Viscose is a solution of cellulose xanthate made by treating a cellulose compound with sodium hydroxide and carbon disulfide. Byproducts include sodium thiocarbonate, sodium carbonate, and sodium sulfide. The viscose solution is used to spin the fiber viscose rayon, or rayon, a soft man-made fiber commonly used in dresses, linings, shirts, shorts, coats, jackets, and other outer wear. It is also used in industrial yarns (tyre cord), upholstery and carpets.
Viscose rayon is a fiber made from regenerated wood cellulose. Viscose rayon is structurally similar to cotton, which is almost pure cellulose. Cellulose is a linear polymer of β-D-glucose units with the empirical formula of (C6H10O5)n. To prepare viscose, the cellulose is treated with sodium hydroxide to form "alkali cellulose," which has the approximate formula [C6H9O4-ONa]n. The alkali cellulose is then treated with carbon disulfide to form a solution of sodium cellulose xanthate, which is called viscose.
- [C6H9O4-ONa]n + nCS2 → [C6H9O4-OCS2Na]n
The higher the ratio of cellulose to combined sulfur, the lower the solubility of the cellulose xanthate. The xanthate is dissolved in additional sodium hydroxide and allowed to depolymerize to a desired extent, indicated by the solution's viscosity. The rate of depolymerization (ripening or maturing) depends on temperature and is affected by the presence of various inorganic and organic additives, such as metal oxides and hydroxides. Air also affects the ripening process since oxygen causes depolymerization.
Rayon fiber is produced from the ripened solutions by treatment with a mineral acid, such as sulfuric acid. In this step, the xanthate groups are hydrolyzed to regenerate cellulose and release dithiocarbonic acid that later decomposes to carbon disulfide and water:
- [C6H9O4-OCS2Na]2n + nH2SO4 → [C6H9O4-OH]2n +2nCS2 + nNa2SO4
- H2COS2 → H2O + CS2
Aside from regenerated cellulose, acidification gives hydrogen sulfide, sulfur, and carbon disulfide. The thread made from the regenerated cellulose is washed to remove residual acid. The sulfur is then removed by the addition of sodium sulfide solution and impurities are oxidized by bleaching with sodium hypochlorite solution.
French scientist and industrialist Hilaire de Chardonnet (1838–1924)— who invented the first artificial textile fiber, artificial silk—created viscose. British scientists Charles Frederick Cross and Edward John Bevan took out British patent no. 8,700, "Improvements in Dissolving Cellulose and Allied Compounds" in May, 1892. In 1893 they formed the Viscose Syndicate to grant licences, and in 1896 formed the British Viscoid Co. Ltd. to exploit the process.
Products made from viscose
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- Bartell, F. E.; Cowling, Hale (1 May 1942). "Depolymermiation of Cellulose in Viscose Production". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 34 (5): 607–612. doi:10.1021/ie50389a017.
- Day, Lance; Ian McNeil (1998). Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology. Taylor & Francis. p. 113. ISBN 0415193990.
- Woodings, Calvin R. "A Brief History of Regenerated Cellulosic Fibres". WOODINGS CONSULTING LTD. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
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