In 1923 he moved to Juventus, where he was paid as a footballer for the first time. He won his first title in 1926, and was an integral part of the team which won five consecutive scudetti during the 1930s.
He won a total of eight national championships, with the final five being Serie A titles. Only two players, Giovanni Ferrari and Giuseppe Furino, have also won eight titles in the Italian leagues.
For Italy, Rosetta received a total of 52 caps, and he was a member of the 1934 FIFA World Cup winning squad. He was captain in Italy's first game at the tournament, but it proved to be his last international appearance and he did not play in the final itself. He retired in 1936.