Viscum album

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Viscum album
MistletoeInSilverBirch.jpg
Viscum album growing on a Populus species
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Santalales
Family: Santalaceae (Viscaceae)
Genus: Viscum
Species: V. album
Binomial name
Viscum album
L.

Viscum album is a species of mistletoe in the family Santalaceae, commonly known as European mistletoe, common mistletoe or simply as mistletoe (Old English mistle).[1] It is native to Europe and western and southern Asia.

Viscum album is a hemiparasite on several species of trees, from which it draws water and nutrients. It has a significant role in European mythology, legends, and customs. In modern times, it is commonly featured in Christmas decoration and symbology. (V. album is found only rarely in North America, as an introduced species; its cultural roles are usually fulfilled by the similar native species Phoradendron leucarpum.)

Description[edit]

It is a hemi-parasitic shrub, which grows on the stems of other trees. It has stems 30–100 centimetres (12–39 in) long with dichotomous branching. The leaves are in opposite pairs, strap-shaped, entire, leathery textured, 2–8 centimetres (0.79–3.15 in) long, 0.8–2.5 centimetres (0.31–0.98 in) broad and are a yellowish-green in colour. This species is dioecious and the insect-pollinated flowers are inconspicuous, yellowish-green, 2–3 millimetres (0.079–0.118 in) diameter. The fruit is a white or yellow berry containing one (very rarely several) seed embedded in the very sticky, glutinous fruit pulp.

It is commonly found in the crowns of broad-leaved trees, particularly apple, lime (linden), hawthorn and poplar.[2]

Classification[edit]

The mistletoe was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus. Its species name is the Latin adjective albus "white". It and the other members of the genus Viscum were originally classified in the mistletoe family Viscaceae, but this family has since been sunk into the larger family Santalaceae.

Subspecies[edit]

Several subspecies are commonly accepted.[3][4][5][6] They differ in fruit colour, leaf shape and size, and most obviously in the host trees utilised.

  • Viscum album subsp. abietis (Wiesb.) Abromeit. Central Europe. Fruit white; leaves up to 8 centimetres (3.1 in). On Abies.
  • Viscum album subsp. album. Europe, southwest Asia east to Nepal. Fruit white; leaves 3–5 centimetres (1.2–2.0 in). On Malus, Populus, Tilia, and less often on numerous other species, including (rarely) Quercus.
  • Viscum album subsp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollmann. Fruit yellow; leaves 2–4 centimetres (0.79–1.57 in). Central Europe. On Larix, Pinus, Picea.
  • Viscum album subsp. meridianum (Danser) D.G.Long. Southeast Asia. Fruit yellow; leaves 3–5 centimetres (1.2–2.0 in). On Acer, Carpinus, Juglans, Prunus, Sorbus.
  • Viscum album subsp. creticum has recently been described from eastern Crete.[7] Fruit white; leaves short. On Pinus brutia.
  • Viscum album subsp. coloratum Kom. is treated by the Flora of China[4] as a distinct species Viscum coloratum (Kom) Nakai.

Toxicity[edit]

The toxic lectin viscumin has been isolated from Viscum album.[8] Viscumin is a cytotoxic protein (Ribosome inactivating protein, or RIP) that binds to galactose residues of cell surface glycoproteins and may be internalised by endocytosis.[9] Viscumin strongly inhibits protein synthesis by inactivating the 60 S ribosomal subunit. The structure of this protein is very similar to other RIPs, showing the most resemblance to ricin and abrin [8][9]

Culture, folklore, and mythology[edit]

European mistletoe has always attracted popular interest and has been surrounded by a number of myths and legends. In cultures across pre-Christian Europe, mistletoe was seen as a representation of divine male essence (and thus romance, fertility and vitality). It still plays a role in the folklore of some countries.

Ancient Greece and Rome[edit]

Mistletoe figured prominently in Greek mythology, and is believed to be The Golden Bough of Aeneas, ancestor of the Romans.[10]

Celtic world[edit]

According to Pliny the Elder, the Celts considered it a remedy for barrenness in animals and an antidote to poison, and sacred when growing on oak trees (where it is rare). He describes a Celtic ritual sacrifice and banquet at which a druid dressed in white would climb a oak tree to collect mistletoe using a golden sickle.[11] (This legend is often referred to in the popular Asterix comic books.)

Modern druids may use the native American Phoradendron leucarpum as well as other mistletoe species.[12]

Scandinavia[edit]

Each arrow overshot his head (1902) by Elmer Boyd Smith, depicting the blind god Höðr shooting his brother, the god Baldr, with a mistletoe arrow

According to the 13th century Prose Edda, the goddess Frigg had all living and inanimate things swear an oath not to hurt his son Baldr. At a gathering, other gods tested the oath by hurling stones, arrows and fire at him, all in vain. But Frigg had not demanded the oath from mistletoe, because "it seemed too young" for that.[13] By a scheming of Loki, Baldr's brother, the blind god Höðr made an arrow from mistletoe and killed Baldr with it.

In the Gesta Danorum version of the story, Baldr and Höðr are rival suitors, and Höðr kills Baldr with a sword named Mistilteinn (Old Norse "mistletoe"). In addition, a sword by the same name appears in various other Norse legends.

Christianity[edit]

Mistletoe postcard, circa 1900

When Christianity became widespread in Europe after the third century AD, the religious or mystical respect for the mistletoe plant was integrated to an extent into the new religion[citation needed]. In some way that is not presently understood, this may have led to the widespread custom of kissing under the mistletoe plant during the Christmas season. The earliest documented case of kissing under the mistletoe dates from 16th century England, a custom that was apparently very popular at that time.

Winston Graham reports a Cornish tradition that mistletoe was originally a fine tree from which the wood of the Cross was made, but afterwards it was condemned to live on only as a parasite.[14]

Mistletoe is commonly used as a Christmas decoration, though such use was rarely alluded to until the 18th century.[15] According to custom, the mistletoe must not touch the ground between its cutting and its removal as the last of Christmas greens at Candlemas. It may remain hanging throughout the year, often to preserve the house from lightning or fire, until it is replaced the following Christmas Eve.[16][17] The tradition has spread throughout the English-speaking world, but is largely unknown in the rest of Europe. (The similar native species Phoradendron leucarpum is used in North America in lieu of the European Viscum album.)

According to an old Christmas custom, a man and a woman who meet under a hanging of mistletoe were obliged to kiss. The custom may be of Scandinavian origin.[18] It was alluded to as common practice in 1808[19] and described in 1820 by American author Washington Irving in his The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.:

The mistletoe is still hung up in farm-houses and kitchens at Christmas, and the young men have the privilege of kissing the girls under it, plucking each time a berry from the bush. When the berries are all plucked the privilege ceases.[20]

Local symbol[edit]

Mistletoe is the County flower of Herefordshire. It was voted such in 2002 following a poll by the wild plant conservation charity Plantlife.[21]

Uses[edit]

Flavoring[edit]

Mistletoe is an ingredient of pomace brandy based liquor biska made in Istra, Croatia.

Medicine[edit]

Mistletoe leaves and young twigs are used by herbalists, and it is popular in Europe, especially in Germany, for treating circulatory and respiratory system problems.[22][23][24] Use of mistletoe extract in the treatment of cancer originated with Rudolf Steiner, the founder of Anthroposophy. He compared the parasitic nature of the mistletoe plant to that of cancer, and believed that cancer represents a faltering of the body's spiritual defenses.[25][26] Some anthroposophical mistletoe preparations are diluted homeopathically. Mistletoe extract is sold as Iscador, Helixor, and several other trade names.[25]

Available clinical evidence does not support claims of anti-cancer effect, quality of life, or other outcomes from the use of mistletoe extract. Research has likewise shown little or no improvement in rigorous trials.[27][28][25] Public interest in the United States was spurred in 2001 following actress Suzanne Somers' decision to use Iscador in lieu of chemotherapy following her treatment for breast cancer using surgery and radiotherapy.[29][30]

Bird trapping[edit]

The sticky juice of mistletoe berries was used to make birdlime, an adhesive to trap small animals or birds.[31]

Decoration[edit]

European mistletoe and its North American surrogate Phoradendron leucarpum are harvested commercially for use as Christmas decoration.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ D. Zuber (2004). Biological flora of Central Europe: Viscum album L. Flora 199, 181-203
  2. ^ Tree News, Spring/Summer 2005,Publisher Felix Press
  3. ^ Flora Europaea: Viscum album
  4. ^ a b Flora of China: Viscum album
  5. ^ Bean, W. J. (1980). Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles 8th ed. 4: 725-726. ISBN 0-7195-2428-8
  6. ^ Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). The Illustrated Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-40170-2.
  7. ^ Böhling, N., Greuter, W., Raus, T., Snogerup, B., Snogerup, S. & Zuber, D. (2003). Notes on the Cretan mistletoe, Viscum album subsp. creticum subsp. nova (Loranthaceae/Viscaceae). Israel J. Pl. Sci. 50 (Suppl.): 77-84.
  8. ^ a b Olsnes S, Stirpe F, Sandvig K, Pihl A (November 1982). "Isolation and characterization of viscumin, a toxic lectin from Viscum album L. (mistletoe)". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 257 (22): 13263–70. PMID 7142144. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  9. ^ a b Stirpe F, Sandvig K, Olsnes S, Pihl A (November 1982). "Action of viscumin, a toxic lectin from mistletoe, on cells in culture". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 257 (22): 13271–7. PMID 7142145. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  10. ^ Virgil (19 BCE) The Aeneid
  11. ^ Pliny the Elder. Natural History. Book XVI. 
  12. ^ Taylor, Pat & Tony, The Henge of Keltria Book of Ritual, 4th ed. 1997"
  13. ^ Faulkes, Anthony (Trans.) (1995). Edda, pages 48–49. Everyman. ISBN 0-460-87616-3
  14. ^ Graham, Winston (2002). Bella Poldark. Macmillan. Chapter 6. 
  15. ^ Susan Drury, "Customs and Beliefs Associated with Christmas Evergreens: A Preliminary Survey" Folklore 98.2 (1987:194–199) p. 194.
  16. ^ Drury 1987.
  17. ^ Sydney J. Tanner. There’s more to mistletoe than just a kiss prompter. Chippewa.com. December 10, 2009[dead link]
  18. ^ E. Cobham Brewer, Dictionary of Phrase and Fable 1898, s.v. "Kissing under the mistletoe" relates the custom to the death of Baldr, without authority.
  19. ^ In a newspaper advertisement for shaving products:'THE KISS UNDER THE MISSELTOE. Under the misseltoe the maid was led/Altho' she cried, No, she held up her head/To obtain a kiss: a sigh was heard./The reason why - Tom rubbed her with his beard' The Times (London, England), 13 October, 1808; p.4
  20. ^ "Christmas Eve" from Washington Irving, The Sketch-Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent." (Rev. ed. 1852), p.254 (available on Google Books).
  21. ^ Plantlife website County Flowers page
  22. ^ Ernst E, Schmit K, Steuer-Vogt MK. Mistletoe for cancer? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Int J Cancer 2003;107:262-7, cited in BMJ 2006;333:1293–1294 (23 December)[1]
  23. ^ Drug Digest
  24. ^ botanical.com – A Modern Herbal | Mistletoe
  25. ^ a b c "Mistletoe". American Cancer Society. 2008-11-01. Retrieved 2009-10-11. 
  26. ^ Ernst, E. (2006). "Mistletoe as a treatment for cancer". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 333 (7582): 1282–1283. doi:10.1136/bmj.39055.493958.80. PMC 1761165. PMID 17185706.  edit
  27. ^ Ernst; Schmidt, K. .; Steuer-Vogt, M. . (2003). "Mistletoe for cancer? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials". International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer 107 (2): 262–267. doi:10.1002/ijc.11386. PMID 12949804.  edit
  28. ^ Horneber, M.; Bueschel, G.; Huber, R.; Linde, K.; Rostock, M. (2008). Horneber, Markus, ed. "Mistletoe therapy in oncology". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD003297–CD003ub2. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003297.pub2. PMID 18425885.  edit
  29. ^ American Cancer Society (2001), "Mistletoe: Natural doesn't always mean harmless" Web page, 2001-05-04, accessed on 2009-10-11.
  30. ^ Schneider, KS (2001-04-30). "A Matter of Choice". People. Retrieved 2009-10-11. 
  31. ^ Thomas B. Johnson. 1848. The sportsman's cyclopaedia. 940 p.

General references[edit]

  1. Flora of Pakistan: Viscum album
  2. Viscum album subsp. creticum
  3. Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening 4: 676. ISBN 0-333-47494-5