Visakham Thirunal

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Visakham Thirunal Rama Varma
Maharaja of Travancore
Visakham Thirunal Rama Varma of Travancore (1837 - 1885).jpg
Painting of Visakham Thirunal by the Durbar Artist Kizhakkaemadhom Padmanabhan Thampi
Born (1837-05-19)May 19, 1837
Died August 4, 1885(1885-08-04) (aged 48)
Predecessor Ayilyam Thirunal
Successor Moolam Thirunal
Consort Arumana Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Lakshmi Pillai Kochamma
Royal house Venad Swaroopam
Dynasty Kulasekhara
Royal anthem Vancheesamangalam
Father Punartham Thirunal Rama Varma Koil Thampuran
Mother Rani Gowri Rukmini Bayi
Religious beliefs Hinduism
Kingdom of Travancore
Part of History of Kerala
Flag of Travancore
Travancore Kings
Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma 1729–1758
Dharma Raja 1758–1798
Avittam Thirunal 1798–1810
Gowri Lakshmi Bayi 1810–1815
Gowri Parvati Bayi 1815–1829
Swathi Thirunal 1813–1846
Uthram Thirunal 1846–1860
Ayilyam Thirunal 1860–1880
Visakham Thirunal 1880–1885
Moolam Thirunal 1885–1924
Sethu Lakshmi Bayi 1924–1931
Chithira Thirunal 1924–1991, (1971-1991 titular)
Uthradom Thirunal Marthanda Varma 1991-2013 (Titular)
Moolam Thirunal Rama VarmaVI 2013- (Titular)
‡ Regent Queens
Padmanabhapuram 1729–1795
Thiruvananthapuram 1795–1947
Padmanabhapuram Palace
Kilimanoor palace
Kuthira Malika
Kowdiar Palace

Visakham Thirunal Rama Varma GCSI FRGS FRAS(19 May 1837 - 4 August 1885) was the Maharaja of the erstwhile Indian kingdom of Travancore from 1880-1885 AD. He succeeded his elder brother Maharajah Ayilyam Thirunal to the throne of Travancore.

Early life[edit]

Vishakham Thirunal Rama varma was born on the 19th of May 1837 to Rani Gowri Rukmini Bayi and her husband Punartham Thirunal Rama Varma Koil Thampuran of the Royal Family of Thiruvalla. His mother died when he was barely two months of age leaving him and his elder siblings to the care of their father. His Highness was grandson to Maharani Gowri Lakshmi Bayi and nephew of Maharajah Swathi Thirunal.

As a prince he received his early education from his father, Rama Varma. This was basic training in vernacular Malayalam language and Sanskrit which were essentials for members of the Royal family. At the age of nine he started his English education under Subba Row, who later became Dewan of Travancore. The prince took a keen interest in English composition and his first work, Horrors of war and benefits of peace, was well acknowledged. Some of his compositions were also published in "Madras Athenaeum". He also wrote in The Statesman and the Calcutta Review.

Visakham Thirunal as First Prince with his brother Ayilyam Thirunal and the Dewan Rajah Sir T. Madhava Rao

In 1861 the prince visited Madras and met with the Governor, Sir William Denison, upon whom he made such a favorable impression that the Governor remarked that "He is by far the most intelligent Native I have seen; and if his brother is like him, the prospects of Travancore are very favorable." The prince was soon appointed a Fellow of the University of Madras, a rare honour conferred on natives in those days. While he was still a prince he was also offered a seat in the Viceroy of India's Legislative Council which he, however, declined owing to ill health. He had a special aptitude for botany and agriculture.

He was an erudite scholar and had in his court learned Brahmins, known as Tharka Sastry and used to take their advice in settling cases that were referred to him. There is a story about his asking a question on the Mahabharata and only two in the group of Tharka Sastrys answered. One was Gopala Iyer and according to his request his son, K G Seah Iyer, was made a Munsiff who later became a famous Judge. The other was Gopala Sastry at whose request the Maharajah took up with the British resident to get the son of Gopala Sastry appointed the Sub-Registrar at Tiruchendur.

Both Gopala Iyer (Kadayam) and Gopala Sastry (Mela Cheval) were Vadadesa Vadama Brshmins from Tirunelveli.

Chief Compositions[edit]

  • The Horrors of War and Benefits of Peace
  • A Political Sketch of Travancore, Madras Athenaeum
  • Lectures on "Human Greatness", "The relation between nature and art", "Our Morals" and "Our Industrial Status" etc.
  • A Native Statesman, Calcutta Review
  • Observations on Higher Education


Painting by Raja Ravi Varma depicting Richard Temple-Grenville, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos being greeted by Visakham Thirunal, with Ayilyam Thirunal of Travancore looking on, during Buckingham's visit to Trivandrum, Travancore in early 1880.

The Maharajah's elder brother, Ayilyam Thirunal, died after ruling Travancore for twenty years from 1860 to 1880. As per the Marumakkathayam law, Prince Visakham Thirunal Rama Varma succeeded to the Travancore throne in 1880. He introduced a number of reforms including changes in the education system, police department, justice and judiciary etc. He furthered the cultivation of Tapioca which became so popular and commonly available that it came to be known as the poor man's meal in Travancore.

Family and demise[edit]

The Maharajah fell ill towards the end of July in 1885 at the age of 48 and died on the 4th of August 1885. His Highness was married in 1859 to a noblewomen of the Arumana Ammaveedu of Trivandrum with which family more than one of his ancestors had been related through marriage, Arumana Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Lakshmi Pillai Kochamma (educated privately and in English by the Church of England Zenana Mission in Trivandrum since 1865. Within the royalty and nobility of Trivandrum, she was the first lady to commence English Education), descendant of Maharajah Balarama Varma and Dharma Raja. The Maharajah chose his own consort, causing displeasure to his uncle and the then Maharajah, Uthram Thirunal.From this marriage the Maharajah had issue four children. His eldest and only son, Sri Narayanan Thampi, who started the first bus services in Travancore (Trivandrum-Nagercoil route), was born in 1865.

He married a daughter of Irayimman Thampi who was also of royal descent. In 1873 the Maharajah and his wife had their eldest daughter Bhagavati Pillai Kochamma who married Sri Rajaraja Varma Avargal of the Mavelikara Royal family. Their next daughter was born in 1876, Rukmini Pillai Kochamma who married Sri Kerala Varma Thirumulpad. The Maharajah's youngest daughter, Bhageerathi Pillai Kochamma was born in 1877 and was married to Sri Rama Varma of the Royal Family of Poonjar. The Thali Kettu Kalyanam of the Maharajah's daughters was conducted on the 18th of May 1883 in a grand public ceremony with the above mentioned husbands, as recorded by the French Ambassador in the Travancore Court.


Under the Marumakkathayam law of matriarchy the Maharajah was succeeded not by his own children but by those of his sisters. The Maharajah had only one sister and was succeeded by her younger son, Maharajah Moolam Thirunal Sir Rama Varma GCSI, GCIE. This King reigned from 1885 till his demise in 1924. His nephew, Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma was the last independent Maharajah of Travancore before ceding his state to India in 1947.

Official full name[edit]

Officially he was also known with his full title: His Royal Highness Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchi Pala Visakham Thirunal Rama Varma Kulasekhara Kiritapathi Manney Sultan Maharajah Raja Ramaraja Bahadur Shamsher Jang

See also[edit]


  • Travancore State Manual Volume I by V. Nagam Aiya
  • Travancore State Manual by Velu Pillai
  • Visakhavijaya, a Study by Poovattoor Ramakrishna Pillai
Visakham Thirunal
Born: 19 May 1837 Died: 4 August 1885
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ayilyam Thirunal
Maharaja of Travancore
Succeeded by
Moolam Thirunal