Vitex negundo

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Five-leaved chaste tree
Vitex negundo leaves.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Vitex
Species: V. negundo
Binomial name
Vitex negundo
L.[1]
Synonyms
  • Vitex cannabifolia Siebold & Zucc.
  • Vitex incisa Lam.
  • Vitex incisa var. heterophylla Franch.
  • Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (Franch.) Rehder
In vitro flowering in Vitex negundo
Inflorescence of Vitex negundo in Panchkhal valley in Nepal

Vitex negundo, commonly known as the five-leaved chaste tree, is a large aromatic shrub with quadrangular, densely whitish, tomentose branchlets. It is widely used in folk medicine, particularly in South and Southeast Asia.

It is known under a variety of names in different languages: Tamil: நொச்சி, nochhi; Hindi: निर्गुंडी, nirgundi; Sanskrit: सिन्धुवार, sindhuvara(వావిలి / సింధువార); Telugu : Sindhuvara; Filipino: lagundî; Sinhala: නික, nika; and Bengali: Nishinda (নিশিন্দা), Nepali: Simali (सिमाली)and nirgudi in marathi.

Vitex negundo is an erect shrub or small tree growing from 2 to 8 m (6.6 to 26.2 ft) in height. The bark is reddish-brown. Its leaves are digitate, with five lanceolate leaflets, sometimes three. Each leaflet is around 4 to 10 cm (1.6 to 3.9 in) in length, with the central leaflet being the largest and possessing a stalk. The leaf edges are toothed or serrated and the bottom surface is covered in hair.[2] The numerous flowers are borne in panicles 10 to 20 cm (3.9 to 7.9 in) in length. Each is around 6 to 7 cm (2.4 to 2.8 in) long and are white to blue in color. The petals are of different lengths, with the middle lower lobe being the longest. Both the corolla and calyx are covered in dense hairs.[2]

The fruit is a succulent drupe, 4 mm (0.16 in) in diameter, rounded to egg-shaped. It is black or purple when ripe.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Vitex negundo is native to tropical Eastern and Southern Africa and Asia. It is widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere.[1]

Countries it is indigenous to include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam.[1]

Vitex negundo are commonly found near bodies of water, recently disturbed land, grasslands, and mixed open forests.[3]

Nomenclature[edit]

Common names of Vitex negunda in different languages include:[4]

  • Assamese : Pochotia
  • Bengali : Nirgundi; Nishinda; Samalu
  • Bontok : Liñgei
  • Chinese : Huang jing (黄荆)
  • English : Five-leaved chaste tree; Horseshoe vitex; Chinese chaste tree
  • Filipino : Lagundî[3]
  • Gujarati : Nagoda; Shamalic
  • Hindi : Mewri; Nirgundi; Nisinda; Sambhalu; Sawbhalu (निर्गुंडी)
  • Ifugao : Dabtan
  • Ilokano : Dangla[3]
  • Kannada : Bile-nekki
  • Korean : Chom mok hyung (좀목형)
  • Malayalam : Indrani
  • Marathi : Nirgunda
  • Punjabi : Banna; Marwan; Maura; Mawa; Swanjan Torbanna
  • Sanskrit : Nirgundi; Sephalika; Sindhuvara; Svetasurasa; Vrikshaha (सिन्धुवार)
  • Sinhala: Nika
  • Tamil : Chinduvaram; Nirnochchi; Nochchi; Notchi; Vellai-nochchi
  • Telugu : Sindhuvara; Vavili; Nalla-vavili; Tella-vavili (వావిలి / సింధువార)lekkali

Chemistry[edit]

The principal constituents the leaf juice are casticin, isoorientin, chrysophenol D, luteolin, p–hydroxybenzoic acid and D-fructose.[citation needed] The main constituents of the oil are sabinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, β-caryophyllene, α-guaiene and globulol constituting 61.8% of the oil.[citation needed] In vitro and animal studies have shown that chemicals isolated from the plant have potential anti-inflammatory,[5] antibacterial,[6] antifungal[7][8] and analgesic[5][9][10] activities.

Uses[edit]

Vitex negundo is used for treating stored garlic against pests and as a cough remedy in the Philippines.[11] Roots and leaves used in eczema, ringworm and other skin diseases, liver disorders, spleen enlargement, rheumatic pain, gout, abscess, backache; seeds used as vermicide. It is also used to control population of mosquitoes. In the USA, hardiness zone 6-9, it's purple flowers bloom most of the summer and it is a popular plant visited by bees and butterflies.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Vitex negundo L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. Retrieved September 7, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c Vitex negundo Linn. Fact Sheet. Bureau of Plant Industry, Department of Agriculture, Republic of the Philippines. 
  3. ^ a b c "Vitex negundo L. - Lagundi". Prosea Herbal Techno-Catalog. Retrieved September 7, 2011. 
  4. ^ Vitex negunda in Dr. K. M. Madkarni's Indian Materia Medica; Edited by A. K. Nadkarni, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1976, pp: 1278-80.
  5. ^ a b Dharmasiri MG, Jayakody JR, Galhena G, Liyanage SS, Ratnasooriya WD (August 2003). "Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of mature fresh leaves of Vitex negundo". J Ethnopharmacol 87 (2-3): 199–206. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00159-4. PMID 12860308. 
  6. ^ Perumal Samy R, Ignacimuthu S, Sen A (September 1998). "Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties". J Ethnopharmacol 62 (2): 173–82. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00057-9. PMID 9741889. 
  7. ^ Sathiamoorthy B, Gupta P, Kumar M, Chaturvedi AK, Shukla PK, Maurya R (January 2007). "New antifungal flavonoid glycoside from Vitex negundo". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17 (1): 239–42. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.09.051. PMID 17027268. 
  8. ^ Damayanti M, Susheela K, Sharma GJ (1996). "Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa". Cytobios 86 (346): 155–65. PMID 9022263. 
  9. ^ Gupta RK, Tandon VR (April 2005). "Antinociceptive activity of Vitex-negundo Linn leaf extract". Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 49 (2): 163–70. PMID 16170984. 
  10. ^ Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Bhawal SR (February 1999). "CNS activity of Vitex negundo Linn. in mice". Indian J. Exp. Biol. 37 (2): 143–6. PMID 10641133. 
  11. ^ "Lagundi leaves as effective control against storage pests of garlic". Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD), Department of Science and Technology, Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved September 7, 2011. 

External links[edit]