Visa requirements for European Union citizens

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Visa requirements for European Union citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of the European Union.

They differ among countries. The European Union has achieved full reciprocity with certain countries.

Current member states of the European Union are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom (British citizens). There is a freedom of movement between them (except all overseas territories other than Regions of France).

Visa requirements map[edit]

Visa requirements for the European Union citizens
  European Union and Schengen borderless zone
  Visa free access for all EU citizens
  Visa free access for some (1-27) EU citizens
  Visa on arrival for all EU citizens
  Visa on arrival for some (1-27) EU citizens
  Limited visa on arrival
  Prearranged visa pick up on arrival

Visa free access[edit]

This table lists all countries where citizens of at least one EU member state may travel without a visa on a normal passport, and the situation regarding other states. Information regarding visas on arrival is not listed in the table (see the section below) neither is the information regarding exit fees.

Africa
Country Visa not required Visa required Notes
 Botswana All states.[1] 90 days within 12 months.
 Gambia Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom.[2] All others 90 days.
 Kenya Cyprus.[3][4] All others 90 days.
 Lesotho Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.[5] All others 14 days.
 Malawi Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.[6] All others 30 days, extendable up to 90 days.
 Mauritius All states.[7] 90 days.
 Morocco All states.[8][9] 90 days (30 days for Hungary).
 Namibia Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.[10] All others 3 months.
 Rwanda Germany, Sweden, United Kingdom.[11] All others 90 days.
 South Africa All others Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovenia.[12] 90 days (30 days for Cyprus, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia).
 Swaziland All states.[13] 30 days.
 Tanzania Cyprus, Romania.[14] All others 30 days.
 Tunisia All others Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia.[15] 90 days, 4 months for Germany, 2 months for Bulgaria, 1 month for Greece.
 Uganda Cyprus, Ireland, Malta.[16] All others 3 months.
 Zambia Cyprus, Ireland, Malta, Romania.[17] All others 90 days for tourism, 30 days for business.
 Zimbabwe Cyprus, Malta.[18] All others 3 months.
Caribbean
Country Visa not required Visa required Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda All states.[19] 6 months.
 Bahamas All states.[20] 4 weeks, extendable up to 8 months.
 Barbados All states.[21] 3 months (6 months for Ireland and the UK).
 Dominica All states.[22][23] 3 months for Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and UK, 6 months for Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia, 21 days Croatia.
 Dominican Republic All states.[24] 90 days (30 day tourist cards required).
 Grenada All others Bulgaria, Croatia.[25] 3 months (6 months for the UK).
 Haiti All states.[26] 3 months.
 Jamaica All others Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovenia.[27] 90 days for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom, 30 days for others.
 Saint Kitts and Nevis All others Croatia.[28] 3 months.
 Saint Lucia All others Croatia.[29] 6 weeks.
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines All states.[30] 1 month.
 Trinidad and Tobago All states.[31] 90 days (30 days for Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia).
Central and North America
Country Visa not required Visa required Notes
 Belize All states.[32] 1 month.
 Canada All others Bulgaria, Romania.[33] 6 months.
 Costa Rica All states.[34] 90 days.
 El Salvador All states.[35] 90 days.
 Guatemala All states.[36] 90 days.
 Honduras All states.[37] 90 days.
 Mexico All states.[38] 180 days.
 Nicaragua All states.[39] 90 days.
 Panama All states.[40] 180 days.
 United States All others (VWP) Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Poland, Romania.[41] 90 days on every arrival from overseas, ESTA (valid for 2 years) required when arriving by air and cruise ship.
South America
Country Visa not required Visa required
 Argentina All states.[42] 90 days.
 Bolivia All others Bulgaria, Cyprus, Malta, Romania.[43] 90 days.
 Brazil All states.[44][45] 90 days.
 Chile All states.[46] 90 days.
 Colombia All states.[47] 180 days.
 Ecuador All states.[48] 90 days.
 Guyana Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.[49] All others 3 months.
 Paraguay All states.[50] 90 days.
 Peru All states.[51] 183 days.
 Uruguay All states.[52][53] 90 days, extendable once.
 Venezuela All states.[54] 90 days, extendable once.
Asia
Country Visa not required Visa required
 Brunei All others Croatia[55][56] 90 days.
 Japan All states.[57] 90 days, extendable once for Austria, Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
 Kazakhstan France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, United Kingdom.[58] All others 15 days. No-visa pilot program in the period 15 July 2014 – 15 July 2015.
 Kyrgyzstan All others Bulgaria, Cyprus, Romania.[59] 60 days.
 Laos Luxembourg.[60] All others 15 days.
 Malaysia All states.[61] 90 days (30 days for Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Portugal).
 Mongolia All states.[62] 30 days (until 31 December 2015).
 Philippines All states.[63] 30 days.
 South Korea All states.[64] 90 days (60 days for Portugal, 30 days for Cyprus).
 Singapore All states.[65] 90 days.
 Thailand All others Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Romania.[66] 30 days, extendable once.
 Timor-Leste Portugal.[67] All others 30 days, extendable up to 90 days.
 Vietnam Denmark, Finland, Sweden.[68] All others 15 days.
Middle East and Caucasus
Country Visa not required Visa required
 Armenia All states.[69][70] 180 days.
 Georgia All states.[71] 90 days within 180 days.
 Israel All states.[72][73] 3 months.
Europe
Country Visa not required Visa required
 Albania All states.[74] 90 days.
 Andorra All states.[75]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina All states.[76] 90 days within 180 days.
 Iceland All states[77] Freedom of movement.
 Liechtenstein All states[78] Freedom of movement.
 Macedonia All states.[79] 90 days within 180 days.
 Moldova All states.[80] 90 days within 180 days.
 Montenegro All states.[81] 90 days within 180 days.
 Monaco All states.[82]
 Norway All states Freedom of movement.
 San Marino All states.[83]
 Serbia All states.[84] 90 days within 180 days.
  Switzerland All states[85] Freedom of movement.
 Turkey All others Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom.[86] 90 days (30 days for Latvia).
 Ukraine All states.[87] 90 days.
  Vatican City All states.
Oceania
Country Visa not required Visa required
 Australia All states (eVisitor).[88] 90 days on each visit in 12 month period if granted.
 Fiji All others[89] Croatia and Lithuania[90] 4 months.
 Kiribati All others Croatia.[91] 30 days.
 Micronesia All states.[92] 30 days.
 New Zealand All states.[93] 90 days.
 Vanuatu All states.[94] 30 days.

All European Union citizens can visit the following partially recognised countries or territories with autonomous immigration policies without a visa — in Europe Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,[95] Kosovo,[96] South Ossetia,[97][98] Transnistria,[99][100] in Asia Hong Kong,[101] Macau,[102] Palestine,[103] Taiwan.[104]

All European Union citizens always must arrange the visa prior to travel to (as of June 2014) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Benin, Bhutan, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China (except short term visits in transit and Hainan), Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Iraq (outside Iraqi Kurdistan), North Korea, Liberia, Libya, Niger, Nigeria, Russia (outside Kaliningrad), São Tomé and Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Yemen.

Reciprocity[edit]

The EU has achieved full reciprocity with the following countries (meaning the citizens of those countries may travel to all EU member states visa-free) — Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Singapore, South Korea, Uruguay, Venezuela. Due to the visa requirement for Croatian citizens the reciprocity with Brunei and Saint Kitts and Nevis is incomplete. Additionally exclusion of several countries from the visa waiver of Canada and the United States hinders a possible reciprocity, even though their citizens have visa-free access to all EU member states.

According to notifications concerning visa reciprocity issued by Member States in February 2014,[105] the following countries are still not implementing it fully:

  • Australia: Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania notified the Commission that Australia requires a visa for their citizens.
  • Brunei: Brunei maintains a visa requirement for Croatian nationals.
  • Canada: Bulgarian and Romanian citizens are still required to apply for visas to enter Canada.[106]
  • Japan: Most EU citizens enjoy visa-free access to Japan. For Romanian citizens a first temporary waiver was enacted in 2009 and an extension of the waiver is in effect until 31 December 2015.[107] Additionally, Romanian citizens in possession of temporary passports are not able to enter Japan without a visa.
  • United States: Bulgarian, Croatian, Cypriot, Polish and Romanian citizens are still required to apply for a visa to enter the US.

Implications are that if the notification is accepted the EU may suspend the visa exemption for certain categories of nationals of country in the breach of reciprocity principle and at the latest six months after publication of the regulation, the Commission may decide to suspend the visa-free access to all citizens of that country.[108]

Visa on arrival[edit]

The following countries provide visa on arrival to the citizens of the European Union. Some of these countries may be available for visa free access to some (*) or all other EU nationals (**) – for details see above. Some countries may not provide visa on arrival facilities at all entry points.

Visa on arrival
for citizens
of all states
Notes
 Bangladesh[109][110] 30 days. Fees vary per country.
Extensions are possible.
[111]
 Burundi[112] 30 days. USD 90.[113]
 Cambodia[114][115] 30 days. USD 20.[116]
 Cape Verde[117][118] EUR 25.[119]
 Comoros[120][121][122] EUR 30.[123]
 Djibouti[124][125] 1 month. EUR 75.[126]
 East Timor*[67][127] 30 days. USD 30.[128]
 Egypt[129][130] 30 days. USD 25.[131]
 Guinea Bissau[132] 90 days. EUR 85.[133]
 Jordan[134][135] 30 days. JOD 20.[136]
 Kenya*[137] 3 months, extendable once. USD 50.[138]
 Laos*[139][140] 30 days. USD 30.[141]
 Lebanon[142][143] 3 months. LBP 100,000.[144]
 Madagascar[145] 90 days. MGA 140,000.[146]
 Maldives[147] 30 days, extendable up to 90 days. MVR 750.[148]
 Mali[149]
 Marshall Islands[150][151] 90 days. Free of charge.[152]
 Mauritania[153]
   Nepal[154][155] 90 days. USD 25 - USD 100.[156]
 Oman[157] 3 months. OMR 5 - 20.[158]
 Palau[159] 30 days, extension possible. USD 50.[160]
 Papua New Guinea 60 days. Fees vary.[161][162]
 Samoa[163] 60 days, extendable. Free of charge.[164]
 Seychelles[165] 1 month, extendable. Free of charge.[160]
 Solomon Islands[166] 3 months. Free of charge.[167]
 Sri Lanka[168][169] 30 days, extendable up to 150 days. Fees vary.[170]
 Tajikistan[171][172] 45 days. Fees vary.[173]
 Tanzania*[174] USD 50 - USD 100.[175]
 Togo[176] 7 days, extendable for 90 days.
XOF 10,000 to XOF 90,000.
[177]
 Tuvalu[178] 1 month, extendable once. Free of charge.[179]
 Uganda*[180] USD 50.[181]
 United Arab Emirates[182] 30 days. Free of charge.[183]
 Zambia*[184] 90 days. USD 50 - USD 80.[177]
Visa on arrival available to the citizens of some EU countries. Some of these countries may be available for visa free access to some (*) or all other EU nationals (**) – for details see above. Some countries may not provide visa on arrival facilities at all entry points.
Country Visa on arrival available to citizens of Notes
 Bahrain Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom[185][186][187] 14 days. BHD 5.[188]
 Bolivia** Bulgaria, Cyprus, Malta, Romania[189] 90 days. USD 52.[190]
 Burkina Faso Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom[191] 1 month, extension possible.
XOF 47,000 to XOF 61,000.
[192]
 Ethiopia[193] Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom[194] USD 20.[195]
 Gambia* France, Portugal, Spain[196]
 Grenada** Bulgaria, Croatia[197] 3 months
 India Finland, Luxembourg[198][199][200] 30 days. USD 60.[201]
 Indonesia[202] All except Croatia[203] 30 days. USD 25.[204]
 Jamaica** Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovenia[27] USD 20.[205]
 Kyrgyzstan** Bulgaria, Cyprus, Romania[206] 1 month. USD 40 - USD 100.[207]
 Kuwait All except Croatia[208][209][210] 3 months. KWD 3.[211]
 Mozambique[212] All except those hosting a Mozambique embassy (currently Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom).[213][214][215][216] 30 days, extendable up to 60 days.
 Nauru Cyprus, Malta, United Kingdom[217] Free of charge.[218]
 Qatar[219] Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom[220][221] 1 month. QAR 50 - QAR 150.[222]
 Saint Lucia** Croatia[223] 6 weeks. USD 50.[224]
 Senegal[225] Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom[226] 3 months. EUR 50.[227]
 Suriname[228] Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom[229] 90 days. USD 20.[230]
 Thailand* Bulgaria, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Romania[66] 15 days. THB 1,000.[231]
 Tonga All except Croatia[232] 31 days, extendable for further 6 months.
Free of charge.
[233]
 Turkey** Until end of 2014: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom[86][234] 3 months. EUR 15.[235]
 Zimbabwe*[236] Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom[18] 3 months. USD 30 - USD 70.[237]

Limited visa on arrival[edit]

  •  Pakistan - All EU nationals except those from Bulgaria and Croatia may obtain visa on arrival when travelling on business. They must have a local sponsor who must obtain an approval from the immigration authorities at the port of arrival (Islamabad, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta or Karachi airports) and a recommendation letter from country of residence or invitation letter from Pakistan.[242] Nationals of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom may obtain a visa on arrival for a maximum stay of 30 days, if they are travelling as part of a group through a designated tour operator.[243]
  •  Somalia - Visas are issued on arrival for 30 days (extendable once) provided an invitation letter issued by the sponsor has been submitted to the Airport Immigration Department at least 2 days before arrival.[244]
  •  Vietnam - Visitors can obtain a visa on arrival for a maximum stay of 1 or 3 months if they are holders of an approval letter issued and stamped by the Vietnamese Immigration Department (obtainable online through travel agencies for a fee) and if arriving only at airports in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City or Da Nang.[245] All travellers can visit Phú Quốc without a visa for up to 30 days.[246][247]

Online visas[edit]

The following countries provide electronic visas to the citizens of the European Union.

Visa on arrival
for citizens
of all states
Notes
 Australia[248] ETA 601 online visa still available to citizens of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. More recent and free eVisitor authorisation is available to all. Online Visitor visa e600 for stays over 90 days is also available to all EU citizens.
 Cambodia[249] Visa on arrival also available.
 Ivory Coast[250] Available to all EU citizens.
 Myanmar[251] Currently available to citizens of Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Visa on arrival also available.
 Rwanda[252][253] Available to all EU citizens.
 Saint Kitts and Nevis[254] Available to the citizens of Croatia. Other EU citizens do not require a visa.
 Sao Tome and Principe[255] Available to all EU citizens.
 Senegal[256] Available to all EU citizens.
 Sri Lanka[257] Visa on arrival also available.
 Turkey[258] Available to the citizens of Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom. Other EU citizens do not require a visa. Visa on arrival is also available but being phased out.
 Zimbabwe[259] Visa on arrival also available.

Pre-approved visas pick-up[edit]

Pre-approved visas can be picked up on arrival in the following countries instead in embassy or consulate.

Pre-approved
visas pick-up
on arrival
 Bhutan[260]
 Cameroon[261]
 Côte d'Ivoire[262]
 Eritrea[263]
 Gabon[264]
 Ghana[265]
 Kazakhstan[266]
 Liberia[267]
 Libya[268]
 Mongolia[269]
 Nigeria[270]
 Senegal*[271]
 Sierra Leone[272]
 Sudan[273]
 Turkmenistan[274]
 Uzbekistan[275]

Other[edit]

Non-ordinary passports[edit]

In addition to visa requirements for normal passport holders certain countries have specific visa requirements towards diplomatic and various official passport holders:

Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Mali and Zimbabwe grant visa-free access to holders of diplomatic or service passports issued to nationals of any country. Mauritania and Senegal grant visa-free access to holders of diplomatic passports issued to nationals of any country. Bahrain, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cambodia and South Sudan allow holders of diplomatic, official, service and special passports issued to nationals of any country to obtain a visa on arrival.

Vaccination[edit]

Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination. Almost all other African countries and some Asian and Latin American countries require vaccination if the passenger is coming from an infected area.[290]

Passport validity[edit]

Many countries require passport validity of no less than 6 months and one or two blank pages.[291]

Countries requiring passport validity of at least 6 months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Bhutan, Botswana, Brunei, Cambodia, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Guyana, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq (except when arriving at Basra - 3 months and Erbil or Sulaimaniyah - on arrival), Israel, Kenya, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, countries requiring passport validity of at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia, Zambia, countries requiring passport validity of at least 3 months on arrival include Georgia, Honduras, Iceland, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Moldova, Nauru, Panama, United Arab Emirates and countries requiring passport validity of at least 1 month on arrival include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Macao, New Zealand, South Africa.[292] Other countries require either a passport valid on arrival or passport valid throughout the period of intended stay.

Israeli stamps[edit]

Visitors with passport stamp of Israel are not allowed to enter a number of countries because of the Arab League boycott of Israel. Some EU countries, e.g. Austria and Germany, allow their citizens to hold two or more passports of the country to circumvent such travel restrictions, but some countries (including Austria and Germany) also restrict or forbid the holding of two passports of two different countries, i.e. dual citizenship. It is also possible to get the stamp on a separate piece of paper.

Fingerprinting[edit]

Several countries including Argentina, Cambodia, Japan, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea and the United States demand all passengers to be fingerprinted on arrival.[293][294][295][296][297][298][299]

Passport rankings[edit]

Passport rankings by the number of countries and territories their holders could visit without a visa or by obtaining visa on arrival in 2014 were as follows: British, Finnish, German, Swedish (174 countries and territories), Danish (173), Belgian, Dutch, French, Italian, Luxembourgian, Portuguese, Spanish (172), Austrian, Irish (171), Greek (169), Maltese (166), Czech, Hungarian (162), Slovak (161), Slovenian (160), Latvian (158), Cypriot, Estonian, Lithuanian, Polish (157) Bulgarian (149), Romanian (148) and Croatian (138). All EU passports are ranked within the top 30 positions. Passports of the Schengen area countries rank similarly, Norwegian (171), Swiss (170), Icelandic (165) and Liechtenstein (161) while the passports of the candidate states rank slightly lower Serbian (107), Macedonian (106), Turkish (100), Montenegrin (99) and Albanian (91). European microstates with borderless regime with the EU rank highly San Marino (151), Monaco (150), Andorra (148) and Vatican City (131).[300]

Future[edit]

European Commission proposed a visa-free travel for 16 island nations in 2012. This proposal foresees that the visa exemption will be reciprocated through visa waiver agreements, ensuring a visa free regime for all EU citizens who wish to travel to these countries. The island nations in question are Caribbean island nations – Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago, and Pacific island nations – Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu.[301] The list was expanded in 2013 with Colombia, Peru and the United Arab Emirates.[302] Most of these countries already provide visa-free or visa on arrival access in some form to the EU citizens.

Freedom of movement within the EU[edit]

Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 recognises the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States[303][304][305] defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the European Union (EU) and the three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. Switzerland, which is a member of EFTA but not of the EEA, is not bound by the Directive but rather has a separate bilateral agreement on the free movement with the EU.

Citizens of all European Economic Area (EEA) member states and Switzerland holding a valid passport or national identity card enjoy freedom of movement rights in each other's territory and can enter and reside in the each other's territory without a visa.

If EU, EEA and Swiss nationals are unable to present a valid passport or national identity card at the border, they must nonetheless be afforded every reasonable opportunity to obtain the necessary documents or have them brought to them within a reasonable period of time or corroborate or prove by other means that he/she is covered by the right of free movement.[306][307]

However, EU, EEA member states and Switzerland can refuse entry to an EU/EEA/Swiss national on public policy, public security or public health grounds where the person presents a "genuine, present and sufficiently serious threat affecting one of the fundamental interests of society".[308] If the person has obtained permanent residence in the country where he/she seeks entry (a status which is normally attained after 5 years of residence), the member state can only expel him/her on serious grounds of public policy or public security. Where the person has resided for 10 years or is a minor, the member state can only expel him/her on imperative grounds of public security (and, in the case of minors, if expulsion is necessary in the best interests of the child, as provided for in the Convention on the Rights of the Child).[309] Expulsion on public health grounds must relate to diseases with 'epidemic potential' which have occurred less than 3 months from the person's the date of arrival in the Member State where he/she seeks entry.[310]

A family member of an EU/EEA/Swiss citizen who is in possession of a residence permit indicating their status is exempt from the requirement to hold a visa when entering the European Union, European Economic Area or Switzerland when they are accompanying their EU/EEA/Swiss family member or are seeking to join them.[311] However the UK requires family members to obtain a special permit in order to enter the United Kingdom.[312] Non-EU family members will need a Schengen Visa before they travel to Switzerland even if they possess a UK residence permit that clearly mentions that they are the family member of an EEA Citizen.

Limitations of the freedom of movement[edit]

  • Voting and working in sensitive fields (such as government, police, and military) are only possible in the country of citizenship.[citation needed]
  • To avoid "welfare tourism," the countries can exclude immigrants from getting welfare for the first three months; welfare can also be refused completely if the immigrants do not have a job after a certain period of time and do not try to get one. Immigrants convicted of welfare fraud can be deported and be refused the re-entry of the country.[citation needed]
  • In spite of the freedom of movement, each country can make its own citizenship laws, and several EU countries and the EFTA members Liechtenstein and Norway restrict or forbid dual citizenship, so foreigners (sometimes even citizens of other EU or EFTA countries) must renounce their old citizenship if they want to naturalize there. See also Multiple citizenship[citation needed] and this summary of the citizenship laws of the EU member states, for EFTA countries, see Icelandic nationality law, Norwegian nationality law, and Swiss nationality law and Schweizer Bürgerrecht (in German). Currently, there is no English-language Wikipedia entry on the nationality law of Liechtenstein available (Liechtenstein allows citizens by descent to have dual citizenship, but foreigners wanting to naturalize must renounce their old citizenship).
  • The freedom of movement does not apply to overseas territories of EU countries except the regions of France.[citation needed] The citizens of some overseas territories of EU countries are regarded as citizens of the EU country, but not as EU citizens.
  • The United Kingdom and Ireland decided not to join the Schengen Agreement; Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, and Romania will join later. The EFTA countries are members, and the four microstates can be regarded as "de-facto members."
  • The EU considers Cyprus "indivisible," so Northern Cyprus is regarded as a "special territory," but not as a country of its own. Citizens of the EU, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland can visit it visa-free for 90 days. Besides Turkey, only five countries accept a Northern Cypriot passport as a travel document (Australia, France, Pakistan, United Kingdom, and United States of America), and they require pre-arrival visas (even the EU members France and United Kingdom). Citizens of Nothern Cyprus can stay in Turkey visa-free for an unlimited period of time and live and work under the same circumstances like Turkish citizens. Despite the ethnic and physical division of Turkish Cypriots from the rest of Cyprus, they can obtain Cypriot passports and ID cards if they prove to be Cypriots by descent. Turkish settlers in the northern part of Cyprus are not entitled to Cypriot citizenship.
  • The four microstates Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City are surrounded by EU countries, but they are no EU or EFTA members themselves. There is visa-free travel between them, the EU, and the EFTA, but there are no agreements on immigration and access to the job markets.[citation needed]

Right to consular protection in non-EU countries[edit]

When in a non-EU country, EU citizens whose country maintains no embassy there have the right to get consular protection from the embassy of any other EU country present there.[313]

Currently (2014), there are 16 non-EU countries where there is only one embassy of an EU country:

  • Antigua and Barbuda (United Kingdom), Barbados (United Kingdom, EU delegation), Belize (United Kingdom, EU office), Central African Republic (France, EU delegation),
  • Comoros (France), Djibouti (France, EU delegation), Gambia (United Kingdom, EU office), Guyana (United Kingdom, EU delegation),
  • Lesotho (Ireland, EU delegation), Liberia (Germany), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (United Kingdom), San Marino (Italy),
  • São Tomé and Príncipe (Portugal), Solomon Islands (United Kingdom), Timor-Leste (Portugal, EU delegation), and Vanuatu (France, EU delegation).

Currently, the following 18 non-EU countries have no embassy of an EU country:

  • Bahamas, Bhutan (Denmark Liaison office), Dominica, Grenada, Kiribati, Liberia (EU delegation),
  • Liechtenstein, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau,
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis, Samoa (EU office), Somalia, Swaziland (EU office), Tonga, and Tuvalu.

The sovereign entity Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the partially recognized countries Sahrawi Republic and Taiwan (17 non-diplomatic offices) have no embassy of an EU country either.

The European Commission also has no delegations or offices to most of them.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ COUNTRIES THAT DO NOT REQUIRE VISA TO ENTER BOTSWANA
  2. ^ "Visa Information - Gambia". Timatic. IATA. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ Visa requirements to enter the Kingdom of Lesotho
  6. ^ Visa Information
  7. ^ Visa Requirements in Mauritius
  8. ^ "Formalités et procédures pour les visiteurs internationaux" (in French). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Kingdom of Morocco. Retrieved 27 Aug 2010. 
  9. ^ "Visa information". Consulate-General of Morocco, New York. Retrieved 29 Sep 2013. 
  10. ^ Visa Requirements for Foreigners Travelling to Namibia Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Namibia
  11. ^ [3]
  12. ^ South African Department of Home Affairs (accessed 10 March 2013)
  13. ^ The following Countries do NOT require a VISA to enter the Kingdom of Swaziland
  14. ^ LIST OF COUNTRIES AND SPECIFIC VISA ELIGIBILITY, Immigration Services Department of Tanzania
  15. ^ [4]
  16. ^ VISA APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS
  17. ^ Nationals who do not require VISA
  18. ^ a b REVISED REGIME WITH EFFECT FROM 26 JULY 2012
  19. ^ Visa Entry Requirements
  20. ^ Frequently Asked Questions on Immigration/Visas/Employment and General entry to the Bahamas
  21. ^ [5]
  22. ^ ENTRY REQUIREMENTS, Discover Dominica Authority
  23. ^ Do I Need a Visa to Enter into Dominica?, Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica
  24. ^ [6]
  25. ^ [7]
  26. ^ [8]
  27. ^ a b "Do I need a visa to enter Jamaica?". Government of Jamaica. Retrieved 13 October 2013. 
  28. ^ [9]
  29. ^ List Of Countries/Territories Whose Nationals Do Not Require Visas
  30. ^ http://www.svgconsulate.co.uk/passport_and_visa_application.htm
  31. ^ VISA REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL COUNTRIES
  32. ^ [10]
  33. ^ Countries and territories whose citizens do not need a visa (visa exemptions)
  34. ^ [11]
  35. ^ [12]
  36. ^ [13]
  37. ^ [14]
  38. ^ [15]
  39. ^ [16]
  40. ^ CLASIFICACION DE VISAS PARA VIAJAR A PANAMA - TYPES OF VISAS TO TRAVEL INTO PANAMA
  41. ^ [17]
  42. ^ [18]
  43. ^ [19]
  44. ^ [20]
  45. ^ Agreement between the European Union and the Federative Republic of Brazil on short-stay visa waiver for holders of ordinary passports, Council of the European Union.
  46. ^ [21]
  47. ^ [22]
  48. ^ [23]
  49. ^ [24]
  50. ^ [25]
  51. ^ [26]
  52. ^ [27]
  53. ^ [28]
  54. ^ [29]
  55. ^ Seventh report on certain third countries' maintenance of visa requirements in breach of the principle of reciprocity
  56. ^ [30]
  57. ^ [31]
  58. ^ Kazakhstan Dropping Visa Requirements For Citizens Of 10 Countries
  59. ^ [32]
  60. ^ "Visa Information for Lao People's Democratic Republic: Holders of Normal Passports from Luxembourg". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  61. ^ [33]
  62. ^ [34]
  63. ^ [35]
  64. ^ [36]
  65. ^ [37]
  66. ^ a b [38]
  67. ^ a b [39]
  68. ^ [40]
  69. ^ [41]
  70. ^ [42]
  71. ^ [43]
  72. ^ [44]
  73. ^ German citizens born before January 1, 1928 need a visa for Israel, which will be issued for free if one was not a member of the Nazi party or involved in crimes committed during the time of the Nazi Germany.
  74. ^ [45]
  75. ^ [46]
  76. ^ [47]
  77. ^ [48]
  78. ^ [49]
  79. ^ [50]
  80. ^ [51]
  81. ^ [52]
  82. ^ [53]
  83. ^ [54]
  84. ^ [55]
  85. ^ [56]
  86. ^ a b Visa Information For Foreigners
  87. ^ [57]
  88. ^ "For eVisitor Applicants - Who can apply". Department of Immigration and Border Protection. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  89. ^ [58]
  90. ^ [59]
  91. ^ Visa Requirement
  92. ^ Custom Regulations, Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board
  93. ^ Immigration New Zealand Visa-Waiver Countries, Immigration New Zealand (INZ) - Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
  94. ^ [60]
  95. ^ [61][62]
  96. ^ [63]
  97. ^ [64]
  98. ^ [65]
  99. ^ [66]
  100. ^ [67]
  101. ^ [68]
  102. ^ [69]
  103. ^ "Visa Information for State of Palestine: Holders of Normal Passports from France". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  104. ^ [70]
  105. ^ "Information from the Commission about notifications by the Member States of cases of non-reciprocity in accordance with Article 1(4)(a) of Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 as amended by Regulation (EU) No 1289/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council". European Commission. 12 April 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  106. ^ [71]
  107. ^ Extension of the Visa-waiver program for Romanian citizens travelling to Japan
  108. ^ EU gives US six months to come clean on visa policy
  109. ^ Available at Shahjalal International Airport, Shah Amanat International Airport and Osmani International Airport only.
  110. ^ [72]
  111. ^ https://www.timaticweb.com/cgi-bin/tim_website_client.cgi?FullText=1&COUNTRY=BD&SECTION=VI&SUBSECTION=00&user=KLMB2C&subuser=KLMB2C
  112. ^ Obtainable at Bujumbura International Airport.
  113. ^ [73]
  114. ^ [74]
  115. ^ 20 USD
  116. ^ [75]
  117. ^ Obtainable at Nelson Mandela International Airport, Cesária Évora Airport, Amílcar Cabral International Airport and Aristides Pereira International Airport.
  118. ^ [76]
  119. ^ [77]
  120. ^ [78]
  121. ^ [79]
  122. ^ 50 USD
  123. ^ [80]
  124. ^ Obtainable at Djibouti–Ambouli International Airport.
  125. ^ [81]
  126. ^ [82]
  127. ^ For arrivals by air only.
  128. ^ [83]
  129. ^ [84]
  130. ^ Visa not required for up to 15 days in Sinai resorts
  131. ^ [85]
  132. ^ "Visa Information - Guinea-Bissau". Timatic. IATA. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  133. ^ [86]
  134. ^ Visa on arrival obtainable at most international ports of entry and at most international land border crossings (except King Hussein/Allenby Bridge crossing).
  135. ^ [87]
  136. ^ [88]
  137. ^ [89]
  138. ^ [90]
  139. ^ Available at international airports Wattay Vientiane, Pakse Savannakhet and Luang Prabang, and at land borders Friendship Bridge, Vientiane and Savannakhet; Nam Heuang Friendship Bridge, Sayabouly Province; and border crossings at Boten-Mohan, Dansavan-Lao Bao, Houaysay-Chiang Khong, Thakhek-Nakhon Phanom, Nong Haet-Nam Kan, Nam Phao-Kao Cheo, Veun Kham-Dong Calor, and Vangtao-Chong Mek as well as Tha Naleng train station in Vientiane, which connects to the train station in Nongkhai, Thailand. Entry points Napao-Chalo, Taichang-Sophoun, Pakxan-Bungkan, and Xiengkok are open only to visa holders.
  140. ^ [91]
  141. ^ [92]
  142. ^ Obtainable at the land border with Syria, the port of Beirut, or Beirut International Airport.
  143. ^ [93]
  144. ^ [94]
  145. ^ [95]
  146. ^ [96]
  147. ^ [97]
  148. ^ [98]
  149. ^ "Visa Information - Mali". Timatic. IATA. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  150. ^ [99]
  151. ^ "Visa requirements overview - REPUBLIC OF THE MARSHALL ISLANDS (THE) - REPUBLIC OF CROATIA Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs". Mvep.hr. 2014-07-22. Retrieved 2014-08-01. 
  152. ^ [100]
  153. ^ [101]
  154. ^ Obtainable at Tribhuvan International Airport and certain land borders.
  155. ^ [102]
  156. ^ [103]
  157. ^ [104]
  158. ^ [105]
  159. ^ [106]
  160. ^ a b [107]
  161. ^ [108]
  162. ^ [109]
  163. ^ [110]
  164. ^ [111]
  165. ^ [112]
  166. ^ [113]
  167. ^ [114]
  168. ^ [115]
  169. ^ ETA obtainable on arrival or online prior to arrival.
  170. ^ [116]
  171. ^ [117]
  172. ^ Obtainable at Dushanbe International Airport.
  173. ^ [118]
  174. ^ [119]
  175. ^ [120]
  176. ^ [121]
  177. ^ a b [122]
  178. ^ [123]
  179. ^ [124]
  180. ^ [125]
  181. ^ [126]
  182. ^ Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia to be exempt from 22 March 2014 - All EU Citizens To Get UAE Visa On Arrival From March 22
  183. ^ [127]
  184. ^ [128]
  185. ^ [129]
  186. ^ Also Bahrain Grand Prix visitors from Cyprus and Hungary.
  187. ^ All EU countries to be included as of January 2015. New Visa Policy benefits international businesses and tourism industry
  188. ^ [130]
  189. ^ [131]
  190. ^ [132]
  191. ^ "Visa Information - Burkina Faso". Timatic. IATA. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  192. ^ [133]
  193. ^ Obtainable at Addis Ababa Bole International Airport.
  194. ^ [134]
  195. ^ [135]
  196. ^ [136]
  197. ^ [137]
  198. ^ Visa on Arrival obtainable at the Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Kochi and Thiruvanathapuram airports. There are plans to grant visas on arrival or online visas to citizens of all other EU/EFTA countries from October 2014 and at all international airports.
  199. ^ [138]
  200. ^ "Visa Information for India: Holders of Normal Passports from Luxembourg". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  201. ^ [139]
  202. ^ Obtainable at the airports in Jakarta, Bali, Surabaya, Banda Aceh, Medan, Padang, Pekanbaru, Manado, Biak, Ambon, Balikpapan, Pontianak, Kupang, Batam, and South Sumatra, at Batam and Bintan ferry terminals and no land border crossing.
  203. ^ [140]
  204. ^ [141]
  205. ^ [142]
  206. ^ [143]
  207. ^ [144]
  208. ^ [145]
  209. ^ "Visa Information - Kuwait". Timatic. IATA. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  210. ^ Obtainable at all Kuwaiti ports of entry
  211. ^ [146]
  212. ^ Only at designated crossings. São autorizados a conceder o visto de Fronteira os seguintes Postos Fronteiriços
  213. ^ Procedimentos da Migração
  214. ^ Mozambique: Tightened Visa Requirements for Entering Mozambique
  215. ^ New Enforcement of Visa Requirements for Entry
  216. ^ Mozambique
  217. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  218. ^ [147]
  219. ^ Available only at Doha International Airport.
  220. ^ Hukoomi Portal Entry Visas
  221. ^ "Visa Information - Qatar". Timatic. IATA. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  222. ^ [148]
  223. ^ "Visa Information for Saint Lucia: Holders of Normal Passports from Croatia". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  224. ^ [149]
  225. ^ Available at Dakar International Airport only.
  226. ^ "Visa Information - Senegal". Timatic. IATA. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  227. ^ [150]
  228. ^ Obtainable at Johan Adolf Pengel International Airport.
  229. ^ [151]
  230. ^ [152]
  231. ^ [153]
  232. ^ [154]
  233. ^ [155]
  234. ^ Until April 2014 when the system will be entirely replaced by e-Visa system. [156]
  235. ^ [157]
  236. ^ Strictly tourism purposes only.
  237. ^ [158]
  238. ^ Particulars of issuance of entry visas at the «National Airport Minsk»
  239. ^ [159]
  240. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. IATA. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  241. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  242. ^ [160]
  243. ^ Group Tourism through Designated Tour Operators
  244. ^ [161]
  245. ^ [162]
  246. ^ Phu Quoc Specific Decisions
  247. ^ No visa required for tourists to Phu Quoc on short stay
  248. ^ Electronic Travel Authority
  249. ^ eVisa
  250. ^ Visa at International Airport Felix Houphouet Boigny in Abidjan
  251. ^ Myanmar eVisa
  252. ^ Myanmar eVisa
  253. ^ "VISA". Migration.gov.rw. 2013-09-10. Retrieved 2013-10-22. 
  254. ^ [163]
  255. ^ eVisaST
  256. ^ [164]
  257. ^ "Online Visa Application". Eta.gov.lk. Retrieved 2013-10-22. 
  258. ^ Electronic Visa Application System
  259. ^ [165]
  260. ^ [166]
  261. ^ [167]
  262. ^ [168]
  263. ^ [169]
  264. ^ [170]
  265. ^ [171]
  266. ^ [172]
  267. ^ [173]
  268. ^ [174]
  269. ^ [175]
  270. ^ [176]
  271. ^ [177]
  272. ^ [178]
  273. ^ [179]
  274. ^ [180]
  275. ^ [181]
  276. ^ 2012年12月06日03:46 来源:新京报 (2010-09-09). "北京对45国游客72小时过境免签 树立更开放形象". News.sohu.com. Retrieved 2013-03-29. 
  277. ^ "Visa Exemption". travelChinaguide.com. Retrieved 2013-09-03. 
  278. ^ .com/72-hour-visa-free-permit.htm "72-Hour China Visa-Free Travel". Travel West China. Retrieved 2013-09-03. 
  279. ^ "Chongqing launches 72-hour visa-free stays". LUO WANGSHU in Chongqing (China Daily). 2013-10-24. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  280. ^ "Visa Exemption". travelChinaguide.com. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  281. ^ "New 72 Hour Travel Without Visa Policy To Begin August 1 - Foreign Nationals From 45 Countries May Enter Guangzhou Without Visa". aucklandairport.co.nz. 2013-07-23. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  282. ^ "''Visa-free entry into China'". shanghaiairport.com. 2012-12-31. Retrieved 2013-03-29. 
  283. ^ "Shanghai joins Beijing, offers visa-free travel | CNN Travel". Travel.cnn.com. 2012-12-10. Retrieved 2013-03-29. 
  284. ^ Guilin offers 72-hour visa-free travel
  285. ^ 72 Hours in Xi'an
  286. ^ Xi'an allows 72-hr visa exemptions
  287. ^ Hainan Regulated Visa Waiver Policy, Hainan Tourism Development Commission
  288. ^ Short-term visas – «tourism 72 hours»
  289. ^ Visa of the Republic of Uzbekistan
  290. ^ Countries with risk of yellow fever transmission and countries requiring yellow fever vaccination
  291. ^ "International Travel Information". Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  292. ^ Timatic
  293. ^ Argentina strengthens migratory control
  294. ^ Japan fingerprints foreigners as anti-terror move
  295. ^ S Korea to scan fingerprints of suspicious foreign visitors
  296. ^ Cambodia Country Specific Information
  297. ^ Malaysia Country Specific Information
  298. ^ Saudi Arabia mandates fingerprints and biometrics for foreigners
  299. ^ Office of Biometric Identity Management
  300. ^ The Henley & Partners Visa Restriction Index 2014
  301. ^ Commission proposes visa-free travel to citizens of 16 Island Nations
  302. ^ EU adds Columbia, Peru and UAE to visa-free travel list
  303. ^ "Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States" (in English). 2004-04-29. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  304. ^ Summary of the Directive 2004/38/EC "Right of Union citizens and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States" (in English). 2006-05-02. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  305. ^ "Decision of the EEA Joint Committee No 158/2007 of 7 December 2007 amending Annex V (Free movement of workers) and Annex VIII (Right of establishment) to the EEA Agreement" (PDF) (in English). 2007-12-07. Retrieved 2008-12-22. 
  306. ^ Article 6.3.2 of the Practical Handbook for Border Guards (C (2006) 5186)
  307. ^ Judgement of the European Court of Justice of 17 February 2005, Case C 215/03, Salah Oulane vs. Minister voor Vreemdelingenzaken en Integratie ([182])
  308. ^ Article 27 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  309. ^ Article 28 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  310. ^ Article 29 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  311. ^ Articles 3(1) and 5(2) of the of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  312. ^ UK Border Agency. "EEA family permits". Retrieved 11 February 2013. 
  313. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/justice/citizen/consular-protection/index_en.htm

External links[edit]