Violin Concerto No. 1 (Bruch)
Max Bruch's Violin Concerto No. 1 in G minor, Op. 26, is one of the most popular violin concertos in the repertory. It continues to be performed and recorded by many violinists and is arguably Bruch's most famous composition, with his Kol Nidrei being the other leading candidate for that distinction.
The concerto was first completed in 1866 and the first performance was given on 24 April 1866 by Otto von Königslow with Bruch himself conducting. The concerto was then considerably revised with help from celebrated violinist Joseph Joachim and completed in its present form in 1867. The premiere of the revised concerto was given by Joachim in Bremen on 5 January 1868 with Karl Martin Rheinthaler conducting.
The fate of the score
Bruch sold the score to the publisher N. Simrock outright for a small lump sum — but he kept a copy of his own. At the end of World War I, he was destitute, having been unable to enforce the payment of royalties for his other works because of chaotic world-wide economic conditions. He sent his autograph to the duo-pianists Rose and Ottilie Sutro (for whom he had written his Concerto in A flat minor for Two Pianos and Orchestra, Op. 88a, in 1912), so that they could sell it in the United States and send him the money. Bruch died in October 1920, without ever receiving any money. The Sutro sisters decided to keep the score themselves, but they claimed to have sold it, and sent Bruch's family some worthless German paper money as the alleged proceeds of the alleged sale. They always refused to divulge any details of the supposed purchaser. In 1949, they sold the autograph to Mary Flagler Cary, whose collection, including the Bruch concerto, now resides at the Pierpont Morgan Public Library in New York.
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The concerto is in three movements:
The first movement is unusual in that it is a Vorspiel, a prelude, to the second movement and is directly linked to it. The impression it gives towards listeners is almost like a smooth army march, yet an anticipatory feeling prevails throughout. The piece starts off slowly, with the melody first taken by the flutes, and then the solo violin becomes audible with a short cadenza. This repeats again, serving as an introduction to the main portion of the movement, which contains a strong first theme and a very melodic, and generally slower, second theme. The movement ends as it began, with the two short cadenzas more virtuosic than before, and the orchestra's final tutti flows into the second movement, connected by a single low note from the first violins.
The slow second movement is often adored for its powerful melody, and is generally considered to be the heart of the concerto. The rich, expansive themes, presented by the violin, are underscored by a constantly moving orchestra part, keeping the movement alive and helping it flow from one part to the next.
The third movement, the finale, opens with an extremely intense, yet quiet, orchestral introduction that yields to the soloist's statement of the exuberant theme in brilliant double stops. It is very much like a dance that moves at a comfortably fast and energetic tempo. The second subject is a fine example of Romantic lyricism, a slower melody which cuts into the movement several times, before the dance theme returns with its fireworks. The piece ends with a huge accelerando, leading to a fiery finish that gets higher as it gets faster and louder and eventually concludes with two short, yet grand, chords.
Bruch also composed two more violin concertos, but neither has gained as much fame as his first.
- Bruch Violin Concerto No. 1 in G minor, Op. 26 played by Ida Haendel: Movement 1, Movement 2, Movement 3. 2005 recording with orchestra conducted by Igor Gruppman.
- Ezard, John (April 26, 2000). "Bruch still No 1 in classic hall of fame". The Guardian. Retrieved May 2013.
- Steinberg, M. The Concerto: A Listener's Guide, OUP (1998)
- "Knoxville Symphony Orchestra program notes - Beethoven & Bruch". Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved May 2013.
- Violin Concerto No.1, Op.26: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Rodda, Dr. Richard E. "Violin Concerto No. 1 in G minor, Op. 26". John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Retrieved May 2013.
- Serotsky, Paul. "Program Notes: Bruch (1838-1920) - Violin Concerto No. 1". Musicweb.com. Retrieved May 2013.
- Steinberg, Michael. "BRUCH: Concerto No. 1 in G minor for Violin and Orchestra, Opus 26". San Francisco Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved May 2013.
- Sarah Chang, Friedrich BruchViolin Concerto No. 1