer specifically to one's consciousness or life-force after it has left the body at the moment of death. Thais differentiate between winyaan and "jid-jai" (จิตใจ), which is the consciousness while it is still connected to a living body. Even though the jid-jai leaves the body while you dream at night and can also externalize during advanced meditation practice, it is still connected to the body.
Sri Ramakrishna defines vijñāna as
- "He alone who, after reaching the Nitya, the Absolute, can dwell in the Līlā, the :Relative, and again climb from the Līlā to the Nitya, has ripe knowledge and :devotion. Sages like Narada cherished love of God after attaining the Knowledge of :Brahman. This is called vijnāna." Also: "What is vijnana? It is to know God distinctly by realizing His existence through an intuitive experience and to speak to Him intimately."
Based on ancient texts, V.S.Apte (1890, rev. 1957-59) provides the following definition for vijñānam (विज्ञानम्):
- Knowledge, wisdom, intelligence, understanding; यज्जीव्यते क्षणमपि प्रथितं मनुष्यैर्विज्ञानशौर्यविभवार्यगुणैः समेतम् । तन्नाम जीवितमिह ... Panchatantra (Pt.) 1.24;5.3; विज्ञानमयः कोशः 'the sheath of intelligence' (the first of the five sheaths of the soul).
- Discrimination, discernment.
- Skill, proficiency; प्रयोगविज्ञानम् - Shringara Tilaka (Ś.) 1.2.
- Worldly or profane knowledge, knowledge derived from worldly experience (opp. ज्ञान which is 'knowledge of Brahma or Supreme Spirit'); ज्ञानं ते$हं सविज्ञानमिदं वक्ष्याम्यशेषत - Bhagavad Gita (Bg.) 7.2;3.41;6.8; (the whole of the 7th Adhyāya of Bg. explains ज्ञान and विज्ञान).
- Business, employment.
- Knowledge of the fourteen lores.
- The organ of knowledge; पञ्चविज्ञानचेतने (शरीरे) - Mahabharata (Mb.) 12.187. 12.
- Knowledge beyond the cognisance of the senses (अतीन्द्रियविषय)
In addition, Monier Williams (1899; rev. 2008) provides the following definition:
- to distinguish, discern, observe, investigate, recognize ascertain, know, understand - Rig Veda (RV.), etc., etc. (with na and inf.: 'to know not how to');
- to have right knowledge - Katha Upanishad (KaṭhUp.)
- to become wise or learned - Mn. iv, 20;
- to hear or learn from (gen.) - Chandogya Upanishad (ChUp.); Mahabharata (MBh.);
- to recognize in (loc.) - Panchatantra (Pañcat.);
- to look upon or regard or consider as (two acc.), Mn.; MBh., etc.; Kāv., etc.;
- to explain, declare - BhP.
- Dependent Origination, 12 Causes
- Karma (Buddhism)
- Luminous consciousness
- Rebirth (Buddhism)
- Sense Bases
- As is standard in WP articles, the Pali term viññāṇa will be used when discussing the Pali literature, and the Sanskrit word vijñāna will be used when referring to either texts chronologically subsequent to the Pali canon or when discussing the topic broadly, in terms of both Pali and non-Pali texts.
- See, for instance, Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 618, entry for "Viññāṇa," retrieved on 2007-06-17 from the University of Chicago's "Digital Dictionaries of South Asia". University of Chicago
- See, for instance, Apte (1957-59), p. 1434, entry for "vijñānam," retrieved from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.5:1:2152.apte ; and, Monier-Williams (rev. 2008), p. 961, entry for "Vi-jñāna," retrieved from "U. Cologne" at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/monier/serveimg.pl?file=/scans/MWScan/MWScanjpg/mw0961-vijRmbhin.jpg .
- Sue Hamilton, Identity and Experience. LUZAC Oriental, 1996, pages 105-106.
- Bodhi, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000b). The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. (Part IV is "The Book of the Six Sense Bases (Salayatanavagga)".) Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-331-1., pp. 769-70, n. 154. For more information, see the section, "Overlapping Pali terms for mind," below.
- Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), entry for "Viññāṇa," states:
- "In what may be a very old Sutta S ii.95 [viññāṇa] is given as a synonym of citta (q. v.) and mano (q. v.), in opposition to kāya used to mean body. This simpler unecclesiastical, unscholastic popular meaning is met with in other suttas. E. g. the body (kāya) is when animated called sa-viññāṇaka [with consciousness]...."
- See, for instance, MN 148 (Thanissaro, 1998). In this framework, the Pali word translated as "consciousness" is viññāṇa and the word translated as "mind" is mano. Thus, the faculty of awareness of the mind (the base of, e.g., abstractions sythesized from physical sensory experience) is referred to as mano-viññāṇa ("mind-consciousness").
- Bodhi (2000b), p. 1140; and, Thanissaro (2001c). According to Bodhi (2000b), p. 1399, n. 7, the Pali commentary regarding the Sabba Sutta states: "...[I]f one passes over the twelve sense bases, one cannot point out any real phenomenon." Also see Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 680, "Sabba" entry where sabbaŋ is defined as "the (whole) world of sense-experience." References to the "All" (sabba) can be found in a number of subsequent discourses including SN 35.24, 35.25, 35.26, 35.27 and 35.29.
- Bodhi (2000b), p. 1140; and, Thanissaro (2001b). These five sextets are implicitly referenced as the bases for clinging (upādāna) and fetters in other discourses such as "Advice to Anāthapiṇḍika Discourse" (Anāthapiṇḍikavāda Sutta MN 143; Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi, 2001, pp. 1109-13) and the "Great Discourse on the Sixfold Base" (Mahāsaḷāyatanika Sutta MN 149; Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi, 2001, pp. 1137-39).
- In the "Six Sextets" discourse (Chachakka Sutta, MN 148), a further expansion can be seen where the "six sextets" (cha-chakka) include the five aforementioned sextets plus feeling-dependent craving (taṇhā). (For MN 148, see Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi (2001), pp. 1129-36; and, Thanissaro (1998).)
- Thanissaro (1993).
- This, for instance, can be juxtaposed with an Idealist epistemology where the material world arises from consciousness (Bodhi, 2006).
- Khajjaniya Sutta ("Chewed Up," SN 22.29) (Thanissaro, 2001a).
- Khajjaniya Sutta ("Chewed Up," SN 22.29) (Thanissaro, 2001a). Regarding SN 22.79's typifying perception (saññā) through visual colors and consciousness (viññāṇa) through assorted tastes, Bodhi (2000b, p. 1072, n. 114) mentions that the Samyutta Nikaya's subcommentary states that perception grasps appearances and shapes while consciousness "can grasp particular distinctions in an object even when there is no appearance and shape."
- Buddhaghosa (1999), pp. 435-6)
- This overlap is particularly pronounced in the Mahanidana Sutta (DN 15) where consciousness (viññāṇa) is a condition of name-and-body (nāmarūpa) and vice-versa (see, e.g., Thanissaro, 1997a).
- Not all canonical texts identify twelve causes in Dependent Origination's causal chain. For instance, the Mahanidana Sutta (DN 15) (Thanissaro, 1997a) identifies only nine causes (omitting the six sense bases, formations and ignorance) and the initial text of the Nalakalapiyo Sutta (SN 12.67) (Thanissaro, 2000) twice identifies ten causes (omitting formations and ignorance) although its final enumeration includes the twelve traditional factors.
- For instance, similar to the sensory-specific description of consciousness found in discussing "the All" (above), the "Analysis of Dependent Origination Discourse" (Paticcasamuppada-vibhanga Sutta, SN 12.2) describes viññāṇa ("consciousness") in the following manner:
- "And what is consciousness? These six are classes of consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, intellect-consciousness. This is called consciousness." (Thanissaro, 1997b)
- For instance, see the Paticcasamuppada-vibhanga Sutta (SN 12.2) (Thanissaro, 1997b). Square-bracketed Pali terms were added. Also see various other discourses in the Samyutta Nikaya's chapter 12.
- punabbhavābhinibbatti ("for again becoming reborn"), mentioned in "Volition (1) Discourse" (Bodhi, 2000b, p. 576)
- nāmarūpassa avakkanti ("for entry of name-and-form"), mentioned in "Volition (2) Discourse" (Bodhi, 2000b, pp. 576-77).
- Nati (literally, "bending" or "inclination"), which the Samyutta Nikaya commentary states is synonymous with "craving, called 'inclination' in the sense of inclining ... towards pleasant forms, etc.," mentioned in "Volition (3) Discourse" and its end notes (Bodhi, 2000b, pp. 577, 761 n. 116).
- ca ceteti ca pakappeti ca anuseti: Rhys Davids & Stede (1921–25) translate this as "to intend, to start to perform, to carry out" (pp. 268–69, entry for "Cinteti & ceteti" (retrieved 2007-11-21 at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.1:1:1497.pali); Bodhi (2000b) translates this as "intends ... plans ... has a tendency towards" (pp. 576–77); and, Thanissaro (1995) translates it as "intends ... arranges ... obsesses about." Thanissaro (1995), n. 1, further elaborates:
- "The seven obsessions are: the obsession of sensual passion, the obsession of resistance, the obsession of views, the obsession of uncertainty, the obsession of conceit, the obsession of passion for becoming, and the obsession of ignorance. See AN 7.12."
- "Volition (1) Discourse," "Volition (2) Discourse" and "Volition (3) Discourse" (Bodhi, 2000b, pp. 576-77).
- Cetanāsuttaṃ, Dutiya-cetanāsuttaṃ and Tatiya-cetanāsuttaṃ (La Trobe University, n.d., Samyutta Nikaya, book 2, BJT pp. 102, 104. La Trobe University, Australia retrieved 2007-11-21
- Bodhi (2000b), p. 576. Also see Thanissaro (1995).
- Bodhi (2000b), pp. 757-9 n. 112.
- Thanissaro (1997c). Parenthetical phrase "(the monk)" is in the original translation. Also see Bodhi (2000b), pp. 890-91. Note that "unbound" is Thanissaro's translation of "nibbāna" (Pali; Sanskrit: nirvana); thus, Bodhi (2000b), p. 891, provides the alternate translation of "Being unagitated, he personally attains Nibbāna."
- See, for instance, DN 15 (Thanissaro, 1997a), and SN 12.67 (Thanissaro, 2000).
- As indicated in the immediately preceding section, "fabrications" (also known as "formations" or "mental formations" or "volitional formations") — as opposed to "name-&-form" (or "mind-body" or "mentality-materiality," etc.) — are more often identified as the requisite conditions for consciousness. These two different statements are not however contradictory insomuch that, as indicated by the Five Aggregates model, name-&-form includes mental fabrications (see the "Five Aggregates" diagram above).
- Thanissaro (2000).
- Walshe (1995), pp. 419-20, para. 7. In an end note on p. 606, n. 865, Walshe states that viññāṇa-sota is "a rare expression which seems to equate with bhavanga, the (mainly) commentarial term for the 'life-continuum' (Ñāṇamoli)." The error of attributing to the Buddha a teaching that consciousness across life spans is a singular entity is the mistake made by a bhikkhu named Sati who is publicly upbraided for this misconstrual by the Buddha in the "Greater Discourse on the Destruction of Craving" (Mahatanhasankhya Sutta, MN 38; trans. Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi, 2001, pp. 349-61). Note that the phrase "steam of consciousness" here refers to successive, interdependent conscious states as opposed to Western psychology's use of "stream of consciousness" to refer to successive, interdependent conscious thoughts.
- Thanissaro (1997a).
- AN 3.76 (Nyanaponika & Bodhi, 1999, p. 69.)
- Bodhi (2000a), pp. 28-31.
- Bodhi (2000b), pp. 769-70, n. 154.
- Peter Harvey, Consciousness Mysticism in the Discourses of the Buddha. In Karel Werner, ed., The Yogi and the Mystic. Curzon Press 1989, page 94.
- Nhat Hanh (2001), pp. 1 ff.
- Walpola Rahula, quoted in Padmasiri De Silva, Robert Henry Thouless, Buddhist and Freudian Psychology. Third revised edition published by NUS Press, 1992 page 66, .
- 识-法相词典- 佛教百科 佛教百科
- Swami Nikhilananda (1985), The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna (Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center), p. 523 & 1225.
- See Apte (1957-59), p. 1434. Retrieved 1 Feb. 2011 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.5:1:2152.apte .
- Monier Williams (1899; rev. 2008), p. 961. Retrieved 1 Feb. 2011 from U.Cologne at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/monier/serveimg.pl?file=/scans/MWScan/MWScanjpg/mw0961-vijRmbhin.jpg .
- Apte, Viman Shivaram (1957–59). The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary. Poona: Prasad Prakashan. A general on-line search engine for this dictionary is available at "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/apte/.
- Bodhi, Bhikkhu (ed.) (2000a). A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma: The Abhidhammattha Sangaha of Ācariya Anuruddha. Seattle, WA: BPS Pariyatti Editions. ISBN 1-928706-02-9.
- Bodhi, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000b). The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. (Part IV is "The Book of the Six Sense Bases (Salayatanavagga)".) Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-331-1.
- Bodhi, Bhikkhu (2006 Sept. 5). MN 148: Chachakka Sutta – The Six Sets of Six (Pt. 1). Retrieved 2008-02-29 from "Bodhi Monastery".
- Buddhaghosa, Bhadantācariya (trans. from Pāli by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli) (1999). The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga. Seattle, WA: BPS Pariyatti Editions. ISBN 1-928706-00-2.
- La Trobe University (n.d.), "Pali Canon Online Database," online search engine of Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project's (SLTP) Pali Canon.
- Monier-Williams, Monier (1899; rev. 2008). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. A general on-line search engine for this dictionary is available from "U. Cologne" at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/monier/index.html.
- Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu (trans.) & Bodhi, Bhikkhu (ed.) (2001). The Middle-Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-072-X.
- Nhat Hanh, Thich (2001). Transformation at the Base: Fifty Verses on the Nature of Consciousness. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press. ISBN 1-888375-14-0.
- Nikhilananda, Swami (1985), The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna (Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center)
- Nyanaponika Thera & Bhikkhu Bodhi (trans.) (1999). Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: An anthology of Suttas from the Aṅguttara Nikāya. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. ISBN 0-7425-0405-0.
- Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). The Pali Text Society’s Pali–English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society. A general on-line search engine for the PED is available at the University of Chicago.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1993). Adittapariyaya Sutta: The Fire Sermon (SN 35.28). Retrieved 2007-11-22 from "Access to Insight".
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1995). Cetana Sutta: Intention (SN 12.38). Retrieved 2007-11-02 from "Access to Insight".
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997a). Maha-nidana Sutta: The Great Causes Discourse (DN 15). Retrieved 2007-11-02 from "Access to Insight".
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997b). Paticca-samuppada-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of Dependent Co-arising (SN 12.2). Retrieved 2007-11-02 from "Access to Insight".
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997c). Upaya Sutta: Attached (SN 22.53). Retrieved 2007-11-20 from "Access to Insight".
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998). Chachakka Sutta: The Six Sextets (MN 148). Retrieved 2007-06-17 from "Access to Insight".
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000). Nalakalapiyo Sutta: Sheaves of Reeds (SN 12.67). Retrieved 2007-11-02 from "Access to Insight".
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2001a). Khajjaniya Sutta: Chewed Up (SN 22.79). Retrieved 2007-06-17 from "Access to Insight".
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2001b). Pahanaya Sutta: To Be Abandoned (SN 35.24). Retrieved 2007-06-17 from "Access to Insight".
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2001c). Sabba Sutta: The All (SN 35.23). Retrieved 2007-06-17 from "Access to Insight".
- Walshe, Maurice (trans.) (1995). The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Dīgha Nikāya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-103-3.