Viola–Jones object detection framework
The Viola–Jones object detection framework is the first object detection framework to provide competitive object detection rates in real-time proposed in 2001 by Paul Viola and Michael Jones. Although it can be trained to detect a variety of object classes, it was motivated primarily by the problem of face detection. This algorithm is implemented in OpenCV as cvHaarDetectObjects().
Components of the framework
Feature types and evaluation
The features employed by the detection framework universally involve the sums of image pixels within rectangular areas. As such, they bear some resemblance to Haar basis functions, which have been used previously in the realm of image-based object detection. However, since the features used by Viola and Jones all rely on more than one rectangular area, they are generally more complex. The figure at right illustrates the four different types of features used in the framework. The value of any given feature is always simply the sum of the pixels within clear rectangles subtracted from the sum of the pixels within shaded rectangles. As is to be expected, rectangular features of this sort are rather primitive when compared to alternatives such as steerable filters. Although they are sensitive to vertical and horizontal features, their feedback is considerably coarser. However, with the use of an image representation called the integral image, rectangular features can be evaluated in constant time, which gives them a considerable speed advantage over their more sophisticated relatives. Because each rectangular area in a feature is always adjacent to at least one other rectangle, it follows that any two-rectangle feature can be computed in six array references, any three-rectangle feature in eight, and any four-rectangle feature in just nine.
The speed with which features may be evaluated does not adequately compensate for their number, however. For example, in a standard 24x24 pixel sub-window, there are a total of 162,336 possible features, and it would be prohibitively expensive to evaluate them all. Thus, the object detection framework employs a variant of the learning algorithm AdaBoost to both select the best features and to train classifiers that use them.
The evaluation of the strong classifiers generated by the learning process can be done quickly, but it isn’t fast enough to run in real-time. For this reason, the strong classifiers are arranged in a cascade in order of complexity, where each successive classifier is trained only on those selected samples which pass through the preceding classifiers. If at any stage in the cascade a classifier rejects the sub-window under inspection, no further processing is performed and continue on searching the next sub-window (see figure at right). The cascade therefore has the form of a degenerate tree. In the case of faces, the first classifier in the cascade – called the attentional operator – uses only two features to achieve a false negative rate of approximately 0% and a false positive rate of 40%. The effect of this single classifier is to reduce by roughly half the number of times the entire cascade is evaluated.
The cascade architecture has interesting implications for the performance of the individual classifiers. Because the activation of each classifier depends entirely on the behavior of its predecessor, the false positive rate for an entire cascade is:
Similarly, the detection rate is:
Thus, to match the false positive rates typically achieved by other detectors, each classifier can get away with having surprisingly poor performance. For example, for a 32-stage cascade to achieve a false positive rate of , each classifier need only achieve a false positive rate of about 65%. At the same time, however, each classifier needs to be exceptionally capable if it is to achieve adequate detection rates. For example, to achieve a detection rate of about 90%, each classifier in the aforementioned cascade needs to achieve a detection rate of approximately 99.7%.
- Rapid object detection using a boosted cascade of simple features
- Viola, Jones: Robust Real-time Object Detection, IJCV 2001 See pages 1,3.
- C. Papageorgiou, M. Oren and T. Poggio. A General Framework for Object Detection. International Conference on Computer Vision, 1998
- Viola-Jones' face detection claims 180k features
- Viola, Jones: Robust Real-time Object Detection, IJCV 2001 See page 11.
- Matlab implementation Viola Jones Detection
- Slides Presenting the Framework
- Information Regarding Haar Basis Functions
- Extension of Viola-Jones framework using SURF feature
- IMMI - Rapidminer Image Mining Extension - open-source tool for image mining
- Wikipedia:WikiProject Computer Vision
- Robust Real-Time Face Detection