Virgen Blanca Square of Vitoria-Gasteiz
|Motto: Haec est Victoria quae vincit
(This is Victoria which triumphs)
|Autonomous community||País Vasco|
|• Alcalde||Javier Maroto (People's Party)|
|• Total||276.81 km2 (106.88 sq mi)|
|Elevation||525 m (1,722 ft)|
|• Density||860/km2 (2,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||01001 - 01015|
|Official language(s)||Spanish, Basque|
Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spanish: Vitoria [biˈtoɾja]; Basque: Gasteiz [ɡas̺teis̻]; officially Vitoria-Gasteiz) is the capital city of the province of Álava and of the autonomous community of the Basque Country in northern Spain with a population of 242,147 people. It is the second largest Basque city. The dwellers of the city are called vitorianos or gasteiztarrak, while traditionally they are dubbed babazorros (Basque for 'bean eaters').
Vitoria-Gasteiz held the title of European Green Capital in 2012.
In 581 AD the Visigoth king Liuvigild founded the city of Victoriacum, trying to emulate the Roman foundations, as a celebration of the victory against the Vascones near what is assumed to be the hill occupied by the primitive village of Gasteiz. This however is not sufficiently proven, and some historians and experts believe that Victoriacum was located not on the site of present-day Vitoria-Gasteiz but nearby. Several possible locations have been proposed, the foremost of which is the late roman military camp of Iruña-Veleia (cf. J.M. Lacarra). Veleia is located some 11 km north of modern Vitoria, on the banks of the same river. However, modern archeological studies of the site suggest that Veleia was last inhabited c.5th century AD, and archeologists are still to find a 6th-century visigothic resettlement in the site. Another theory has suggested that Victoriacum was located at the foot of Mount Gorbea where there is a village called Vitoriano; however, there is enough evidence to suggest that Vitoriano is the old city of Bitoriano, which king Liuvigild helped fortify in 574 AD against the neighbouring vasconic tribes. The town of Armentia, nowadays in the outskirts of Vitoria, has also been proposed as a possible location of Victoriacum. In either case, Victoriacum vanishes from history shortly after its foundation.
In 1181, Sancho the Wise, King of Navarre founded the town of Nueva Victoria as a defensive outpost on top of a hill at the site of the previous settlement of Gasteiz. The existence of Gasteihiz, apparently inhabited by vasconic people, can be traced back to the lower Middle Ages; it is certain that by the 11th century, prior to the foundation of Nueva Victoria, the settlement was already walled. It is assumed that Sancho the Wise gave the new city its name in memory of the old settlement of Victoriacum, which must had long since been abandoned. In 1199, the town was besieged and captured by the troops of Alfonso VIII of Castile, who annexed the town to the Kingdom of Castile. The town was progressively enlarged and in 1431 it was granted a city charter by King Juan II of Castile. In 1463, it was one of the five founding villas of the Brotherhood of Álava alongside Sajazarra, Miranda de Ebro, Pancorbo and Salvatierra.
The Battle of Vitoria of the Peninsular War occurred near Vitoria-Gasteiz along the river Zadorra on 21 June 1813. An allied British, Portuguese, and Spanish army under General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army under Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan. The victory assured the eventual end of French control in Spain. There is a monument commemorating this battle in the main square of the city known as the Monument to Independence – Monumento a la Independencia.
When news came to Vienna in late July of that year, Johann Nepomuk Mälzel commissioned Ludwig van Beethoven to compose a symphony, the op. 91 Wellingtons Sieg oder die Schlacht bei Vittoria (Wellington's Victory, or, the Battle of Vitoria) or Siegessymphonie.
Work began on the Institute for Middle Education in 1843, with classes beginning during the 1853–54 academic year. It is now current headquarters of the Basque Parliament and formerly the convent of Santa Clara. The Free University opened in the wake of the revolution of 1868. The University operated from 1869, to just prior to the 1873–1874 term, largely because of the second Carlist War. Chief academics were Ricardo Becerro de Bengoa, Julián Apraiz, Federico Baraibar, and so on. This latter, great Hellenist (1851–1918), was also among the first teachers of Basque in Vitoria-Gasteiz as an off-syllabus subject.
During the Spanish transition to democracy, the Church of St. Francis of Assisi was the scene of the March 3 Killing of 1976 after clashes between police and striking workers. Under the orders of Interior Minister Manuel Fraga, the police stormed on a shooting spree into a packed church into which demonstrators had retreated, resulting in five dead and over 100 wounded.
On May 20, 1980, by decision of the Basque Parliament, Vitoria-Gasteiz became the place of the common institutions of the Basque Autonomous Community.
|Climate data for Foronda-Txokiza (1971-2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.7
|Average high °C (°F)||8.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.7
|Average low °C (°F)||1.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||76
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||10||10||9||12||10||6||5||5||6||9||10||11||103|
|Avg. snowy days||3||3||2||2||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||1||11|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||82||106||145||154||182||207||239||221||178||137||95||73||1,830|
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meterología|
- Cathedral of Santa Maria (Old Cathedral), a 14th-century Gothic building with a 17th-century tower. Under the pórtico are three open doorways decorated with statues and reliefs. In the interior, chapels containing Gothic, Flemish and Italian Renaissance images including paintings by Rubens and van Dyck. The cathedral is undergoing restoration and has been studied by experts from around the world for its architectural curiosities, including those deformations which it has suffered due to previous restorations.
- Cathedral of Mary Immaculate (New Cathedral), built and consecrated in the 20th century, in High Gothic style.
- Plaza de la Virgen Blanca. It is a square to which converge some of the most typical streets of the old town and the 19th-century city expansion and is surrounded by old houses with glass verandas. At its center stands a monument commemorating the Battle of Vitoria.
- Diocesan Museum of Sacred Art of Álava, located in the building's ambulatory, houses samples of religious art heritage of the province, divided into sections of stone carving, wood carving, painting on wood, paint on canvas, jewelry and furniture liturgical.
- Church of St. Peter the Apostle (14th century) in Gothic style. The Portico Viejo, with a set of reliefs depicting scenes from the lives of St. Peter and the Virgin Mary, run under the pictures of the Virgin and the apostles.
- Church of St. Michael the Archangel (14th-16th centuries), in Gothic-Renaissance style. Its portico has an image of the Virgen Blanca, patron saint of the city. Inside is an altarpiece by Gregorio Fernández.
- Church of San Vicente Mártir. A late Gothic building from the 15th and 16th centuries.
- Church of the Carmen. A neoclassical temple built between 1897 and 1900.
- Basilica of San Prudencio. Its original construction dates to the 12th century, but it was rebuilt in the 18th century. The temple houses sculptural samples from different eras and artists.
- Romanesque Sanctuary of Our Lady of Estíbaliz. Located in the town of Argandoña, 8 kilometres (5 miles) from Vitoria-Gasteiz, it dates to the 11th century.
- Convento de San Antonio. A Clares nunnery from the 17th century.
- Convent of Santa Cruz. Dominican nunnery from the 17th century.
- Former hospice (16th-17th centuries), originally the Colegio de San Prudencio.
- Portico Viejo, Church of San Pedro
- Casa del Cordón, an example of civil Gothic architecture. It was built in the 15th century, but has kept a tower from the 13th century. The Catholic Monarchs stayed here, and Hadrian VI was named Pope while residing here.
- Basque Museum of Contemporary Art (Artium). Its permanent collection is considered one of the best and most important contemporary art in Basque and Spanish. It was inaugurated on April 26, 2002.
- Museum of Natural Sciences, located in the Tower of Doña Ochanda, an example of medieval architecture. It is also a center for research and dissemination of Natural Sciences.
- Museum of Archaeology, located in a house of wood lattice from the 16th century. The exhibition includes dolmens, Roman sculptures found in Álava, and medieval pieces.
- Fournier Museum of Playing Cards, in the Bendaña palace. Vitoria-Gasteiz is known for the manufacture of playing cards. More than 6,000 cards are displayed in the museum.
- Museum of Fine Arts, housed in a Renaissance mansion. It displays 14th-century carvings, Flemish 16th-century triptychs, panels of Spanish masters such as Jusepe de Ribera and modern Spanish paintings.
- Arms Museum of Álava is home to weapons from various ages, from prehistoric axes to 20th-century handguns. There is a large collection of medieval weaponry and reconstruction of the Battle of Vitoria.
- Montehermoso Cultural Center, housed in restored 16th-century buildings, formerly headquarters of the Diocese of Vitoria. In 1997, with the annexation of the former water tank, the property became the Montehermoso Cultural Center, designed as a space for art exhibitions and musical performances.
- Plaza Nueva. A large arcaded plaza designed by the architect Antonio de Olaguibel in 1781 and designed to unite the old town with the new Story, then under construction.
- The Arquillos. This road was built with porticoes between the 18th and 19th centuries.
- Ajuria Enea, the seat of President of the Basque government (Lehendakari) since 1980. It was built in 1918 as the main residence of the family of the local entrepreneur Serafin Ajuria, and it is a fine example of the Basque architecture of the period.
- Ataria, an information and interpretation centre for the wetlands of Salburua, an important nature park on the eastern edge of the city.
- The Great Sequoia, a 40-metre tall tree dating back to 1860
Economy and demographics
The economy of Vitoria-Gasteiz is diverse, and many manufacturing companies have operations there, including Mercedes-Benz, Michelin, Gamesa, and Heraclio Fournier, the latter being headquartered there. The city has been ranked second in standard of living among all cities in Spain, and first as to green areas and cultural places per capita.
The city is served by Vitoria Airport. Currently, no airlines operate normal passenger services from it.
Vitoria-Gasteiz hosts two annual international music festivals:
- The International Music Festival/Course Vitoria-Gasteiz, from the 18th to the 27th of July (the 2011 Edition)
- The Vitoria-Gasteiz Jazz Festival, from the 10th to the 16th of July (the 2011 Edition).
- The Azkena rock festival, on 29, 30 June (the 2013 Edition).
The Fiestas de la Virgen Blanca festival is celebrated every year from the 4th to the 9th of August in honour of the patron saint of the city, and features a programme of special events, activities and free open-air concerts.
The liberal arts section of the University of the Basque Country is based in the south part of the city. Focusing on history and linguistics, the Álava campus is also home of the Faculty of Pharmacy, as well as some other technical, teaching and business related degrees.
Its origins date back to 1847 when the first Escuela Normal de Maestros de Álava was established. A number of other colleges and faculties were adopted in 1978 by the emerging University of the Basque Country.
From an urban point of view, Vitoria-Gasteiz is a mid-sized city, the line of which is adapted to the traditions of each historical moment. The medieval town is set in almond-shape around the hill foundation, which by its privileged position as the only elevation in the plain of Álava, became a defensive stronghold coveted by the kingdoms of Navarra and Castilla during the 11th and 12th centuries. The walled enclosure is prior to the war between Castile and Navarre, and is due to the work undertaken by the Conde de Álava, bastard son of King Ramiro I of Aragon, in the 11th century, to defend the village. The defensive walls of the old Gasteiz were built between the years 1050 and 1100. Because of that first defensive role, its narrow streets surrounding the oval resulted in compact rows of houses parallel to each other and with respect to the medieval walls (of which only some sections are preserved and gates). Between the years 1854 and 1856 was an event that changed the face of the city. An epidemic of cholera was the excuse for tearing down the gates, which were strong houses, which provided access to the streets Run (home of the strong Nanclares), Shoe (home of the strong Soto) and Blacksmith (home of the strong Abendaño) and which served to protect every neighborhood association. At the entrance of the current Plaza de la Virgen Blanca, was the site of Santa Clara, which was joined by the wall at the Convent of San Antonio. In the 19th century, in recognition that the city was small, an expansion was planned in neoclassical style, and little by little planning for the city has given Vitoria-Gasteiz its current form.
Almonds medieval, as is often called, has many architectural jewels such as Bendaña Palace, headquarters of the Fournier Museum of cards (the years erected in 1525 by Juan Lopez de Arrieta, on the site occupied by the tower before defensive erected by Maeztu). The Palace Escoriaza-Esquivel, the S XV, built by Claudio de Arciniega. The Villa Suso, where dwelt Martin Salinas, Ambassador Carlos V (16th century). And the greatest treasure of Vitoria-Gasteiz: the Cathedral of Santa Maria (Old Cathedral).
The history of the Cathedral of Santa María (popularly known as Old Cathedral), is itself a synthesis of the history of Vitoria-Gasteiz. Built on the cemetery of the primitive village of Gasteiz (which today can be accessed through the excavations), the church of Santa María collapsed with the fire of 1202, and Alfonso VIII of Castile (who had conquered the square just 2 years earlier), ordered the city be rebuilt and raised at the site of a former church that was to serve two very different purposes: to save souls and store weapons. Thus was born the Cathedral of Santa Maria, both church, and a temple-like fortress that served as entry to the city. The project was changing with the centuries, so that each change was made without taking into account the above, this was the case in the 15th century (when the church became collegiate), and finally in the sixties, when it was decided to reverse the works of strengthening of the external walls and widen the windows purely for aesthetic reasons. What we ended up with was forcing the temple to close for fear it will collapse during the Masses. Today the cathedral is again open, and offers visitors a unique experience: a trip through time in layers. Since the remnants of the original village, following the current Vitoria-Gasteiz, to the Gothic redesign of the mid-20th century, passing through foundations of more than a millennium old, and plans Romanesque and Gothic, all perfectly discernible by the color of materials used at each stage. A unique opportunity in the world to pass through the shortcut history, in a temple for their peculiar characteristics, and multiple roles throughout its life, has become the main attraction of Vitoria-Gasteiz. Ken Follett, author of "The Pillars of the Earth", said after his stay in the city that Santa Maria was one of the three most interesting cathedrals of the world.
From the Middle Ages to the 18th century, the population of Vitoria-Gasteiz and the layout of its streets remained almost unchanged. And it was not until the late 18th century, when growth required the expansion of the city outside. To solve the problem of the difference in height between the original kernel on the hill, and the plain below, the arches are erected and the Plaza Nueva, which soften the transition to a much needed neoclassical expansion (s. XIX) of wide streets and gardens, whose greatest exponent is in the street detail, the Park of La Florida, and the Plaza de la Virgen Blanca, with its façade pulled viewpoints.
Finally, the new quarters of Vitoria-Gasteiz are built in accordance with a development plan that favors parks, recreation areas and the quality of life. Reconciling keeping the identity of the city with the need to accommodate the growing population. Drawing on the district of San Martin, first planned new neighborhood in this way, the city has increased its outreach to a fast growth in recent years concentrated in the neighborhoods of Lakua, Salburua and Zabalgana. The city of Vitoria-Gasteiz has received several international awards for its urban development. Special mention is called green ring, a network of parks and green spaces around the city, destined to be the lung of the future Vitoria-Gasteiz, and link the city with the countryside. This ring is formed by the parks Salburua, Zabalgana, Armentia, Rio Alegria, Gamarra, Abetxuko, and Atxa-Landaberde, although still lacking in areas integrated into this ring.
By road: Vitoria is connected both with the rest of the Basque capital and with Madrid, because the city is a step on the N-1/A-1. There are two motorways in their municipality and a future motorway service: The N-1 Madrid-Irun, the N-620 Vitoria-Altube and its connection with the AP-68 Logroño-Bilbao, and as of the end of 2009, the new AP-1 between Vitoria and Eibar, an attempt to alleviate the problems caused by congested traffic on the N-1/A-1.
By rail: The Madrid-Irun in Vitoria is one of its most important stops. Half a dozen trains each day linking the city with the Spanish capital, highlighting the service Alvia (At 10.09 in the morning), which, via Valladolid, uses the infrastructure of the AVE to arrive in 3 hours 43 minutes to Madrid. There are also great connections with all Castile and León, Galicia, Catalonia, Alicante, Asturias, Lisbon and Paris. Among the deficits worth highlighting are the lack of rail services connecting with Andalusia (none) and the lack of a rail link with Bilbao. In 2013 a high-speed line is expected to inaugurate to connect Vitoria with Madrid, Bilbao and San Sebastian among other cities.
By air: The airport in Vitoria was built to be the major airport in northern Spain and replacing the airport in Bilbao, but failed to consolidate itself as such. The low number of passenger flights contrasts with the fact that it has established itself as a cargo airport, being the fourth largest airport with freight transport in Spain.
- Deportivo Alavés, football team currently playing in the Segunda División. Home matches are played in the Estadio Mendizorrotza.
- Baskonia (also known as Laboral Kutxa), Basketball team in the ACB. They play in the Fernando Buesa Arena.
- Inigo Calderon, football player currently playing for Brighton & Hove Albion F.C. (Football League Championship, England).
- Almudena Cid, rhythmic gymnast now retired, 8 times national champion, she took part at 4 olympic finals at Atlanta 1996, Sydney 2000, Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008, also she took part in 9 world championships and 12 European championships.
Vitoria-Gasteiz held the title of European Green Capital en 2012 due to the high proportion of green public areas, ensuring that the entire population lives within 300m of an open green space, its biodiversity and ecosystems services, as well as for the city's green policies.
Strategies for 2014:
- Sustainable urban growth:
The urban growth must respond to real social needs to be contrasted with the environmental conditions of the village. On the one hand, development can not lead systematically reducing agricultural land and natural areas adjacent to the city. In addition, new models of families and the high cost per household at present, require rethinking modes of land use. Vitoria- Gasteiz addresses a review of the General Urban Plan of the city will allow a more compact, cohesive and diverse model, the soil must be treated as an irreplaceable resource and peripheral network of fields and forests has to be respected and protected.
- Acting mimicking natural cycles:
The flow of life in cities leads inevitably direct or indirect impacts on the environment. The most appropriate way to reduce these impacts is to mimic the way nature manages its resources and tends to be cyclically. Vitoria- Gasteiz has been working on successful programs that mimic these cycles, such as waste management or water management policies . In both cases, the involvement of citizens is turning and continue to face key challenges for process optimization .
- Recovery of biodiversity:
Vitoria- Gasteiz has been working on a progressive ecological landscape recovery and the periphery of the city which highlights the successful Green Belt project, the creation of the Botanical Park Forests in Europe or the introduction of Orchards Ecological citizenship . From these bases, the city deals with new actions such as the "closing" of the Green Belt or the connection thereof with the mountains that surround the city . Incorporating nature into the city is another major objectives, addressing an Interior Green Belt conceived as a sustainable urban energy corridor, with a component of environmental information for citizens and intensive incorporation of vegetation and construction elements to promote greater biocapacity and urban biodiversity.
- Reducing the environmental footprint:
Keep doing sustainable development one of the hallmarks of Vitoria- Gasteiz, requires measures such as rehabilitation of properties with bioclimatic criteria, a way of boosting renewable energy will have a suitable translation into reform Europa Conference Centre . Furthermore, the evolution of the city should be accompanied by a reuse and optimization of built heritage, a philosophy in which the construction of the Urban Business Park Betoño falls, which will transform a space into a degraded and obsolete business location dropouts.
- Assessors and commitments:
Vitoria-Gasteiz has spent decades demonstrating its commitment to sustainable development. Thus, the principle of prevalence of environmental protection will be key in any actions that may affect ecosystems and areas of recognized ecological value. For this purpose, a method that allows to integrate in the plans and programs of municipal territorial competition condition assessment of sustainability will be developed. This procedure must be based on the availability of reliable information, date and level of detail required on the municipal territory and citizen participation in the processes of sustainability assessment, raising that as a necessary element that brings transparency to the actions and contributes to acceptance thereof by the public.
- Solutions and opportunities for all / as
Building a more sustainable Vitoria -Gasteiz requires that any public action that promotes, has the primary criterion of social and environmental benefits it brings. Speaking of social benefits, aspects of the welfare of citizens such as education, training and culture of the population, equality of opportunity, the right to employment and housing or the guarantee of social rights and individual . The social and economic context required to respond to new needs arising in the public and in that line, special importance is the fight against unemployment and the opportunity to combine the industrial character of Vitoria -Gasteiz and its environmental positioning to create " green jobs " .
In addition, the city will continue moving towards a comfortable city for both citizenship for / the visitors, focusing efforts on projects such as the Plan for Sustainable Mobility and Public Space, which retrieves the public space above the traffic. At the same time, work will continue on reducing travel by private vehicle and replacing cars with combustion engine and hybrid electric vehicles.
- A new " Governance for Change":
The approach to a more sustainable urban model requires a twist to institutionalized patterns of production and consumption that are, in many cases, the main cause of social, economic and environmental problems . It is necessary to adopt new mode of governance, committed to sustainability and based on political consensus . In this sense, the case of Vitoria provides an example of how environmental policies can transcend political circumstances, becoming a city bet . For the sake of better governance, Vitoria- Gasteiz is marked as challenge to optimize coordination between the Environment Sector Council departments and municipal agencies, focusing on aspects such as the availability of information, transparency in the municipal action and communication to citizenship.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Vitoria-Gasteiz is twinned with:
- S. Villimer: Vitoria, historia de una ciudad, p. 160 (Vitoria 1977).
- "Balio Klimatologiko Normalak. Foronda-Txokiza". AEMET. Retrieved 2013-08-21.
- "European Green Capital".
- "Web de la ciudad de Vitoria-Gasteiz, Green Capital. Ayuntamiento de Vitoria-Gasteiz.".
- "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 2013-12-26.
Media related to Vitoria-Gasteiz at Wikimedia Commons
- Official web site of Vitoria-Gasteiz
- Vitoria-Gasteiz in the Auñamendi Basque Encyclopedia (Euskomedia Fundazioa)