Swami Vivekananda at the Parliament of the World's Religions (1893)

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Swami Vivekananda at the Parliament of the World's Religions (1893)
Swami Vivekananda-1893-09-signed.jpg
Vivekananda in Chicago in 1893
Date 11–27 September 1893
Location Chicago, America
Outcome A World Congress was organised in 2012 to commemorate 150th birth anniversary of Vivekananda
Website http://www.parliamentofreligions.org/

Swami Vivekananda represented India and Hinduism at the Parliament of the World's Religions (1893). This was the first World's Parliament of Religions and it was held from 11 to 27 September 1893. Delegates from all over the world joined this Parliament.[1] In 2012 a three-day world conference was organized to commemorate 150th birth anniversary of Vivekananda.[2]

Background[edit]

Journey to the west[edit]

Vivekananda began his journey to America from Bombay, India on 31 May 1893.[3] His journey to America took him to China, Japan and Canada. At Canton (Guangzhou) he saw some Buddhist monasteries. There he also found many Sanskrit and Bengali manuscripts. Then he visited Japan. First he went to Nagasaki. He saw three more big cities and then reached Osaka, Kyoto and Tokyo and then he reached Yokohama. He started his journey to Canada in a ship named RMS Empress of India from Yokohama.[4]

Vivekananda 1893 with The East Indian Group

Meeting with Jamsetji Tata[edit]

In the journey from Yokohama to Canada on the ship Empress, Vivekananda accidentally met Jamsetji Tata who was also going to Chicago. Tata was a businessman who made his initial fortune in the opium trade with China[5] and had started one of the first textile mills in Indian, was going to Chicago to get new business ideas. In this accidental meeting on the Empress, Vivekananda inspired Tata to set up a research and educational institution in India. They also discussed a plan to start a steel factory in India.[4]

He reached Vancouver on 25 July.[4][6] From Vancouver (of Canada) he travelled to Chicago by train and arrived there on Sunday, 30 July 1893.[7]

Journey to Boston[edit]

After reaching Chicago Vivekananda learned no one could attend the Parliament as delegate without credential or bonafide. He did not have one at that moment and he felt utterly disappointed. He also learned the Parliament would not open till first week of September. But, Vivekananda did not give up his hope. To cut his expenditure he decided to go to Boston which was less costly than Chicago.

Meeting with John Henry Wright[edit]

At Boston Vivekananda met Professor John Henry Wright of Harvard University. Professor Wright invited Vivekananda to give a lecture at the University. After being acquainted with Vivekananda's knowledge, wisdom and excellence Professor Wright insisted him to represent Hinduism at the Parliament of World's Religions.[8] Vivekananda himself later wrote– "He urged upon me the necessity of going to the Parliament of Religions, which he thought would give an introduction to the nation".[3] When Wright learned that Vivekananda was not officially accredited and did not have any credentail to join the Parliament, he told Vivekananda– "To ask for your credentials is like asking the sun to state its right to shine in the heavens."[3]

At the Parliament of World's Religion[edit]

Response to Welcome (11 September 1893)[edit]

Vivekananda at the Parliament of Religions with Virchand Gandhi, Hewivitarne Dharmapala

The Parliament of World's Religion started on 11 September 1893 at the Art Institute of Chicago as part of the World's Columbian Exposition. Vivekananda gave his first lecture on that day. Towards the afternoon his turn came. Though initially nervous, he bowed to Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of learning and he felt he got new energy in his body, he felt someone or something else had occupied his body– "The Soul of India, the echo of the Rishis, the voice of Ramakrishna, the mouthpiece of the resurgent Time spirit".[3] Then began his speech with salutation, "Sisters and brothers of America!". To these words he got a standing ovation from a crowd of seven thousand, which lasted for two minutes. When silence was restored he began his address. He greeted the youngest of the nations on behalf of "the most ancient order of monks in the world, the Vedic order of sannyasins, a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance.!"

Why we disagree (15 September 1893)[edit]

In this speech Vivekananda tried to explain the reason of disagreement between each other and different sects and religions. He told a story of a frog. In the story he told, a frog used to live in a well. It was born there and brought up there and it used to think his well was the biggest waterland of the world. One day, a frog from a sea came to that well. When the frog from the sea told the frog of the well that sea is much much bigger than that well, the frog of the well did not believe it and drove the frog of the sea away from his well. Vivekananda concluded– "That has been the difficulty all the while. I am a Hindu. I am sitting in my own little well and thinking that the whole world is my little well. The Christian sits in his little well and thinks the whole world is his well. The Muslim sits in his little well and thinks that is the whole world."

Paper on Hinduism (19 September 1893)[edit]

In this speech Vivekananda gave a short introduction of Hinduism and spoke on "The meaning of the Hindu religion".[9]

Religion not the Crying need of India (20 September 1893)[edit]

In this brief address Vivekananda made a "little criticism" and told, religion was not the most important need of Indians at that moment. He regretted for sending Christian missionaries and trying to save the souls of Indians although poverty had been a much more important issue at that time. He then told, his aim was to join the Chicago Parliament of Religions was to seek aid for his impoverished people.

Buddhism, the Fulfillment of Hinduism (26 September 1893)[edit]

In this speech Vivekananda talked on Buddhism. He talked about origin of Buddhism, relation between Buddhism and Brahminism, Buddhism and Vedas. He concluded "Hinduism cannot live without Buddhism, nor Buddhism without Hinduism." and showed how Buddhism is the fulfilment to Hinduism.

Address at the Final Session (27 September 1893)[edit]

This was Vivekananda's final address at the Parliament of World's religion. In his last speech he told that the Parliament had become an accomplished fact. He thanked the "noble souls" for organising the Parliament which he felt "proved to the world that holiness, purity and charity are not the exclusive possessions of any church in the world, and that every system has produced men and women of the most exalted character". He finished his speech with appeal "Help and not Fight," "Assimilation and not Destruction," "Harmony and Peace and not Dissension.".

Impact[edit]

The lectures of Vivekananda shook America and the whole world.[9] After the Parliament Vivekananda immediately became a hero in America.

Parliament of the World's Religions (2012)[edit]

In 2012, a three-day world conference was organised by the Institute of World Religions (of the Washington Kali Temple), Burtonsville, Maryland, in association with the Council for A Parliament of World Religions, Chicago, Illinois to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of Vivekananda.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Swami Vivekananda; Dave DeLuca (14 April 2006). Pathways to Joy: The Master Vivekananda on the Four Yoga Paths to God. New World Library. pp. 251–. ISBN 978-1-930722-67-5. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "World Congress of Religions 2012". Parliament of the World's Religions. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d P. R. Bhuyan (1 January 2003). Swami Vivekananda: Messiah of Resurgent India. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-81-269-0234-7. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c Niranjan Rajadhyaksha (5 December 2006). The Rise of India: Its Transformation from Poverty to Prosperity. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-0-470-82201-2. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  5. ^ Huggler, Justin (1 February 2007). "From Parsee priests to profits: say hello to Tata". The Independent. Retrieved 27 December 2012. 
  6. ^ "Swami Vivekananda chronology". Vedanta.org. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  7. ^ Chaturvedi Badrinath (1 June 2006). Swami Vivekananda: The Living Vedanta. Penguin Books India. pp. 158–. ISBN 978-0-14-306209-7. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  8. ^ G. S Banhatti (1 January 1995). Life And Philosophy Of Swami Vivekananda. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-81-7156-291-6. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  9. ^ a b Bhawan Singh Rana; Mīnā Agravāla Meena Agrawal (2005). The Immortal Philosopher Of India Swami Vivekananda. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. pp. 55–. ISBN 978-81-288-1001-5. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 

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