Visa requirements for Australian citizens

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Visa requirements for Australian citizens are visa requirements imposed by other states on entry by Australian citizens who wish to enter into their country using an Australian passport.

In 2013 holders of an Australian passport can visit 167 countries and territories visa-free or with visa on arrival, and Australia is currently ranked 6th in terms of travel freedom (21st, counting multiple country per rank), ranked behind New Zealand (5th placing, 168 countries) but above South Korea (7th placing, 166 countries).[1]

Besides visa requirements, most countries specify other requirements which preclude the entry of Australian and other citizens into their country, for example a prospective entrant has a criminal history, or health issues, evidence of sufficient funds, evidence of ticket for exit, etc.

Visa requirements map[edit]

Visa requirements for Australian passport holders

Reciprocity issues[edit]

In 2014 Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania notified the European Commission that they consider Australia requires a visa for their citizens.[2] Implications are that if the notification is accepted the EU may suspend the visa exemption for certain categories of Australian nationals and at the latest six months after publication of the regulation, the Commission may decide to suspend the visa-free access to all Australian citizens.[3]

Some countries regard the ETA as being equivalent to visa-free travel when deciding whether to grant the same to Australians wishing to enter their territory. The United States, for example, offers their Visa Waiver Program to Australian passport-holders,[4] and one of the conditions for joining this scheme is that "Governments provide reciprocal visa-free travel for U.S. citizens for 90 days for tourism or business purposes".[5] However, United States require from January 2009 similar ETA from citizens of Australia and some more countries. This system is not called visa, but Electronic System for Travel Authorization, therefore the USA still allows visa-free travel for Australians. As of December 1998, Japan has also granted visa-free access to Australians.[6] Other ETA eligible countries and territories Canada,[7] Hong Kong,[8] Malaysia,[9] Singapore[10] and South Korea (90 days)[11] and Taiwan (30 days)[12] also grant visa-free access to Australians while Brunei grants Australians a 30 day visa on arrival.[13]

Visa requirements[edit]

Each country has a multitude of visa types, each with its particular purpose and requirements. The basic tourist or visitor visas are as follows:

Africa[edit]

Country Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Algeria Visa required[14]
 Angola Visa required[15]
 Benin Visa required[16]
 Botswana Visa not required[17] 90 days per year
 Burkina Faso Visa on arrival[18] 1 month
 Burundi Visa on arrival[19] 30 days. Not available at all entry points.[20]
 Cameroon Visa required[21]
 Cape Verde Visa on arrival[22] Not available at all entry points.[23]
 Central African Republic Visa required[24]
 Chad Visa required[25]
 Comoros Visa on arrival[26]
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[27]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[28]
 Côte d'Ivoire Visa required[29]
 Djibouti Visa on arrival[30] Not available at all entry points.[31]
 Egypt Visa on arrival[32] 30 days
 Equatorial Guinea Visa required[33]
 Eritrea Visa required[34]
 Ethiopia Visa on arrival[35] Not available at all entry points.[36]
 Gabon Visa required[37]
 Gambia Visa not required[38] 90 days
 Ghana Visa required[39]
 Guinea Visa required[40]
 Guinea-Bissau Visa on arrival[41] 90 days
 Kenya Visa on arrival[42] 3 months
 Lesotho Visa not required[43] 14 days[44]
 Liberia Visa required[45]
 Libya Visa required[46]
 Madagascar Visa on arrival[47] 90 days
 Malawi Visa not required[48] up to 90 days
 Maldives Visa on arrival[49] 30 days[44]
 Mali Visa on arrival[50]
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[51]
 Mauritius Visa not required[52] 90 days
 Morocco Visa not required[53] 3 months
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[54] 30 days, conditions apply[55]
 Namibia Visa not required[56] 3 months
 Niger Visa required[57]
 Nigeria Visa required[58]
 Rwanda Visa required[59]
 São Tomé and Príncipe Visa required[60] Visa is obtained online.[61]
 Senegal Visa on arrival[62] 3 months
 Seychelles Visitor's Permit on arrival[63] 1 month[44]
 Sierra Leone Visa required[64]
 Somalia Visa on arrival[65] 30 days, provided an invitation letter issued by the sponsor has been submitted
to the Airport Immigration Department at least 2 days before arrival.
 South Africa Visa not required[66] 90 days
 South Sudan Visa required[67]
 Sudan Visa required[68]
 Swaziland Visa not required[69] 30 days[44]
 Tanzania Visa on arrival[70]
 Togo Visa on arrival[71] 7 days
 Tunisia Visa on arrival[72]
 Uganda Visa on arrival[73] Determined at the port of entry.
 Zambia Visa on arrival[74] up to 90 days
 Zimbabwe Visa on arrival[75] 90 days for Tourism or 30 days for Business purposes.

Americas[edit]

Country Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Antigua and Barbuda Visa not required[76] 1 month
 Argentina Reciprocity fee in advance[77] 90 days. Reciprocity fee must be paid online in advance (valid for 10 years).[78]
 Bahamas Visa not required[79] 3 months
 Barbados Visa not required[80] 6 months
 Belize Visa not required[81] 1 month[44]
 Bolivia Visa not required[82] 90 days
 Brazil Visa required[83]
 Canada Visa not required[84] 6 months
 Chile Reciprocity fee on arrival[85] 90 days
 Colombia Visa not required[86] up to 180 days
 Costa Rica Visa not required[87] 90 days
 Cuba Tourist Card required[88]
 Dominica Visa not required[89] 6 months
 Dominican Republic Visa not required[90] 90 days (10 USD Tourist Card valid for 30 days must be purchased upon arrival)
 Ecuador Visa not required[91] 90 days[44]
 El Salvador Visa not required[92] 3 months
 Grenada Visa not required[93] 3 months[44]
 Guatemala Visa not required[94] 90 days
 Guyana Visa not required[95] 3 months
 Haiti Visa not required[96] 3 months
 Honduras Visa not required[97] 3 months
 Jamaica Visa not required[98]
 Mexico Visa not required[99] 180 days
 Nicaragua Visa not required[100] 90 days
 Panama Visa not required[101] 180 days
 Paraguay Visa on arrival[102] 90 days
 Peru Visa not required[103] up to 183 days
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Visa not required[104] 3 months
 Saint Lucia Visa not required[105] 6 weeks
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa not required[106] 1 month
 Suriname Visa required[107]
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa on arrival[108] 30 days
 United States Visa Waiver Program[109] 90 days on arrival from overseas for 2 years, ESTA required
 Uruguay Visa not required[110] 3 months
 Venezuela Visa not required[111] 90 days

Asia[edit]

Country Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Afghanistan Visa required[112]
 Armenia Visa on arrival[113] 120 days. Obtainable on arrival at Zvartnots International Airport or prior to travel online.[114]
 Azerbaijan Visa required[115]
 Bahrain Visa on arrival[116] 14 days
 Bangladesh Visa on arrival[117] 30 days. Not available at all entry points.[118]
 Bhutan Visa required[119]
 Brunei Visa on arrival[120] 30 days
 Cambodia Visa on arrival[121] 30 days. Visa is also obtainable online.[122]
 China Visa required[123] 72-hours visa free visit when in transit at Beijing, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dalian, Guangzhou, Guilin, Shanghai, Shenyang and Xi'an.
 Georgia Visa not required[124] 360 days
 India Visa required[125]
 Indonesia Visa on arrival[126] 30 days.[127] Not available at all entry points.[128]
 Iran Visa on arrival[129] 15 days
 Iraq Visa required[130]
 Israel Visa not required[131] 3 months
 Japan Visa not required[132] 90 days
 Jordan Visa on arrival[133] Conditions apply.[134] Not available at all entry points.[135]
 Kazakhstan Visa required[136]
 North Korea Visa required[137]
 South Korea Visa not required[138] 90 days
 Kuwait Visa on arrival[139] 3 months
 Kyrgyzstan Visa not required[140] 60 days
 Laos Visa on arrival[141] 30 days.[44] Not available at all entry points.[142]
 Lebanon Visa on arrival[143] 3 months. Not available at all entry points.[144]
 Malaysia Visa not required[145] 3 months
 Mongolia Visa required[146]
 Myanmar Visa required[147] Visa on arrival for 28 days, if arriving from Siem Reap, Guangzhou or Phnom Penh on MAI.[148]
Otherwise visa is obtained online.[149]
   Nepal Visa on arrival[150] 90 days
 Oman Visa on arrival[151] 30 days[44]
 Pakistan Visa required[152] Visa on arrival when travelling on business valid for 30 days. Conditions apply.[153]
 Philippines Visa not required[154] 30 days
 Qatar Visa on arrival[155] 1 month. Not available at all entry points.[156]
 Saudi Arabia Visa required[157]
 Singapore Visa not required[158] 30 days
 Sri Lanka Electronic Travel Authorization[159] 30 days tourism visa via ETA, 30 day business visas available on arrival
 Syria Visa required[160]
 Tajikistan Visa on arrival[161] 45 days
 Thailand Visa not required[162] 30 days by air, 15 days by land
 Timor-Leste Visa on arrival[163] 30 days. Not available at all entry points.[164]
 Turkey eVisa[165] 3 months.[166]
 Turkmenistan Visa required[167]
 United Arab Emirates Visa on arrival[168] 30 days
 Uzbekistan Visa required[169]
 Vietnam Visa required[170] Pre-arranged visa obtained online through travel agencies available at Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City or Da Nang airports.
Phú Quốc without a visa for up to 30 days.[171]
 Yemen Visa required[172]

Europe[edit]

Country Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Albania Visa not required[173] 90 days
 Andorra Visa not required[174]
 Austria Visa not required[175] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Belarus Visa required[176] Visas are issued on arrival at the Minsk International Airport
if the support documents were submitted not later than 3 business days before expected date of arrival.[177]
 Belgium Visa not required[178] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa not required[179] 90 days within 180 days
 Bulgaria Visa not required[180] 90 days within 180 days
 Croatia Visa not required[181] 90 days within 180 days
 Cyprus Visa not required[182] 90 days within 180 days
 Czech Republic Visa not required[183] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Denmark and territories Visa not required[184] 90 days every six months, regardless of whether they have stayed in another Schengen area country (except the other Nordic countries) prior to entry into Denmark.[185] If visitors from Australia spend any amount of time in Denmark and/or the other Nordic countries in the first 90 days of their visa exempt period according to the Schengen agreement, they cannot claim the following 90 days visa exempt period for Denmark and the Nordic countries.[186]
 Estonia Visa not required[187] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Finland Visa not required[188] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 France and territories Visa not required[189] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area (in Regions of France)
 Germany Visa not required[190] 90 days outright, in order to re-enter for another 90 days visitors have to depart Germany for any other country and can come back even the same day, visitors need to be able to document how many days they have spent in Germany if they have entered through another Schengen country so it is recommended to enter and depart from a German airport in order to obtain the official entry and departure passport stamps. In addition 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area[191]
 Greece Visa not required[192] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Hungary Visa not required[193] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Iceland Visa not required[194] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Ireland Visa not required[195] 3 months
 Italy Visa not required[196] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Latvia Visa not required[197] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Liechtenstein Visa not required[198] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Lithuania Visa not required[199] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Luxembourg Visa not required[200] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Macedonia Visa not required[201] 90 days within 180 days
 Malta Visa not required[202] 90 days within 180 days
 Moldova Visa not required[203] 90 days within 180 days
 Monaco Visa not required[204]
 Montenegro Visa not required[205] 90 days within 180 days
 Netherlands and territories Visa not required[206] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area (European Netherlands)
 Norway Visa not required[207] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Poland Visa not required[208] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Portugal Visa not required[209] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Romania Visa not required[210] 90 days within 180 days
 Russia Visa required[211]
 San Marino Visa not required[212]
 Serbia Visa not required[213] 90 days within 180 days
 Slovakia Visa not required[214] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Slovenia Visa not required[215] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Spain Visa not required[216] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Sweden Visa not required[217] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
  Switzerland Visa not required[218] 90 days within 180 days in the Schengen area
 Ukraine Visa required[219]
 United Kingdom
excluding some Overseas territories
Visa not required[220] 6 months
  Vatican City Visa not required[221]

Oceania[edit]

Country Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Fiji Visa not required[222] 4 months
 Kiribati Visa not required[223] 30 days
 Marshall Islands Visa on arrival[224] 90 days
 Micronesia Visa not required[225] 30 days
 Nauru Visa on arrival[226]
 New Zealand Visa not required[227] Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement
 Palau Visa on arrival[228] 30 days
 Papua New Guinea Visa required[229][230]
 Samoa Entry Permit on arrival[231] 60 days
 Solomon Islands Visitor's permit on arrival[232] 3 months
 Tonga Visa on arrival[233] 31 days
 Tuvalu Visa on arrival[234] 1 month[44]
 Vanuatu Visa not required[235] 30 days[44]

Territories[edit]

Visa requirements for Australian citizens for visits to various territories, disputed areas, partially recognized countries and restricted zones:

Europe
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Abkhazia Visa required[236]
Flag of the Greek Orthodox Church.svg Mount Athos Special permit required Special permit required (4 days: 25 euro for Orthodox visitors, 35 euro for non-Orthodox visitors, 18 euro for students). There is a visitors' quota: maximum 100 Orthodox and 10 non-Orthodox per day and women are not allowed.[237][238]
Autonomous Republic of Crimea Crimea Visa required Visa issued by Russia is required.[239]
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Visa not required 3 months[240][241]
United Nations UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus Access Permit required[242] Access Permit is required for travelling inside the zone, except Civil Use Areas.
 Faroe Islands Visa not required[243]
 Gibraltar Visa not required[244]
 Guernsey Visa not required[245]
 Isle of Man Visa not required[246]
Norway Jan Mayen Permit required[244] Permit issued by the local police required for staying for less than 24 hours[247] and permit issued by the Norwegian police for staying for more than 24 hours.[248]
 Jersey Visa not required[249]
 Kosovo Visa not required 90 days[250]
 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Visa required[251][252] Travellers with Nagorno-Karabakh visa (expired or valid) or evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh (stamps) will be permanently denied entry to Azerbaijan.[253]
 Russia Special authorization required Several closed cities and regions in Russia require special authorization.[254]
 South Ossetia Visa not required Multiple entry visa to Russia and three day prior notification are required to enter South Ossetia.[255][256]
 Transnistria Visa not required Registration required after 24h.[257][258]
Africa
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 British Indian Ocean Territory Special permit required Special permit required.[259]
 Eritrea outside Asmara Travel permit required To travel in the rest of the country, a Travel Permit for Foreigners is required (20 Eritrean nakfa).[260]
 Ascension Island Entry Permit required Entry Permit must be obtained minimum 28 days in advance (3 months for 20/30 pounds sterling, single/double entry).[261]
 Saint Helena Visitor's Pass required Visitor's Pass granted on arrival valid for 4/10/21/60/90 days for 12/14/16/20/25 pound sterling.[262]
 Tristan da Cunha Permission required Permission to land required for 15/30 pounds sterling (yacht/ship passenger) for Tristan da Cunha Island or 20 pounds sterling for Gough Island, Inaccessible Island or Nightingale Islands.[263]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Undefined visa regime in the Western Sahara controlled territory.
 Somaliland Visa on arrival 30 days for 30 US dollars, payable on arrival.[264][265]
 Sudan Travel permit required All foreigners traveling more than 25 kilometers outside of Khartoum must obtain a travel permit.
Sudan Darfur Travel permit required Separate travel permit is required.[266]
Asia
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
China Hainan Visa not required 15 days[267]
 Hong Kong Visa not required 3 months[268]
 India PAP/RAP PAP/RAP required Protected Area Permit (PAP) required for whole states of Nagaland and Sikkim and parts of states Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh.
Restricted Area Permit (RAP) required for all of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and parts of Sikkim. Some of these requirements are occasionally lifted for a year.[269][270][271][272][273][274]
 Iraqi Kurdistan Visa on arrival Visa on arrival for 15 days is available at Erbil and Sulaymaniyah airports.[275]
 Kazakhstan Special permission required Special permission required for the town of Baikonur and surrounding areas in Kyzylorda Oblast, and the town of Gvardeyskiy near Almaty.[276]
Iran Kish Island Visa not required Visitors to Kish Island do not require a visa.[277]
 Macao Visa not required 30 days[278]
Malaysia Sabah and Sarawak Visa not required These states have their own immigration authorities and passport is required to travel to them, however the same visa applies.[279]
Maldives Maldives Permission required With the exception of the capital Malé, tourists are generally prohibited from visiting non-resort islands without the express permission of the Government of Maldives.[280]
 Palestine Visa not required[281] Arrival by sea to Gaza Strip not allowed.[282]
 Taiwan Visa not required 30 days[283]
Tajikistan Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province OIVR permit required OIVR permit required (15+5 Tajikistani Somoni) and another special permit (free of charge) is required for Lake Sarez.[284][285][286]
China Tibet Autonomous Region TTP required Tibet Travel Permit required (10 US Dollars).[287][288][289]
United Nations Korean Demilitarized Zone Restricted zone.
United Nations UNDOF Zone and Ghajar Restricted zone.
Vietnam Phú Quốc Visa not required 30 days[290]
 Yemen Special permission required Special permission needed for travel outside Sana’a or Aden.[291]
Caribbean and North Atlantic
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Anguilla Visa not required 3 months[292]
 Aruba Visa not required 30 days, extendable to 180 days[293][294]
 Bermuda Visa not required Up to 6 months, decided on arrival.[295]
Netherlands Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba Visa not required 3 months[296][297]
 British Virgin Islands Visa not required 30 days, extensions possible[298]
 Cayman Islands Visa not required 6 months[299]
 Curacao Visa not required 3 months[300]
France French Guiana Visa not required 3 months[301]
France French West Indies Visa not required 3 months (French West Indies refers to Martinique, Guadeloupe, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy)[302]
 Greenland Visa not required[243]
Venezuela Margarita Island Visa not required All visitors are fingerprinted.[303]
 Montserrat Visa not required 6 months[304][305]
 Sint Maarten Visa not required 30 days, extendable to 180 days[306][307]
 Turks and Caicos Islands Visa not required 30 days[308]
 U.S. Virgin Islands Visa not required Under the Visa Waiver Program, for 90 days on arrival from overseas for 2 years. ESTA required.[309]
Oceania
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 American Samoa Entry permit required Entry permit is required.[310]
Australia Ashmore and Cartier Islands Special authorisation required Special authorisation required.[311]
France Clipperton Island Special permit required Special permit required.[312]
 Cook Islands Visa not required 31 days[313]
 Guam Visa not required Under the Visa Waiver Program, for 90 days on arrival from overseas for 2 years. ESTA required.[314]
Fiji Lau Province Special permission required Special permission required.[315]
 French Polynesia Visa not required 90 days within 180 days[316]
 Niue Visa on arrival 30 days[317]
 Northern Mariana Islands Visa not required[318] Visa not required under the Visa Waiver Program, for 90 days on arrival from overseas for 2 years. ESTA required.
 Pitcairn Islands Visa not required 14 days visa free and landing fee 35 USD or tax of 5 USD if not going ashore.[319][320][321]
 Puerto Rico Visa not required Under the Visa Waiver Program, for 90 days on arrival from overseas for 2 years. ESTA required.[322]
United States United States Minor Outlying Islands Special permits required Special permits required for Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll and Wake Island.[323][324][325][326][327][328][329]
South Atlantic and Antarctica
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Falkland Islands Visa not required Visa is not required.[330]
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Permit required Pre-arrival permit from the Commissioner required (72 hours/1 month for 110/160 pounds sterling).[331][332]
Antarctica Special permits required for  British Antarctic Territory,  French Southern and Antarctic Lands,  Argentine Antarctica,
Australia Australian Antarctic Territory, Antártica Chilena Province Chilean Antarctic Territory, Australia Heard Island and McDonald Islands,
Norway Peter I Island, Norway Queen Maud Land, New Zealand Ross Dependency.[333][334][335][336][337][338][339][340][341][342][343][344]

Additional rules[edit]

Visa exemptions for Schengen states[edit]

A stay in the Schengen Area as a whole of more than three months (but no more than three months in any individual member state)[edit]

The Australian Government has signed bilateral visa waiver agreements with a number of the individual countries who are Schengen signatories, which allow Australian citizens to spend up to three months in the relevant country, without reference to time spent in other Schengen signatory states. Since these agreements continue to remain valid despite the implementation of the Schengen agreement, the European Commission has confirmed that in practice if Australians visit Schengen countries which have signed these types of bilateral agreements with Australia, then the terms of these agreements override the conditions normally imposed as a result of the Schengen visa exemption agreement.

Australia has individual bilateral visa waiver agreements with the following Schengen signatories:

Consequently, Australian citizens can visit the above Schengen member states visa-free for periods of up to three months in each country. If, however, an Australian citizen then visits another Schengen state not included in the list above, the restriction of no more than three months out of a six-month period in the Schengen area as a whole applies. Therefore, if an Australian citizen has already spent three months in one or more of the above Schengen countries, any visits to another Schengen country without a bilateral visa waiver agreement with Australia may lead to difficulties with local law enforcement agencies (e.g. being accused of having overstayed upon leaving a Schengen country which is not in the list above).

A stay in the Schengen Area as a whole of up to three months[edit]

Australian citizens are classified as 'Annex II' foreign nationals, and so are permitted to stay visa-free in the 26 member states of the Schengen Area as a whole — rather than each country individually — for a period not exceeding 3 months every 6 months.

During the visa exemption period, Australian citizens are permitted to work in Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovenia and Sweden.[347] In addition, Australian citizens intending to stay and work in Estonia for up to 90 days can do so without a visa as long as the employer has completed a 'registration of short-term employment'.[348]

A stay in the Schengen Area as a whole of more than 3 months (and more than 3 months in an individual member state)[edit]

In general, any person who is not a European Union, European Economic Area or Swiss citizen and who wishes to stay in a Schengen member state for more than 3 months is required to obtain a national long-stay 'D' visa and/or a residence permit. Australian citizens aged 18–30 (or 18-35 in some cases) are able to obtain a national long-stay 'D' visa and/or a residence permit from some Schengen member states on the basis of a working holiday (see below). Schengen member states also issue national long-stay 'D' visas and residence permits for other reasons to those fulfilling criteria laid out in their national immigration policies (e.g. skilled workers, students, au pair).

In general, the national long-stay 'D' visa/residence permit needs to be obtained in advance through the member state's embassy/consulate. However, some Schengen member states offer exceptions for Australian citizens.

 Austria allows Australian citizens to enter the country without a visa and to apply for a temporary residence permit or a 'Red-White-Red Card' (issued to permanent immigrants) after arrival, rather than in advance through an Austrian embassy/consulate.[349][350]

The  Czech Republic allows Australian citizens to apply for a work visa under a special scheme known as a 'Green Card' (rather than a 'Blue Card' or work permit which is required by most non-EU citizens). The application for a Green Card can be lodged at any Czech embassy/consulate (or, in some circumstances, within the Czech Republic if the applicant is already resident there) and is usually processed within 60 days.[351]

 Germany permits Australian citizens intending to stay in the country for over 3 months to enter without a visa and to apply for a residence permit after arrival (whilst for many other non-EEA and Swiss citizens, a residence permit and visa for a stay over 3 months must be applied for in advance at a German foreign mission).[352][353]

 Estonia permits Australian citizens to stay and work in Estonia for more than 90 days but less than 6 months as long as they obtain a category 'D' long-stay visa at a cost of €80 in advance at an Estonian foreign mission after the employer has completed a 'registration of short-term employment'.[354] Australian citizens intending to stay and work in Estonia for more than 6 months can apply for a temporary residence permit for employment after arrival in the country.[355]

 Hungary allows Australian citizens who wish to stay for more than 90 days in the country to apply for a residence card from the regional directorate of the Office of Immigration and Nationality within 90 days of arrival and do not need to obtain a residence permit prior to arrival in Hungary (unlike most other non-EEA and Swiss foreign nationals).[356]

 Latvia permits Australian citizens intending to stay in the country for over 3 months as self-employed persons or as businesspersons to enter Latvia without a visa and to apply for a residence permit after arrival (whilst for many non-EEA and Swiss citizens, an application for a residence permit must be lodged in advance at a Latvian foreign mission).[357]

 Netherlands exempts Australian citizens from the requirement to obtain a Schengen category "D" visa (the visa issued for long term stays in The Netherlands of over 90 days, known in Dutch as the "MVV" visa) - an exemption which goes beyond the visa waiver afforded to most other non-EEA and non-Swiss foreign nationals who are usually only given a visa waiver of up to 90 days in a 180 day period.[358]

 Norway permits Australian citizens who have qualifications as a skilled worker to stay in the country without a visa for up to 6 months to seek employment as a skilled worker or a specialist (except as a religious leader/teacher or an ethnic cook), as long as they register with the police within 3 months of arriving in Norway.[359]

Visa exemptions and requirements for the United Kingdom[edit]

Australian citizens are able to visit the United Kingdom for up to 6 months (or 3 months if they enter from the Republic of Ireland) without the need to apply for a visa as long as they fulfil all of the following criteria:

  • they do not work during their stay in the UK
  • they must not register a marriage or register a civil partnership during their stay in the UK
  • they can present evidence of sufficient money to fund their stay in the UK (if requested by the border inspection officer)
  • they intend to leave the UK at the end of their visit and can meet the cost of the return/onward journey
  • they have completed a landing card and submitted it at passport control unless in direct transit to a destination outside the Common Travel Area[360]
  • if under the age of 18, they can demonstrate evidence of suitable care arrangements and parental (or guardian's) consent for their stay in the UK[361]

However, even though, strictly speaking, he or she is not required to apply for a visa if he or she satisfies all of the above criteria, an Australian citizen who falls into any of the following categories is strongly advised by the UK Border Agency to apply for a visa prior to travelling to the UK:

  • he/she has any unspent criminal convictions in any country
  • he/she has previously been refused or breached the terms of any entry to the UK, or been deported or otherwise removed from the UK
  • he/she has previously applied for a visa and been refused one
  • he/she has been warned by a UK official that he/she should obtain a visa before travelling to the UK

Australian citizens who were born before 1983 and qualify for the right of abode are able to live and work in the United Kingdom indefinitely.

Australian citizens with a grandparent born either in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands or Isle of Man at any time or in the Republic of Ireland on or before 31 March 1922 can apply for UK Ancestry Entry Clearance, which enables them to work in the UK for five years, after which they can apply to settle indefinitely.

Australian citizens aged 18 to 30 can apply for a Youth Mobility Scheme visa which allows them to pursue a working holiday in the UK for two years.

Visa exemption for New Zealand[edit]

By virtue of the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, Australian citizens are exempt from the requirement to hold a permit on arrival in New Zealand and may reside or work for an indefinite period as long as:[362]

  • they present a valid Australian passport OR hold a foreign passport showing ther Australian Citizen Endorsement or Australian Citizen Declaratory Visa (either with a label or a confirmation letter) as evidence of their Australian citizenship
  • they have no criminal convictions
  • they have no untreated tuberculosis
  • they have not been deported, excluded or removed from any country

Vaccination[edit]

Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Zambia require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination. Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area.[363]

Passport validity[edit]

Many countries require passport validity of no less than 6 months and one or two blank pages.[364]

Countries requiring passport validity of at least 6 months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Bhutan, Botswana, Brunei, Cambodia, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Guyana, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq (except when arriving at Basra - 3 months and Erbil or Sulaimaniyah - on arrival), Israel, Kenya, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, countries requiring passport validity of at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia, Zambia, countries requiring passport validity of at least 3 months on arrival include European Union countries (except Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom), Georgia, Honduras, Iceland, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Moldova, Nauru, Panama, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates and countries requiring passport validity of at least 1 month on arrival include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Macao, South Africa.[365] Other countries require either a passport valid on arrival or passport valid throughout the period of intended stay.

Israeli stamps[edit]

Visitors with passport stamp of Israel are not allowed to enter a number of countries because of the Arab League boycott of Israel. Israel have since stopped the usage of stamps on passports in general and is now using electronic ticketing system.

Fingerprinting[edit]

Several countries including Argentina, Cambodia, Japan, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, United States, South Korea demand all passengers to be fingerprinted on arrival.[366][367][368][369][370][371][372]

Furthermore, the UAE conducts retina scanning on visitors, however, that is normally for those who have to apply for a visa.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "International Visa Restrictions". Henley and partners. June 2014. Retrieved June 2014. 
  2. ^ "Information from the Commission about notifications by the Member States of cases of non-reciprocity in accordance with Article 1(4)(a) of Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 as amended by Regulation (EU) No 1289/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council". European Commission. 12 April 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  3. ^ EU gives US six months to come clean on visa policy
  4. ^ "Visa Waiver Program (VWP)". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 
  5. ^ "Visa Waiver Program - How a Country Qualifies". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 
  6. ^ "Visa Free Entry to Japan for Short-term Visitors from Australia". Department of Immigration and Citizenship. 1998-11-05. Archived from the original on 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 
  7. ^ "Countries and territories whose citizens do not need a visa (visa exemptions)". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  8. ^ "Visit Visa / Entry Permit Requirements for the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region". Immigration Department of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
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  12. ^ "Visa-Exempt Entry". Bureau of Consular Affairs. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  13. ^ "Visa Information". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
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  17. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
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  19. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  20. ^ Obtainable at Bujumbura International Airport.
  21. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  22. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  23. ^ Obtainable at Nelson Mandela International Airport, Cesária Évora Airport, Amílcar Cabral International Airport and Aristides Pereira International Airport.
  24. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
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  29. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  30. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  31. ^ Obtainable at Djibouti–Ambouli International Airport.
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  36. ^ Obtainable at Addis Ababa Bole International Airport.
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  114. ^ e-Visa - Republic of Armenia Electronic Visa System
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  118. ^ Available at Shahjalal International Airport, Shah Amanat International Airport and Osmani International Airport only.
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  128. ^ Obtainable at the airports in Jakarta, Bali, Surabaya, Banda Aceh, Medan, Padang, Pekanbaru, Manado, Biak, Ambon, Balikpapan, Pontianak, Kupang, Batam, and South Sumatra, at Batam and Bintan ferry terminals and no land border crossing.
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  135. ^ Visa on arrival obtainable at most international ports of entry and at most international land border crossings (except King Hussein/Allenby Bridge crossing).
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  142. ^ Available at international airports Wattay Vientiane, Pakse Savannakhet and Luang Prabang, and at land borders Friendship Bridge, Vientiane and Savannakhet; Nam Heuang Friendship Bridge, Sayabouly Province; and border crossings at Boten-Mohan, Dansavan-Lao Bao, Houaysay-Chiang Khong, Thakhek-Nakhon Phanom, Nong Haet-Nam Kan, Nam Phao-Kao Cheo, Veun Kham-Dong Calor, and Vangtao-Chong Mek as well as Tha Naleng train station in Vientiane, which connects to the train station in Nongkhai, Thailand. Entry points Napao-Chalo, Taichang-Sophoun, Pakxan-Bungkan, and Xiengkok are open only to visa holders.
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  144. ^ Obtainable at the land border with Syria, the port of Beirut, or Beirut International Airport.
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  156. ^ Available only at Doha International Airport.
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  164. ^ Obtainable at the Presidente Nicolau Lobato International Airport or at the Dili Sea Port.
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  186. ^ Bilateral Visa Agreements
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  350. ^ http://www.migration.gv.at/en/types-of-immigration/permanent-immigration-red-white-red-card/very-highly-qualified-workers.html
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  353. ^ Studying and working in Germany
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  366. ^ Argentina strengthens migratory control
  367. ^ Japan fingerprints foreigners as anti-terror move
  368. ^ S Korea to scan fingerprints of suspicious foreign visitors
  369. ^ Cambodia Country Specific Information
  370. ^ Malaysia Country Specific Information
  371. ^ Saudi Arabia mandates fingerprints and biometrics for foreigners
  372. ^ Office of Biometric Identity Management