Vishva Hindu Parishad

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Vishva Hindu Pariṣad
विश्व हिन्दू परिषद
Vishva Hindu Parishad New Logo.jpg
Logo of V.H.P
Motto Dharmo Rakshati Rakshitah
धर्मो रक्षति रक्षितः
Founded 29 August 1964 (1964-08-29)[1]
Founder S. S. Apte
Swami Chinmayananda
Type Hindu nationalist
Hindu reformist
Location
Coordinates 28°20′N 77°06′E / 28.33°N 77.10°E / 28.33; 77.10
Area served India
Members 6.8 million[2]
Key people

G. Raghava Reddy (president)[3]

Praveen Togadia (executive president)[3]
Subsidiaries Bajrang Dal (youth wing)
Durga Vahini (women's wing)
Website vhp.org

Vishva Hindu Pariṣad (pronunciation: /vɪʃv(ə) hɪnd̪uː pərɪʃəd̪/, English: World Hindu Council), abbreviated VHP. The VHP is a Hindu right-wing organisation in India and is based on the ideology of Hindutva. It was founded in 1964 and its main objective is "to organise, consolidate the Hindu society and to serve, protect the Hindu Dharma."[1] The VHP belongs to the Sangh Parivar,[4][5] an umbrella of Hindu nationalist organisations. It has been involved in social service projects,[6][7] construction and renovation of Hindu temples and in issues such as cow slaughter, conversions to other religions, the Ayodhya dispute and its role in the Babri Masjid demolition. The VHP has been involved in reconverting Hindus who had previously converted to Christianity or Islam. There are reports of stopping conversion forcibly, In 2008 they accused Christians for the murder of Swami Lakshmanananda. The accused were found guilty and awarded life imprisonment.[8][9]

History[edit]

The VHP was founded in 1964 by RSS leaders M. S. Golwalkar and S. S. Apte in collaboration with the Hindu spiritual leader Chinmayananda.[10][11] The delegation of the founders included Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan founder K. M. Munshi, Gujarati scholar Keshavram Kashiram Shastri, Sikh leader Master Tara Singh, Namdhari Sikh leader Satguru Jagjit Singh and eminent politicians such as C. P. Ramaswamy Iyer.[12][13] Chinmayananda was nominated as its founding President, while Apte was nominated as its founding General Secretary. It was decided at the meeting that the name of the proposed organization would be "Vishva Hindu Parishad" and that a world convention of Hindus was to be held at Prayag (Allahabad) during Kumbha Mela of 1966 for its launch. It was further decided that it would be a non-political organization and that no office bearer of any political party shall be simultaneously an office bearer in the Parishad.[13]

The VHP, which considers Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs as well as native Tribal religions as part of the greater Hindu fraternity, officially mentions that it was founded by the "Saint Shakti of Bharat". The VHP was first mooted at a conference in Pawai, Sandipani Sadhanalaya, Bombay on 29 August 1964. The conference was hosted by RSS chief M. S. Golwalkar. The date was chosen to coincide with the festival of Janmashtami. Several representatives from the Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist and Jain faiths were present in the meeting, as well as the Dalai Lama. Golwalkar explained that "all faiths of Indian origins need to unite", saying that the word "Hindu" (people of "Hindustan") applied to adherents of all the above religions.[14] Apte declared:

The world has been divided to Christian, Islam and Communist. All of them view Hindu society as very fine rich food on which to feast and fatten themselves. It is necessary in this age of conflict to think of and organise the Hindu world to save it from the evils of all the three.[14]

Its main objective is "to organise, consolidate the Hindu society and to serve, protect the Hindu Dharma."[1] It has been involved in social service projects and in encouraging the construction and renovation of Hindu temples. It is against the caste system, opposes cow slaughter and conversions to other religions. Defending Hindus around the world and Hindu rights has been one of its stated objectives.[15] The other main objective which it has been involved with is the Ayodhya dispute.[1]

The VHP is associated with the Sangh Parivar, an umbrella of Hindu nationalist organisations which also includes the centre-right Indian political party Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the right-wing organisation Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). Its slogan is Dharmo rakṣati rakṣitaḥ, which means "Dharma protects its protector" and its symbol is the banyan tree. The current international president of VHP is Raghava Reddy,[3] while its executive president is Praveen Togadia.[3]

Activities[edit]

Vishva Hindu Parishad is active in social welfare work areas.[16] Following is the summary of activities.[17]

  • Medical - People are trained in villages to provide primary health care and referral services. The organisation also conducts Medical check-up camps.[17]
  • Self-Empowerment - Organisation is running self-employment training camps in following states - Bihar, Punjab, Rajasthan, Maha Kaushal, Assam, Brij Pradesh, Orissa and Maharashtra. The training areas involve farming techniques, bee-keeping, agriculture and horticultural techniques, animal husbandry and sewing.[18] There are 959 training centres currently operating.[17]
  • Education - Organisation focus is to provide educational facilities in remote area. There are currently 3266 educational facilities running.[17]
  • Social welfare - Organisation runs 45 Orphanages, Marriage Bureau, Help Centres, Rescue Centres, Working Women Hostels. VHP is also active in environmental causes such as Tree Plantations. Social Services are provided in religious pilgrimages, emergency help during natural calamities and rural development.[17] Vishva Hindu Parishad social workers help out patients in Delhi Hospitals.[19]

Ayodhya dispute[edit]

The VHP had been involved in the dispute over the Ram Janmabhoomi, or Babri Mosque, for twenty years before its demolition. This activity involved demonstrations, petitions and litigation. According to the VHP and its affiliated organisations, the Babri Mosque was built by demolishing the temple at the birthplace of Rama (Ram Janmabhoomi) by the Mughal Emperor Babur in the 16th century. It further stated in Allahabad court documentation that the building was in a dilapidated condition. It was in ruins and could not be used for worship or any activities .[20][21] In the late 1980s, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) brought the temple issue to national politics, and the BJP and VHP began organising larger protests in Ayodhya and around the country. In 1992 a large group of Hindus, including members of the VHP,[22] were camped on the site of the Babri Mosque. On 6 December 1992 the mosque was demolished by elements of the crowd. Rioting followed across India with 2000 people killed.[23][24]

The Liberhan Commission headed by Justice Liberhan was constituted to investigate the whole episode. A large number of VHP workers testified before the commission. Totalling 399 sittings over the span of sixteen years, the Commission finally submitted its the 1,029-page report to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 30 June 2009.[25] According to the report, the events of 6 December 1992, in Ayodhya were "neither spontaneous nor unplanned".[26]

Organization and leadership[edit]

The organisation acts under the guidance from Dharma Sansad a religious parliament of Gurus.[12]

Local office of Vishva Hindu Parishad, at Haridwar

The Bajrang Dal is the youth wing of the VHP, and it is organised in many states in major training camps called shakhas, where thousands of young men simultaneously train in various activities, receive sports, education in Hindutva and cultural education. The Durga Vahini, founded in 1991 under the tutelage of Sadhvi Rithambara as its founding chairperson and the support of the VHP, is described as the "female arm of the Dal". Members of the Vahini contend that the portrayal of their group as a branch of the Bajrang Dal is an oversimplification, and that their goals are to "dedicate ourselves to spiritual, physical, mental and knowledge development".[27] The VHP also have divisions made up of women. VHP secretary Giri Raj Kishore charted out highly visible roles for women in the group. He charted out two "satyagrahas" for women during their demonstrations.[28]

The VHP has been a prime backer of the World Hindu Conference in which issues such as casteism, sectarianism, and the future of Hindus were discussed. Prior Conferences have included Hindu Groups such as Parisada Hindu Dharma.[29]

Communal tensions and reconversions[edit]

The VHP engages in several programmes to reconvert Hindus who had previously converted to Christianity or Islam through their trained missionaries called "Dharma Prasaar Vibhag" (Religious Propaganda Cell), and some of them were sent to those remote villages and tribal areas which have substantial Christians and Muslims. On 4 March 2004, more than 200 Christians were reconverted in a ceremony organised by the VHP in the state of Orissa, part of its plan to reconvert 400,000 tribal Christians.[citation needed] According to them, the tribal folk were lured for monetary benefits and Christian missionaries were there to convert them under the pretext of community service. The claim is in place that Vanvasis (Tribals) are part of Hindu culture.[30] The Christian community denied this and there was an instance of six women being beaten for refusing to reconvert to Hinduism. Religious conversions were a debated topic in Orissa.[31]

In Punjab, the VHP has played an active role to prevent conversions of Sikhs even if they chose their own religious path. The majority of them are low caste Sikhs converting to Christianity. This could be a result mostly from oppression by high caste Sikhs but there are considerable free will conversions among the higher class Sikhs too; however, the VHP have forcibly stopped Christian missionaries from converting Sikhs.[32]

The VHP collaborated with Christian Association for Social Action and played an active part in providing relief to both Hindu and Christian families affected by the Love Jihad activity in Kerala during 2003–2013 period.[33]

In August 2008, the VHP accused Christians for the murder of Swami Lakshmanananda,[34] though Maoist militants had claimed responsibility for the killing. In the resulting disorder, Christian settlements were set on fire,[35] and 250 Christians were forced to flee their villages.[36] A Catholic nun was raped during the violence and the Roman Catholic Church said that at least 7 Christians were killed.[34][37][38][39][40] A judicial commission probing the violence said that conversion and re-conversion were among the major factors that led to the disorder, without blaming any religious groups or the CPI (Maoist).[41] Following the murder of Swami Lakshmanananda, the VHP engaged in reconversion programmes, involving both voluntary and forced reconversion.[2][31]

Other countries[edit]

Vishwa Hindu Parishad is active in many countries outside of India.

United States[edit]

Known as VHPA, the VHP in the United States advocates for human rights for Hindus around the world. They also offer Hindu Pandits to serve the Hindu community, and usually hold rituals around the nation where members are invited. The VHPA has also organised many charitable causes, such as raising money for the victims of Typhoon Haiyan in 2013, and the Fiji flood victims of 2012.[42]

United Kingdom[edit]

The VHPUK, is the British branch of the Vishwa Hindu Parishad, which has held demonstrations in London for the rights of Hindus in Bangladesh and Pakistan. It offers many Hindu services such as priests and matrimonial services. VHPUK has been vocal advocates of the pro-life movement, and stands against abortion. They also have a temple in Ilford.[43]

Germany[edit]

Vishwa Hindu Parishad has a temple in Frankfurt, offers Bhagavad Gita classes and recites the Ramayana.[44][45][verification needed]

Canada[edit]

The VHP is active in Vancouver, Toronto, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Ottawa and other major Canadian cities.[46]

Australia, New Zealand & Fiji[edit]

The Vishva Hindu Parishad is gaining popularity in these countries. The Australia wing of Vishva Hindu Parishad conducts activities such conducting weekend schools, language classes, cultural workshops, festivals. The festivals are also organised for open to all communities promoting Unity in Diversity.[47] The press release from city council of Holroyd state that Vishva Hindu Parishad is active in supporting multiculturalism in the same region.[48] as In March 2014, the VHP had its first National Hindu Council in Fiji and New Zealand. The VHP has established a Vedic school in Sydney, has temples and organised 3 National Hindu conferences in 2014.[49]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "VHP main objective". Vhp.org. 1964-08-29. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  2. ^ a b Gethin Chamberlain (19 Oct 2008). "Convert or we will kill you, Hindu lynch mobs tell Christians". Guardian. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Raghava Reddy takes over as VHP international chief". Andhra Wishesh. 20 Dec 2011. Retrieved 24 Aug 2014. 
  4. ^ Jelen, Ted Gerard; Wilcox, Clyde (2002). Religion and Politics in Comparative Perspective: The One, The Few, and The Many.. Cambridge University Press. p. 253. ISBN 0-521-65031-3. 
  5. ^ DP Bhattacharya, ET Bureau Aug 4, 2014, 06.38AM IST (2014-08-04). "Communal skirmishes rising after Narendra Modi's departure from Gujarat - Economic Times". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  6. ^ Thomas Blom Hansen (1999). The Saffron Wave: Democracy and Hindu Nationalism in Modern India. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0195645743. 
  7. ^ "VHP's social service activities". The Hindu. 2011-12-18. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  8. ^ "Swami Lakshmanananda Saraswati murder case: Seven accused found guilty". http://pragativadi.com. Retrieved 19 August 2014. 
  9. ^ "Swami Lakshmananda Saraswati murder case: All convicts get rigorous life imprisonment". http://ibnlive.in.com. Retrieved 19 August 2014. 
  10. ^ Katju 2013, p. 5.
  11. ^ Kurien, Prema (2001). "Religion, ethnicity and politics: Hindu and Muslim Indian immigrants in the United States". Ethnic and Racial Studies 24 (2): 268. doi:10.1080/01419870020023445. 
  12. ^ a b Katju 2013.
  13. ^ a b "Inception of VHP". vhp.org. Retrieved 24 Aug 2014. 
  14. ^ a b Smith 2003, p. 189.
  15. ^ "Welcome to Organiser". Organiser.org. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  16. ^ The Saffron Wave: Democracy and Hindu Nationalism in Modern India - Thomas Blom Hansen - Google Books. Books.google.com.au. 1999-03-23. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  17. ^ a b c d e "विश्व हिंदू परिषदेची पन्नास वर्षांची वाटचाल | Evivek.com". Magazine.evivek.com. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  18. ^ The author has posted comments on this article (2003-12-19). "VHP to highlight its social work - The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  19. ^ Everyday Nationalism: Women of the Hindu Right in India - Kalyani Devaki Menon - Google Books. Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  20. ^ "Ayodhya files, Vol. 7". Allahabad High Court. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  21. ^ Vinod Mishra (Dec 1992). "On Communalism". Marxists.org. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  22. ^ "We Have No Orders To Save You". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  23. ^ Srikrishna Commission report,HVK archive
  24. ^ "Human Rights Watch Official Report on India". 2002. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  25. ^ NDTV correspondent (November 23, 2009). "What is the Liberhan Commission?". NDTV India. Retrieved 29 September 2010. 
  26. ^ "India Babri Masjid demolition neither spontaneous nor unplanned: Liberhan". Hindustan Times. November 24, 2009. 
  27. ^ Women 'Ram Bhakt' hog limelight,The Tribune
  28. ^ Kohli, Atul (2000). The Success of India's Democracy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80144-3. 
  29. ^ Historic world Hindu conference at Prayag News Today – March 2007
  30. ^ The Tribal Culture of India - Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, Binay Kumar Rai - Google Books. Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  31. ^ a b Christians convert back to Hinduism,BBC
  32. ^ Rana, Yudhvir (31 March 2005). "VHP against conversions in Punjab". The Times Of India. 
  33. ^ "'Love Jihad' racket: VHP, Christian groups find common cause". The Times Of India. 13 October 2008. 
  34. ^ a b Blakely, Rhys (November 20, 2008). "Hindu extremists reward to kill Christians as Britain refuses to bar members". The Times (London). Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  35. ^ "BJP MLA convicted in Kandhamal riots case". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 9 September 2010. 
  36. ^ "BJP lawmaker gets jail for murder in Kandhamal riots | Accident / Crime / Disaster". Indiatalkies.com. Retrieved 2011-09-19. 
  37. ^ "Nun was raped and priest brutally assaulted in Kandhamal". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 30 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04. 
  38. ^ "Four arrested over India nun rape". BBC News. 3 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04. 
  39. ^ "Medical reports confirm Kandhmal nun raped". NDTV. Retrieved 2008-10-04. 
  40. ^ "Anti Christian Violence Rocks Orissa, India". Oecumene.radiovaticana.org. 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2011-09-19. 
  41. ^ "Conversion, reconversion led to Kandhamal riots: Commission". Bhubaneshwar: The Times of India. 3 July 2009. 
  42. ^ "Vishwa Hindu Parishad of America | World Hindu Council of America". Vhp-america.org. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  43. ^ "VHP UK". Vhp.org.uk. 2012-04-30. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  44. ^ "VHP ev Germany". VHP ev Germany. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  45. ^ "Multinational clinical trials in Europe". 
  46. ^ "Ilford Branch | VHP UK". Vhp.org.uk. 2012-04-30. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  47. ^ "Community Directory". Multicultural.vic.gov.au. 2014-03-23. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  48. ^ "Hindu heritage inspires multiculturalism in Holroyd | Holroyd City Council". Holroyd.nsw.gov.au. 2014-02-13. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  49. ^ "Vishva Hindu Parishad of Australia | Bringing Hindus Together". Vhp.org.au. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Clarke, Peter (2004). Encyclopedia of New Religious Movements. Routledge. ISBN 0-203-48433-9. 
  • Jaffrelot, Christophe (2011). Religion, Caste, and Politics in India. C Hurst & Co. ISBN 978-1849041386. 
  • Juergensmeyer, Mark (1993). The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08651-1. 
  • Katju, Manjari (2013). Vishva Hindu Parishad and Indian Politics. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 81-250-2476-X. 
  • Kumar, Praveen (2011). Communal Crimes and National Integration: A Socio-Legal Study. Readworthy Publications. ISBN 93-5018-040-5. 
  • Smith, David James (2003). Hinduism and Modernity. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-20862-3. 

External links[edit]