Viroconium Cornoviorum, or Viroconium or occasionally Uriconium, was a Roman town, one corner of which is now occupied by Wroxeter, a small village in Shropshire, England, about 5 miles (8.0 km) east-south-east of Shrewsbury. At its peak, Viroconium is estimated to have been the fourth largest Roman settlement in Britain, a civitas with a population of more than 15,000. The settlement probably lasted until the end of the seventh century or the beginning of the eighth. Extensive remains can still be seen.
Viriconium is a Latinised form the Common Brittonic place name *uiroconion "[place] of *uiro-kū", a personal name meaning "man-wolf, werewolf". Cornoviorum means "of the Cornovii", the local tribe whose civitas ("urbanised client settlement") it became. The original site of the Cornovian capital *Uiroconion was a hill fort on The Wrekin.
Viroconium was established in about AD 58 as a castra for the Legio XIV Gemina during their invasion of Roman Wales. They were later replaced by the Legio XX Valeria Victrix until the fortress was abandoned by the military around AD 88 and taken over by the civilian settlement that had grown up around the fort. By AD 130 it had expanded to cover an area of more than 173 acres (70 ha). It then had many public buildings, including thermae and a colonnaded forum dedicated to Hadrian as shown by the remains of an inscription. Simpler temples and shops have also been excavated. At its peak, Viroconium is estimated to have been the fourth largest Roman settlement in Britain with a population of more than 15,000.
Town life in Viroconium continued in the 5th century, but many of the buildings fell into disrepair. Between 530 and 570, when most Roman urban sites and villas in Britain were being abandoned, there was a substantial rebuilding programme. The old basilica was carefully demolished and replaced with new timber-framed buildings on rubble platforms. These probably included a very large two-storey building and a number of storage buildings and houses. In all, 33 new buildings were "carefully planned and executed" and "skillfully constructed to Roman measurements using a trained labour force". Who instigated this rebuilding programme is not known, but it may have been a bishop. Some of the buildings were renewed three times, and the community probably lasted about 75 years until, for some reason, many of the buildings were dismantled. The site was probably abandoned peacefully in the second half of the 7th century or the beginning of the 8th century.
Wroxeter Roman City
Some remains are still standing, and further buildings have been excavated. These include "the Old Work" (an archway, part of the baths' frigidarium and the largest free-standing Roman ruin in England) and the remains of a baths complex. These are on display to the public and, along with a small museum, are looked after by English Heritage under the name "Wroxeter Roman City". Some of the more important finds are housed in Rowley's House Museum in Shrewsbury. Most of the town still remains buried, but it has largely been mapped through geophysical survey and aerial archaeology.
A reconstructed Roman villa was opened to the public on 19 February 2011 to give visitors an insight into Roman building techniques and how the Romans lived. A Channel 4 television series, Rome Wasn't Built in a Day, showed how it was built using authentic ancient techniques. The builders were assisted by a team of local volunteers and supervised by archaeologist Dai Morgan Evans, who designed the villa.
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- Wilfred Owen saw archaeological digs in progress at Wroxeter and referred to it in his 1913 poem "Uriconium: an Ode".
- "Viroconium" is a poem by the Shropshire novelist and poet Mary Webb.
- Viroconium in its latter days is featured in Rosemary Sutcliff's 1961 historical novel Dawn Wind, part of her Roman-Britain series following the descendants of the lead character from Eagle of the Ninth.
- Viroconium features in Mary Stewart's Merlin Chronicles The Crystal Cave, The Hollow Hills and The Last Enchantment.
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- Archaeological assessment of Wroxeter, Shropshire
- BBC News Shropshire – Reconstructed Roman villa unveiled at Wroxeter
- English Heritage – Properties
- Daily Mail: "Channel 4 series build Roman villa using ancient methods"
- Uriconium An Ode | The Wilfred Owen Association
- Representative Poetry Online – Mary Webb : Viroconium
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- Barker, Philip, and Webster, Graham. From Roman Viroconium to medieval Wroxeter: recent work on the site of the Roman city of Wroxeter. Worcester: West Mercian Archaeological Consultants, 1990. ISBN 0-9516274-1-4
- Barker, Philip, and White, Roger. Wroxeter Roman City (English Heritage Guidebooks). Swindon, Wilts.: English Heritage, 1999. ISBN 1850746982
- Barker, Philip; White, Roger; Corbishley, Mike (1998). The Baths Basilica, Wroxeter: excavations 1966–90. Swindon: English Heritage. ISBN 1850745285.
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- Frere, S. S. Britannia: a History of Roman Britain. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1987. ISBN 0-7102-1215-1
- Gaffney, V. L., and White, R. H. (2007). 'Wroxeter, the Cornovii, and the Urban Process: Final Report on the Wroxeter Hinterland Project 1994–1997', Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series, No. 68.
- Jackson, Kenneth (1970). "An Appendix on the Place Names of the British Section of the Antonine Itinerary". Britannia 1.
- Kenyon, Kathleen M. Excavations at Viroconium, 1936–1937. Shrewsbury, Shrops. Shropshire Archaeological Society, 1937.
- Rivet, A. L. F., and Smith, Colin. (1979). The Place-Names of Roman Britain.
- Urban, Sylvanus. 'The Roman City of Uriconium.' Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Review, 1859. 206: 447–458.
- Webster, Graham. The Cornovii. London: Sutton, 1991. ISBN 0-86299-877-8
- Webster, Graham. The Legionary Fortress at Wroxeter: Excavations by Graham Webster, 1955–1985. Swindon, Wilts.: English Heritage, 2002. ISBN 9781850746850
- Webster, Graham. The Roman Army. London: Grosvenor Museum, 1973. ISBN 0-903235-05-6
- Webster, Graham, The Roman Imperial Army: Of the First and Second Centuries A.D. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8061-3000-8
- Webster, Graham, and Barker, Philip. Viroconium, Wroxeter Roman City. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1966 & 1978. ISBN 0-11-670323-7
- White, Roger, and Barker, Philip. Wroxeter: Life & Death of a Roman City. Stroud, Glos.: Tempus Publishing Ltd., 1998. ISBN 978-0-7524-1409-6
- White, Thomas. A Guide to the Ruins of Uriconium, at Wroxeter, Near Shrewsbury. Kessinger Publishing, 2009. ISBN 0111120289734, BiblioBazaar, 2010. 1143796403, Nabu Press, 2010. ISBN 01143637054
- White, Thomas. Uriconium; A Historical Account of the Ancient Roman City, and of the Excavations Made Upon Its Site, at Wroxeter, in Shropshire. General Books, 2010. ISBN 1152210491
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Viroconium Cornoviorum.|
- BBC: Panoramic Views of Wroxeter
- BBC: Architectural Heritage
- Wroxeter Roman City: English Heritage
- Teachers'Resource pack on Wroxeter: English Heritage
- Viroconium Cornoviorum: Roman Legionary Fortress, British Tribal City – Roman-Britain.org
- Roman Fort and Bridge, Wroxter, Shropshire – Roman-Britain.org
- Wroxeter – Roman Britain's Fourth Largest City: Article by Dr. Gareth Evans
- Excavation report by Thomas Wright
- 1859 Article from Gentleman's Magazine
- Wroxeter, the Cornovii, and the Urban Process
- Report on Uriconium: Archaeological assessment of Wroxeter, Shropshire
- Esmonde Cleary, A., R. Warner, R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 79741 (*Viroconium)". Pleiades. Retrieved 8 March, 2012 3:58 pm.