Vita Christi

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For Meditationes de Vita Christi see Pseudo-Bonaventura
Vita Christi by Ludolph of Saxony, Vol. 1, folio.

The Vita Christi (Life of Christ), also known as the Speculum vitae Christi (Mirror of the Life of Christ) is the principal work of Ludolph of Saxony, completed in 1374.[1]

The book is not just a biography of Jesus, but also a history, a commentary borrowed from the Church Fathers, and a series of dogmatic and moral dissertations, spiritual instructions, meditations, and prayers. It was so popular in its time that it has been called a summa evangelica.[1]

Sources[edit]

Sr Mary Immaculate Bodenstedt mentions Ludolph's particular debt to Pseudo-Bonaventure's Meditationes Vitae Christi: some believe that Pseudo-Bonaventure is really Thomas a Kempis.[2] Bodenstedt argues that Ludolph also follows Ps.-Bonaventure in his visual method of meditation.[3]

Influence[edit]

The popularity of the book is attested to by the number of copies preserved in various libraries, beginning with the first two editions of Strasburg and Cologne, in 1474, to the last editions of Paris (folio, 1865, and 8vo, 1878)[1]—88 printed editions in total.[4]

The great popularity of the Vita Christi is demonstrated by the numerous manuscript copies preserved in libraries and the manifold editions of it which have been published, from the first two editions of Strasbourg and Cologne, in 1474, to the last editions of Paris: folio, 1865, published by Victor Palme (heavily criticised by Father Henry James Coleridge, SJ; see below), and 8vo, 1878. It has also been translated into Catalan (Valencia, 1495, folio, Gothic), Castilian (Alcala, folio, Gothic), Portuguese (1495, 4 vols., folio), Italian (1570), French, "by Guillaume Lernenand, of the Order of Monseigneur St. François", under the title of the "Great Life of Christ" (Lyons, 1487, folio, many times reprinted), by D. Marie-Prosper Augustine (Paris, 1864), and by D. Florent Broquin, Carthusian (Paris, 1883).

The Vita Christi had significant influence on the development of techniques for Christian meditation. It introduced the concept of immersing and projecting oneself into a Biblical scene about the life of Jesus which became popular among the Devotio Moderna community.[5] The Vita Christi was translated into Spanish in 1502 by Ambrosio Montesino and was printed in Alcala.[6] The methods of meditation in the Vita Christi thus entered Spain and were known in the early part of the 16th century.[7] St Teresa and St Francis de Sales frequently quote from it.

Influence on St Ignatius of Loyola[edit]

Saint Ignatius of Loyola used these techniques in his Spiritual exercises, e.g. self-projection into a Biblical scene to start a conversation with Christ in Calvary.[5] Vita Christi is mentioned in most biographies of Ignatius, who read it while recovering from a wound after the siege of Pamplona.[8]

Ludolph's Vita Christi is mentioned in almost every biography of St Ignatius of Loyola. St Ignatius read it whilst recovering from the cannon-ball wound after the siege of Pamplona in a Castilian translation.[9] Ludolph proposes a method of prayer which asks the reader to visualise the events of Christ's life (known as simple contemplation). In his commentary on the Gospel for the Feast of Saint Mary Magdalen, the story where Mary the sister of Lazarus, comes into the house of the Pharisee where Jesus is eating, and washes his feet with her tears and then dries his feet with her hair, Ludolph repeatedly urges the reader to see (that is, visualise) the scene of the washing, and so on. He also has beautiful insights into the humanity and attractiveness of Jesus. He explains why Mary the public sinner overcame her shame and entered the house of the Pharisee by noting that the Pharisee was a leper and disfigured from the disease. St Mary Magdalen could see that since Jesus was prepared to eat with a leper, he would not reject her.

This simple method of contemplation outlined by Ludolph and set out in Vita Christi, in many of his commentaries on the gospel stories that he chooses it can be argued influenced the Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius of Loyola.[10] Indeed, it is said that St Ignatius had desired to become a Carthusian after his pilgrimage to Jerusalem, but was dissuaded by a Carthusian Prior. To this day members of the Society of Jesus may enter a Charterhouse, and if a vocation there does not work out, they may return to the Society of Jesus without penalty. This closeness between the Carthusians and Jesuits is arguably due to the great influence of Ludolph of Saxony's De Vita Christi on the future founder of the Society of Jesus.

Michael Foss is dismissive of the influence of Ludolph on the Exercises of St Ignatius, saying "The Exercises show a bit of Ludolph." Then, writing of St Ignatius, recovering from the cannon-ball wound at the Castle of Loyola, Foss says, "Bored, as only a man of action can be when driven to bed, he was driven by desperation to a few unappetising volumes that the Castle of Loyola offered. He found a Castilian translation of the long, worthy and popular Life of Christ by a certain Ludolph of Saxony, a 14th Century writer."[11]

Modern Editions[edit]

Father Henry James Coleridge, SJ, a grand-nephew of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, in his article of 1872, in the "Review of Famous Books" section of The Month, urges future translators of the Vita Christi to be cautious with the Folio edition published by Palme in 1865 since it is marred by poor punctuation, and based on a poor manuscript.[12]

The work has not been translated as a whole into English, though selected portions have been translated. The meditations of the Hours of the Passion were translated by Henry James Coleridge (a grand-nephew of Samuel Taylor Coleridge) in 1887. The prayers have been translated twice: first, by H Kyneston in 1908, and second, by Sister Mary Immaculate Bodenstedt in 1973.[13]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • The Vita Christi was first published in an 1865 folio edition, and then in an 1870 4-volume octavo reprint, as Ludolphus de Saxonia, Vita Jesu Christi ex Evangelio et Approbatis ab Ecclesia Catholic Doctoribus Sedule Collecta, (ed LM Rigolllot). A reduced-size facsimile of the 1865 edition, with unchanged pagination, is now available, published as Ludolphus the Carthusian, Vita Christi, 5 vols, Analecta Cartusiana 241 (Salzburg, 2006–7).
  • Sister Mary Immaculate Bodenstedt, SND, The Vita Christi of Ludolph the Carthusian, (Washington: Catholic University of America, 1944)
  • See also Charles Abbott Conway, The Vita Christi of Ludolph of Saxony and late medieval devotion centred on the incarnation: a descriptive analysis, (Salzburg, 1976)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Catholic encyclopedia
  2. ^ Sr Mary Immaculate Bodenstedt (1944), The Vita Christi of Ludolphus the Carthusian: A dissertation, Washington: Catholic University of America Press. British Library ref. no Ac.2692y/29.(16)at page 31. "Ludolph makes textual borrowings from more than sixty chapters out of a total of one hundred from the Mediationes of Ps.-Bonaventure especially in his sections in the Vita Christi on the Infancy of Jesus and his Passion.
  3. ^ Sr Mary Immaculate Bodenstedt (1944), The Vita Christi of Ludolphus the Carthusian: A dissertation, Washington: Catholic University of America Press. British Library ref. no Ac.2692y/29.(16), at page 31. "He [Ludolph] frequently exhorts the reader to centre his mind upon some situation in the life of Christ by some such words as CONSPICE, CONSIDERA or VIDE—similar exhortations are in the Meditationes by Thomas a Kempis.
  4. ^ Charles Abbott Conway, The Vita Christi of Ludolph of Saxony and late medieval devotion centred on the incarnation: a descriptive analysis, (Salzburg, 1976), p2
  5. ^ a b Christian spirituality: an introduction by Alister E. McGrath 1999 ISBN 978-0-631-21281-2 pages 84–87
  6. ^ The third spiritual alphabet by Francisco de Osuna 1981 ISBN 978-0-8091-2145-8 pages 3–4
  7. ^ Teresa of Avila's autobiography by Elena Carrera 2004 ISBN 1-900755-96-3 page 28
  8. ^ Michael Foss, The founding of the Jesuits, 1540, Published by Hamilton, London 1969 p.68
  9. ^ Michael Foss (1969), The founding of the Jesuits, 1540, London: Hamilton, p. 68.
  10. ^ Sr Mary Immaculate Bodenstedt (1944), The Vita Christi of Ludolphus the Carthusian: A dissertation, Washington: Catholic University of America Press. British Library ref. no Ac.2692y/29.(16).
  11. ^ Michael Foss (1969), The founding of the Jesuits, 1540, London: Hamilton, p. 92.
  12. ^ Fr Henry James Coleridge (1872), "Ludolph's Life of Christ", The Month, Vol. 17 (July–Dec 1872), pp. 337–370 in a footnote on page 342, "We are sorry to say that the text in the Folio is not so correct as earlier editions. No translator should use it without having one of the latter by his side—this is more to be regretted, as the Editor has taken great pains to multiply the marginal references, and in other ways to make the text more available for use."
  13. ^ Sister Mary Immaculate Bodenstedt, Praying the Life of Christ, (1973)

Resources[edit]