Vīrya

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For the Hindu term, see Vīrya (Hinduism).
Translations of
vīrya
English: diligence,
energy,
perseverance,
enthusiasm,
sustained effort
Pali: viriya
Sanskrit: vīrya
Chinese: 勤(T) / 勤(S),
精進(T) / 精进(S)
Korean: , 정진
(RR: geun, jeongjin)
Tibetan: བརྩོན་འགྲུས།
(Wylie: brtson 'grus;
THL: tsöndrü
)
Vietnamese: Tinh Tấn
Glossary of Buddhism
Buddhist
Perfections
 
10 pāramī
dāna
sīla
nekkhamma
paññā
viriya
khanti
sacca
adhiṭṭhāna
mettā
upekkhā
   
 6 pāramitā 
dāna
sīla
kṣānti
vīrya
dhyāna
prajñā
 
Colored items are in both lists.

Vīrya (Sanskrit; Pāli: viriya; Tibetan Wylie: brtson 'grus) is a Buddhist term commonly translated as "energy", "diligence", "enthusiasm", or "effort". It can be defined as an attitude of gladly engaging in wholesome activities, and it functions to cause one to accomplish wholesome or virtuous actions.

Etymology[edit]

Vīrya literally means "state of a strong man"[1] or "manliness."[2] In Vedic literature, the term is often associated with heroism and virility. In Buddhism, the term more generally refers to a practitioner's "energy" or "exertion," and is repeatedly identified as a necessary prerequisite for achieving liberation.

In Buddhist contexts, viriya has been translated as "energy,"[1][3][4][5][6] "persistence,"[6][7] "persevering,"[8] "vigour," "effort," "exertion,"[1] or "diligence."[9][10]

Mental factor[edit]

Within the Buddhist Abhidharma teachings, virya is identified as:

In this context, virya is defined the attitude of gladly engaging in what is wholesome; its function is to cause one to accomplish wholesome actions.[9][10]

The Abhidharma-samuccaya states:

What is virya? It is the mind intent on being ever active, devoted, unshaken, not turning back and being indefatigable. It perfects and realizes what is conducive to the positive.[9]

In the context of the Mahayana Abhidharma, virya is commonly translated as diligence.[9]

Pali literature[edit]

In Buddhism's Pali literature, viriya is identified as critical component in each of the following sets of qualities conducive to Enlightenment (bodhi-pakkhiyā-dhammā):

It is also associated with "Right Effort" (sammā-vāyāma) of the Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Skt.: aṣṭāṅga mārga) and with the "Four Right Exertions" (samma-ppadhāna).

In the Kīṭāgiri Sutta (MN 70), the Buddha instructs his followers:

... For a faithful disciple who is intent on fathoming the Teacher's Dispensation, it is natural that he conduct himself thus: 'Willingly, let only my skin, sinews, and bones remain, and let the flesh and blood dry up on my body, but my energy [Pali: viriya] shall not be relaxed so long as I have not attained what can be attained by manly strength [purisa-tthāmena], manly energy [purisa-viriyena], and manly persistence [purisa-parakkamena]...."[3]

Other characterizations[edit]

It stands for strenuous and sustained effort to overcome unskillful ways (akusala dhamma), such as indulging in sensuality, ill will and harmfulness (see, e.g., ahiṃsa and nekkhamma).[citation needed]

Viriya can also be aroused by strong feelings of Saṃvega and the practice of the charnel ground meditations as outlined in the Satipatthana sutta.

It stands for the right endeavour to attain dhyāna.[citation needed]

Vīrya can also signify courage and physical strength and was cultivated by Buddhist guardians including the Shaolin monks. It signifies strength of character and persistent effort for the well-being of others as well as the ability to defend the Triratna from attacks.[11]

In the absence of sustained effort in practicing meditation, craving creeps in and the meditator comes under its influence. Right effort (vīryabala) is thus required to overcome unskillful mental factors and deviation from dhyāna.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c See, e.g., Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), entry for "Viriya," which defines viriya as: "lit. 'state of a strong man,' i. e. vigour, energy, effort, heroic exertion." Retrieved 3 Feb. 2011 from "U.Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.3:1:1885.pali .
  2. ^ See, e.g., which Monier Williams (1899), entry for "Vīyà," defines vīyà in part as: "manliness, valour, strength, power, energy, RV [ Rig Veda ] &c. &c.; heroism, heroic deed, ibid.; manly vigour, virility, semen virile, MBh. [ Mahabharata ]; Kāv.&c; ...." Retrieved 3 Feb. 2011 from "U.Cologne" at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/monier/serveimg.pl?file=/scans/MWScan/MWScanjpg/mw1006-virabhaTa.jpg .
  3. ^ a b Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi (2001), "Kīṭāgiri Sutta" (MN 70), pp. 583-4.
  4. ^ Ireland (1998)
  5. ^ Walshe (2009)
  6. ^ a b c See, e.g., Bullitt (2005), entry for "viriya," which defines this term as: "Persistence; energy. One of the ten perfections (paramis), the five faculties (bala; see bodhi-pakkhiya-dhamma), and the five strengths/dominant factors (indriya; see bodhi-pakkhiya-dhamma)." Retrieved 3 Feb. 2011 from "ATI" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/glossary.html#viriya .
  7. ^ Thanissaro (2005).
  8. ^ Piyadassi (1999).
  9. ^ a b c d Guenther (1975), Kindle Locations 578-580.
  10. ^ a b Kunsang (2004), p. 25.
  11. ^ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/b/buddha387356.html

Sources[edit]