Vittorio Emanuele Orlando

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Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
VittorioEmanuelleOrlando28379v cropped.jpg
23rd Prime Minister of Italy
In office
29 October 1917 – 23 June 1919
Monarch Vittorio Emanuele III
Preceded by Paolo Boselli
Succeeded by Francesco Saverio Nitti
President of the Chamber of Deputies
In office
1 December 1919 – 25 June 1920
Monarch Vittorio Emanuele III
Preceded by Giuseppe Marcora
Succeeded by Enrico De Nicola
In office
15 July 1944 – 25 June 1946
Monarch Vittorio Emanuele III
Umberto II
Preceded by Dino Grandi
Succeeded by Carlo Sforza
Minister of the Interior
In office
18 June 1916 – 23 June 1919
Prime Minister Paolo Boselli
Himself
Preceded by Antonio Salandra
Succeeded by Francesco Saverio Nitti
Minister of Justice
In office
31 October 1914 – 18 June 1916
Prime Minister Antonio Salandra
Preceded by Luigi Dari
Succeeded by Ettore Sacchi
In office
4 March 1907 – 11 December 1909
Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti
Preceded by Niccolò Gallo
Succeeded by Vittorio Scialoja
Minister of Public Instruction
In office
3 September 1903 – 27 March 1905
Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti
Tommaso Tittoni
Preceded by Nunzio Nasi
Succeeded by Leonardo Bianchi
Personal details
Born 19 May 1860
Palermo, Italy
Died 1 December 1952 (aged 92)
Rome, Italy
Nationality Italian
Political party Historical Left
(1900–1922)
Italian Liberal Party
(1922–1924)
Independent (Monarchist)
(1924–1952)

Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (May 19, 1860 – December 1, 1952) was an Italian diplomat and political figure. He was prime minister of Italy during World War I and was one of the Big Four leaders that built the world order after that war. He was a controversial figure: while some authors criticize his way to represent Italy in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference because of the constrasts with his foreign minister Sidney Sonnino, he was also known as The "Premier of Victory" for defeating the Central Powers along with the Entente in World War I. He was also member and president of the Constitutional Assembly that changed the Italian form of government into a Republic. Aside from his prominent political role Orlando is also known for his writings, over a hundred works, on legal and judicial issues; Orlando was a professor of law.

Early career[edit]

He was born in Palermo, Sicily. His father, a landed gentleman, delayed venturing out to register his son's birth for fear of Giuseppe Garibaldi's 1,000 patriots who had just stormed into Sicily on the first leg of their march to build an Italian nation.[1] He taught law at the University of Palermo and was recognized as an eminent jurist.[2]

In 1897 he was elected in the Italian Chamber of Deputies (Italian: Camera dei Deputati) for the district of Partinico for which he was constantly reelected until 1925.[3] He aligned himself with Giovanni Giolitti, who was Prime Minister of Italy five times between 1892 and 1921.

Minister and Prime Minister[edit]

A liberal, Orlando served in various roles as a minister. In 1903 he served as Minister of Education under Prime Minister Giolitti. In 1907 he was appointed Minister of Justice, a role he retained until 1909. He was re-appointed to the same ministry in November 1914 in the government of Antonio Salandra until his appointment as Minister of the Interior in June 1916 under Paolo Boselli.

After the Italian military disaster in World War I at Caporetto on October 25, 1917, which led to the fall of the Boselli government, Orlando became Prime Minister, and continued in that role through the rest of the war. He had been a strong supporter of Italy's entry in the war. He successfully led a patriotic national front government, the Unione Sacra and reorganized the army.[2] Orlando was encouraged in his support of the Allies because of secret promises made by the latter promising significant Italian territorial gains in Dalmatia at the 1915 London Pact.[2]

In November 1918, the Italians won the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, a feat that coincided with the collapse of Austro-Hungarian Army and the end of the First World War on the Italian Front, as well as the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The fact that Italy recovered and ended up on the winning side in 1918 earned for Orlando the title "Premier of Victory."[1]

Paris Peace Conference 1919[edit]

Orlando (2nd from left) at the World War I peace negotiations in Versailles with David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson (from left)

He was one the Big Four, the main Allied leaders and participants at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, along with U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau and Britain's Prime Minister David Lloyd George.[4] Although, as prime minister, he was the head of the Italian delegation, Orlando's inability to speak English and his weak political position at home allowed the conservative foreign minister, the half-Welsh Sidney Sonnino, to play a dominant role.[5]

Their differences proved to be disastrous during the negotiations. Orlando was prepared to renounce territorial claims for Dalmatia to annex Rijeka (or Fiume as the Italians called the town) - the principal seaport on the Adriatic Sea - while Sonnino was not prepared to give up Dalmatia. Italy ended up claiming both and got none, running up against Wilson's policy of national self-determination. Orlando supported the Racial Equality Proposal introduced by Japan at the conference.[6]

Orlando dramatically left the conference early in April 1919. He returned briefly the following month, but was forced to resign just days before the signing of the resultant Treaty of Versailles. The fact he was not a signatory to the treaty became a point of pride for him later in his life.[7] French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau dubbed him "The Weeper," and Orlando himself recalled proudly: "When ... I knew they would not give us what we were entitled to ... I writhed on the floor. I knocked my head against the wall. I cried. I wanted to die."[1]

His political position was seriously undermined by his failure to secure Italian interests at the Paris Peace Conference. Orlando resigned on 23 June 1919, following his inability to acquire Fiume for Italy in the peace settlement. In December 1919 he was elected president of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, but never again served as prime minister.

During Fascism[edit]

When Benito Mussolini seized power in 1922, Orlando initially tactically supported him, but broke with Il Duce over the murder of Giacomo Matteotti in 1924. After that he abandoned politics, in 1925 he resigned from the Chamber of Deputies,[8] until in 1935 Mussolini's march into Ethiopia stirred Orlando's nationalism. He reappeared briefly in the political spotlight when he wrote Mussolini a supportive letter.[1]

In 1944, he made something of a political comeback. With the fall of Mussolini, Orlando became leader of the Conservative Democratic Union. He was elected speaker of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, where he served until 1946. In 1946, he was elected to the Constituent Assembly of Italy and served as its president. In 1948 he was nominated senator for life, and was a candidate for the presidency of the republic (elected by Parliament) but was defeated by Luigi Einaudi. He died in 1952 in Rome.

Links with the Mafia?[edit]

Some authors say that Orlando was connected to the Mafia and mafiosi from beginning to end of his long parliamentary career,[9] but no court ever investigated the issue. The Mafia pentito – a state witness – Tommaso Buscetta claimed that Orlando actually was a member of the Mafia, a man of honour, himself.[10] In Partinico he was supported by the Mafia boss Frank Coppola who had been deported back to Italy from the US.[11]

In 1925, Orlando stated in the Italian senate that he was proud of being mafioso, intending this to mean a "man of honor" but making no admission of links to organized crime:

“if by the word 'mafia' we understand a sense of honour pitched in the highest key; a refusal to tolerate anyone’s prominence or overbearing behaviour; … a generosity of spirit which, while it meets strength head on, is indulgent to the weak; loyalty to friends … If such feelings and such behaviour are what people mean by 'the mafia', … then we are actually speaking of the special characteristics of the Sicilian soul: and I declare that I am a mafioso, and proud to be one.” [12][13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Last of the Big Four, obituary of Orlando in Time, December 8, 1952
  2. ^ a b c Tucker, Encyclopedia Of World War I, pp. 865-66
  3. ^ Servadio, Mafioso, p. 71
  4. ^ MacMillan, Paris 1919, p. xxviii
  5. ^ MacMillan, Paris 1919, p. 274
  6. ^ Lauren, Power And Prejudice, p.92
  7. ^ MacMillan, Paris 1919, p. 302
  8. ^ Orlando Out, Time Magazine, August 17, 1925
  9. ^ Arlacchi, Mafia Business, p. 43
  10. ^ Dickie, Cosa Nostra, p. 184
  11. ^ Servadio, Mafioso, p. 252
  12. ^ Arlacchi, Mafia Business, p. 181
  13. ^ Dickie, Cosa Nostra, p. 183