|— Municipality —|
|Motto: Haec est Victoria quae vincit
(This is Victoria which triumphs)
|Autonomous community||País Vasco|
|• Alcalde||Javier Maroto (People's Party)|
|• Total||276.81 km2 (106.88 sq mi)|
|Elevation||525 m (1,722 ft)|
|• Density||860/km2 ( 2,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||01001 - 01015|
|Official language(s)||Spanish, Basque|
Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spanish: Vitoria [biˈtoɾja]; Basque: Gasteiz [ɡas̺teis̻]; officially Vitoria-Gasteiz) is the capital city of the province of Álava and of the autonomous community of the Basque Country in northern Spain with a population of 235,661 people. It is the second largest Basque city. The dwellers of the city are called vitorianos or gasteiztarrak, while traditionally they are dubbed babazorros (Basque for 'bean eaters').
Vitoria-Gasteiz held the title of European Green Capital until the end of 2012.
In 581 A.D. the Visigoth king Liuvigild founded the city of Victoriacum, trying to emulate the Roman foundations, as a celebration of the victory against the Vascones near what is assumed to be the hill occupied by the primitive village of Gasteiz. This however is not sufficiently proven, and some historians and experts believe that Victoriacum was located not on the site of present-day Vitoria-Gasteiz but nearby, maybe at Iruña-Veleia (cf. J.M. Lacarra) or at the foot of Mount Gorbea where there is a village called Vitoriano.
In 1181, Sancho VI the Wise, King of Navarre founded the town of Nueva Victoria as a defensive outpost on top of a hill at the site of the previous settlement of Gasteiz. In 1199, the town was besieged and captured by the troops of Alfonso VIII of Castile, who annexed the town to the Kingdom of Castile. The town was progressively enlarged and in 1431 it was granted the title of City by King Juan II of Castile. In 1463, it was one of the five founding villas of the Brotherhood of Álava alongside Sajazarra, Miranda de Ebro, Pancorbo and Salvatierra.
The Battle of Vitoria of the Peninsular War occurred near Vitoria-Gasteiz along the river Zadorra on 21 June 1813. An allied British, Portuguese, and Spanish army under General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army under Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan. The victory assured the eventual end of French control in Spain. There is a monument commemorating this battle in the main square of the city known as the Monument to Independence – Monumento a la Independencia.
When news came to Vienna in late July of that year, Johann Nepomuk Mälzel commissioned Ludwig van Beethoven to compose a symphony, the op. 91 Wellingtons Sieg oder die Schlacht bei Vittoria or Siegessymphonie.
Work began on Institute for Middle Education in 1843, with classes beginning during the 1853–54 academic year. It is now current headquarters of the Basque Parliament and formerly the convent of Santa Clara. The Free University open in the wake of the revolution of 1868. The University operated from 1869, to just prior to the 1873–1874 term, largely because of the second Carlist War. Chief academics were Ricardo Becerro de Bengoa, Julián Apraiz, Federico Baraibar, and so on. This latter, great Hellenist (1851–1918), was also among the first teachers of Basque in Vitoria-Gasteiz as an off-syllabus subject.
During the Spanish transition to democracy, the Church of St. Francis of Assisi was the scene of the March 3 Killing of 1976 after clashes between police and striking workers. Under the orders of Interior Minister Manuel Fraga, the police stormed on a shooting spree into a packed church into which demonstrators had retreated, resulting in five dead and over 100 wounded.
On May 20, 1980, by decision of the Basque Parliament, Vitoria-Gasteiz became the capital of the Basque Autonomous Community.
- Cathedral of Santa Maria (Old Cathedral), a 14th-century Gothic building with a 17th-century tower. Under the portico are three open doorways decorated with statues and reliefs. In the interior, chapels containing Gothic, Flemish and Italian Renaissance images including paintings by Rubens and van Dyck. The cathedral is undergoing restoration and has been studied by experts from around the world for its architectural curiosities, including those deformations which it has suffered due to previous restorations.
- Cathedral of Mary Immaculate (New Cathedral), built and consecrated in the 20th century, in High Gothic style.
- Plaza de la Virgen Blanca. It is a square to which converge some of the most typical streets of the old town and the Eixample and is surrounded by old houses with glass verandas. At its center stands a monument commemorating the Battle of Vitoria.
- Diocesan Museum of Sacred Art of Álava, located in the building's ambulatory, houses samples of religious art heritage of the province, divided into sections of stone carving, wood carving, painting on wood, paint on canvas, jewelry and furniture liturgical.
- Church of St. Peter the Apostle (14th century) in Gothic style. The Portico Viejo, with a set of reliefs depicting scenes from the lives of St. Peter and the Virgin Mary, run under the pictures of the Virgin and the apostles.
- Church of St. Michael the Archangel (14th-16th centuries), in Gothic-Renaissance style. Its portico has an image of the Virgen Blanca, patron saint of the city. Inside is an altarpiece by Gregorio Fernández.
- Church of San Vicente Martir. A late Gothic building from the 15th and 16th centuries.
- Church of the Carmen. A neoclassical temple built between 1897 and 1900.
- Basilica of San Prudencio. Its original construction dates to the 12th century, but it was rebuilt in the 18th century. The temple houses sculptural samples from different eras and artists.
- Romanesque Sanctuary of Our Lady of Estíbaliz. Located in the town of Argandoña, 8 km from Vitoria-Gasteiz, it dates to the 11th century.
- Convento de San Antonio. A Clares nunnery from the 17th century.
- Convent of Santa Cruz. Dominican nunnery from the 17th century.
- Former Hospice (16th-17th centuries), originally the Colegio de San Prudencio.
- Portico Viejo, Church of San Pedro
- Casa del Cordón, an example of civil Gothic architecture. It was built in the 15th century, but has kept a tower from the 13th century. The Catholic Monarchs stayed here, and Hadrian VI was named Pope while residing here.
- Basque Museum of Contemporary Art (Artium). Its permanent collection is considered one of the best and most important contemporary art in Basque and Spanish. It was inaugurated on April 26, 2002.
- Museum of Natural Sciences, located in the Tower of Doña Ochanda, an example of medieval architecture. It is also a center for research and dissemination of Natural Sciences.
- Museum of Archaeology, located in a house of wood lattice from the 16th century. The exhibition includes dolmens, Roman sculptures found in Álava, and medieval pieces.
- Fournier Museum of Playing Cards, in the Bendaña palace. Vitoria-Gasteiz is known for the manufacture of playing cards. More than 6,000 cards are displayed in the museum.
- Museum of Fine Arts, housed in a Renaissance mansion. It displays 14th century carvings, Flemish 16th century triptychs, panels of Spanish masters such as Jusepe de Ribera and modern Spanish paintings.
- Arms Museum of Álava is home to weapons from various ages, from prehistoric axes to 20th century handguns. There is a large collection of medieval weaponry and reconstruction of the Battle of Vitoria.
- Montehermoso Cultural Center, housed in restored 16th century buildings, formerly headquarters of the Diocese of Vitoria. In 1997, with the annexation of the former water tank, the property became the Montehermoso Cultural Center, designed as a space for art exhibitions and musical performances.
- Plaza de España. A large arcaded plaza designed by the architect Antonio de Olaguibel in 1781 and designed to unite the old town with the new Story, then under construction.
- The Arquillos. This road was built with porticoes between the 18th and 19th century.
- Ajuria Enea, the seat of President of the Basque government (Lehendakari) since 1980. It was built in 1918 as the main residence of the family of the local entrepreneur Serafin Ajuria, and it is a fine example of the Basque architecture of the period.
- Ataria, an information and interpretation centre for the wetlands of Salburua, an important nature park on the eastern edge of the city.
Economy and demographics 
The economy of Vitoria-Gasteiz is diverse, and many manufacturing companies have operations there, including Mercedes-Benz, Michelin, Gamesa, and Heraclio Fournier, the latter being headquartered there. The city has been ranked second in standard of living among all cities in Spain, and first as to green areas and cultural places per capita.
The city is served by Vitoria Airport. Currently, no airlines operate normal passenger services from it.
Vitoria-Gasteiz hosts two annual international music festivals:
- The International Music Festival/Course Vitoria-Gasteiz, from the 18th to the 27th of July (the 2011 Edition)
- The Vitoria-Gasteiz Jazz Festival, from the 10th to the 16th of July (the 2011 Edition).
- The Azkena rock festival, on 29, 30 June (the 2013 Edition).
Local festivities 
The Fiestas de la Virgen Blanca festival is celebrated every year from the 4th to the 9th of August in honour of the patron saint of the city, and features a programme of special events, activities and free open-air concerts.
The liberal arts section of the University of the Basque Country is based in the south part of the city. Focusing on history and linguistics, the Álava campus is also home of the Faculty of Pharmacy, as well as some other technical, teaching and business related degrees.
Its origins date back to 1847 when the first Escuela Normal de Maestros de Álava was established. A whole other number of colleges and faculties were adopted in 1978 by the emerging University of the Basque Country.
From an urban point of view, Vitoria-Gasteiz is a mid-sized city, the line of which is adapted to the traditions of each historical moment. The medieval town is set in almond-shaped around the hill foundation, which by its privileged position as the only elevation in the plain of Álava, became a defensive stronghold coveted by the kingdoms of Navarra and Castilla during the 11th and 12th centuries. The walled enclosure is prior to the war between Castile and Navarre, and is due to the work undertaken by the Conde de Álava, bastard son of King Ramiro I of Aragon, in the 11th century, to defend the village. The defensive walls of the old Gasteiz were built between the years 1050 and 1100. Because of that first defensive role, its narrow streets and bleak surrounding the oval originating in compact rows of houses parallel to each other and with respect to the medieval walls (of which only some sections are preserved and gates). Between the years 1854 and 1856 was an event that changed the face of the city. An epidemic of cholera was the excuse for tearing down the gates, which were strong houses, which provided access to the streets run (home of the strong Nanclares), Shoe (home of the strong Soto) and Blacksmith (home of the strong Abendaño) and which served to protect every neighborhood association. At the entrance of the current Plaza de la Virgen Blanca, was the site of Santa Clara, who was joined by the wall at the Convent of San Antonio. In the nineteenth and the recognition that the city was being small, an expansion was planned in neoclassical style, and little by little planning for the city was giving Vitoria-Gasteiz its current form. Almonds medieval, as is often called, has many architectural jewels such as Bendaña Palace, headquarters of the Fournier Museum of cards (the years erected in 1525 by Juan Lopez de Arrieta, on the site occupied by the tower before defensive erected by Maeztu). The Palace Escoriaza-Esquivel, the S XV, built by Claudio de Arciniega. The Villa Suso, which dwelt Martin Salinas, Ambassador Carlos V (16th century). And the greatest treasure of Vitoria-Gasteiz: the Cathedral of Santa Maria (Old Cathedral).
The history of the Cathedral of Santa Maria (popularly known as Old Cathedral), is itself a synthesis of the history of Vitoria-Gasteiz. Built on the cemetery of the primitive village of Gasteiz (which today can be accessed through the excavations), the church of Santa Maria collapsed with the fire of 1202, and Alfonso VIII of Castile (who had conquered the square just 2 years earlier), ordered to rebuild the city and lift at the site of a former church that was to serve two very different purposes: to save souls and store weapons. Thus was born the Cathedral of Santa Maria, yet church, a temple-like fortress that served as entry to the city. The project was changing with the centuries, so that each change was made without taking into account the above, this was the case in the 15th century (when the church became collegiate), and finally in the sixties, when it was decided reversing the works of strengthening of the external walls and widen the windows purely for aesthetic reasons. What we ended up forcing the temple to close for fear it will collapse during the Masses. Today the cathedral again be open, and offers visitors a unique experience: a trip through time in layers. Since the remnants of the original village, following the current Vitoria-Gasteiz, to the Gothic redesign of the mid-20th century, passing through foundations of more than a millennium old, and plans Romanesque and Gothic, all perfectly discernible by the color of materials used at each stage. A unique opportunity in the world to pass through the shortcut history, in a temple for their peculiar characteristics, and multiple roles throughout his life, has become the main attraction of Vitoria-Gasteiz. Ken Follett, author of "The Pillars of the Earth", said after his stay in the city that Santa Maria was one of the three most interesting cathedrals of the world.
Since the Middle Ages to the 18th century, the population of Vitoria-Gasteiz and the layout of its streets remained almost unchanged. And it was not until the late 18th century, when growth requires the expansion of the city outside. To solve the problem of the difference in height between the original kernel on the hill, and the plain below, the arches are erected and the Plaza Nueva, which soften the transition to a much needed expansion neoclassical (s. XIX) of wide streets and gardens, whose greatest exponent is in the street detail, the Park of La Florida, and the Plaza de la Virgen Blanca, with its facade pulled viewpoints.
Finally, the new quarters of Vitoria-Gasteiz are built in accordance with a development plan that favors parks, recreation areas and the quality of life. Reconciling keeping the identity of the city with the need to accommodate the growing population. Drawing on the district of San Martin, first planned new neighborhood in this way, the city has increased its outreach to a fast growth in recent years concentrated in the neighborhoods of Lakua, Salburua and Zabalgana. The city of Vitoria-Gasteiz has received several international awards for its urban development. Special mention is called green ring, a network of parks and green spaces around the city, destined to be the lung of the future Vitoria-Gasteiz, and link the city with the countryside. This ring is formed by the time the parks Salburua, Zabalgana, Armentia, Rio Alegria, Gamarra, Abetxuko, and Atxa-Landaberde, although still lacking in areas integrated into this ring.
By road: Vitoria is connected both with the rest of the Basque capital and with Madrid, because it is step by the city of N-1/A-1. There are two motorways in their municipality and a future motorway service: The N-1 Madrid-Irun, The N-620 Vitoria-Altube and its connection with the AP-68 Logroño-Bilbao, and as of the end of 2009, the new AP-1 Between Vitoria and Eibar attempt to alleviate the problems caused by congested traffic on the N-1/A-1.
By rail: The Madrid-Irun in Vitoria is one of their most important stops. Half a dozen trains each day linking the city with the Spanish capital, highlighting the service Alvia (At 10.09 in the morning), which, via Valladolid, uses the infrastructure of the AVE to arrive in 3 hours 43 minutes to Madrid. There are also great connections with all Castile and León, Galicia, Catalonia, Alicante, Asturias, Lisbon and Paris. Among the deficits fit to highlight the lack of rail services connecting with Andalusia (none) and the lack of rail link with Bilbao. In 2013 is expected to inaugurate a high-speed line to communicate Vitoria with Madrid, Bilbao and San Sebastian among other cities.
By air: The airport in Vitoria was built to be the major airport in northern Spain and replacing the airport in Bilbao, but failed to consolidate itself as such. The low number of passenger flights contrasts with the fact that it has established itself as a cargo airport, being the fourth largest airport with freight transport in Spain.
- Deportivo Alavés, football team currently playing in the Segunda División B. Home matches are played in the Estadio Mendizorrotza.
- Baskonia (also known as Caja Laboral), Basketball team in the ACB. They play in the Fernando Buesa Arena.
- Inigo Calderon, football player currently playing for Brighton & Hove Albion F.C. (Football League Championship, England).
- Almudena Cid, rhythmic gymnast now retired, 8 times national champion, she took part at 4 olympic finals at Atlanta 1996, Sydney 2000, Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008, also she took part in 9 world championships and 12 European championships.
Sister cities 
- Anaheim, United States
- Angoulême, France
- Cogo, Equatorial Guinea
- Lagouira, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
- Ibagué, Colombia
- Kutaisi, Georgia
- Victoria, United States
- Vitória, Brazil
Media related to Vitoria-Gasteiz at Wikimedia Commons
- Official web site of Vitoria-Gasteiz
- Vitoria-Gasteiz in the Auñamendi Basque Encyclopedia (Euskomedia Fundazioa)