Clockwise from Top Left: Clock Tower (Ganta stambham), Vizianagaram Fort Balcony, View of Vizianagaram Town, Writings of Gurazada Apparao garu, Vizianagaram Fort Walls, Replica of a steam engine at Vizianagaram railway station
|Elevation||58.22 m (191.01 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||AP 35|
Vizianagaram is the main city and district headquarters of the Vizianagaram district of the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. An important centre for commerce and education, the city is located 18 km inland from the Bay of Bengal and 42 km to the northeast of Visakhapatnam. Vizianagaram translates to the "city of victory" and is also given the nickname of the "city of education". One of the fastest-growing towns in Andhra Pradesh, it is also its most populous municipality.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Post and telegraph
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transportation
- 7 District administration
- 8 Politics
- 9 Educational institutions
- 10 Gallery
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Vizianagaram was ruled by different Hindu emperors of Kalinga (ancient Odisha) up to the medieval period. After the fall of the centralized Gajapati empire of Odisha, the region was governed by the Golkonda rulers. The ancestors of the Maharajas of Vizianagaram are believed to be the descendants of MahaRanas of Udaipur, the Sisodia dynasty and Vasishta gotra.
An important event in the history of the district which occurred at about this time is the war between the Rajas of Vizianagaram and Bobbili, popularly known as Bobbili Yuddam. The war was fought between the MahaRaja of Vizianagaram and the Rajah of Bobbili on 24 January 1757.
Rulers of this princely state belong to the Pusapati family. The village Pooshpadu in Nandigama Taluq was built by Amala Raju. The village later came to be known as Pusapadu, and the Kshatriyas living there came to be known as Pusapatis.
Rulers of this kingdom belong to the Pusapati clan.The Pusapati Royal family belongs to the Suryavanshi/Solar Dynasty Kshatriyas of Udaipur MahaRana family genealogical tree of which Ramachandra of Ramayana.According to Edward B. Eastwick, The Maharajah of Vijayanagaram claims descent from the Maharanas of Udaipur and is of the Vasistha Gotra or the Sisodhya branch of the Guhilot tribes. A brother of the Maharana emigrated to Oudh, and in the 529 A.D. his descendant, Madhava Varma, marched with Four clans into the Dakhan, and conquered the country from Ramanad to Katak. His capital was Vijayanagar, afterwards transferred to Bezawada. His descendants reigned over this kingdom for 921 years. In 1512 they were subjected by Sultan Kuli of the Golkonda dynasty. Under the 5th King of that line an ancestor of the present ruler of Vijayanagaram was made Subahdar of the North Sarkars. The Emperor Aurangzeb confirmed the Subahdar in his office and gave him a two-edged sword(zulfikar), which is still used in the coat-of-arms of the family. In 1817 the father of the present ruler made over his estate to Government to clear off his debts of 200,000 rupees. In 1827 he again made over his estate and died at Banaras, leaving a debt of 1,100,000. His successor, the later Maharajah Vijayarama Gajapati Raju III, was recognized in the room of his father in 1845 and had several honors conferred on him by the British Government. Lord Northbrook obtained for him the title of His Highness, and had his name enrolled among those of chiefs entitled to return visits from the Viceroy. He was clear of debt and distinguished himself by many acts of charity. His son was born December 31, 1850 and a daughter is married to His Highness Maharaj Kumar Singh, cousin and heir apparent of H.H.Maharajah of Rewah. The area of the country is 2,965 square miles (8,000 km2) with a population of 800,000 persons. Still in the coastal Andhra region, the last name Pusapati is associated with this ruling Dynasty. Additionally, the Pusapati has obtained power in modern India through participation in Government.The Rajahs of Vizianagaram obtained the title of 'Gajapathi', by right of conquest after the battle of Nandapur, in the Northern Circars in the sixteenth century. They never paid chouth to the Maharattas or any money as tribute to the French.The village Pooshpadu in Nandimandalam Taluq was built by Amala Raju. The village later came to be known as Pusapadu. Therefore, the Kshatriyas living there came to be known as Pusapati.The [Pericchedi|Paricchedi] Kings were ancestors of the Pusapati royal family who built Bezawada (Modern Vijayawada) off the river Krishna by 626 AD and another capital in Kollipaka establishing themselves for nine centuries there.Paricchedis were staunch patrons of Hindu Dharma in contrast to the Chalukyas, who initially were patrons of Jainism. The family name was changed to Pusapati after moving to the coastal region. The name is derived from the Sanskrit Pushavat (Pushan), meaning of the sun, to highlight their Suryavanshi lineage. They founded the city of Vizianagaram, named after Vijay Rama Raju, spelled with a Z to differentiate it from the Vijayanagar Dynasty in Hampi. They obtained the title of Gajapathi, after the battle of Nandapur, in the Northern Circars in the 16th century. The Maharaja of Vizianagaram is stated to be descended from the Ranas of Udaipur, the Sisodia branch of the Guhilot tribe and Vasishta gotra. According to the traditions of the Udaipur house, a member settled in Ayodhya (Oudh) and in the 6th century AD emigrated to Telingana, accompanied by representatives of the Vasishta, Dhanunjaya, Kaundinya and Kasyapa gotras. In 1484 Pusapati Rachi Raju wrote Vasistha Gotra Kshatriya Sisa Malika.The Rajas allied themselves with the Gajapathi Emperor of Orissa against the Vijayanagar Empire initially but after being conquered by Krishna Deva Raya they became their feudal allies. They, along with the other allies of Vijayanagar were conquered by Sultan Kali, the founder of the Qutub Shahi dynasty of Golkonda but by 1652 the 5th king of the subsequent Pusapati line was made Subahdar of the Northern Circars and they re-established themselves in the Vizagapatnam country. They obtained the title of Gajapathi, after the battle of Nandapur, in the northern circars in the 16th century.By 1713 they erected the fort at Vizianagaram where they have since resided. In 1827 Maharajah Vijay Rama Gajapati Raju III had several honors conferred on him by the British Government. Lord Northbrook obtained for him the title of His Highness, and had his name enrolled among those of chiefs entitled to return visits from the Viceroy with a 13 gun salute. Vijay Ram Gajapati Raju Pusapati, the last crown prince of Vizianagaram, popularly known as P.V.G. and reverentially called "Raja Sahib".Until India got its Independence in 1947,United Kingdom of Both Vizianagaram & Visakhapatnam were ruled by Pusapati Royal Family. Their Kingdom extended also beyond to some parts like Kotipalli in East godavari & some parts of Srikakulam & Borders of Orissa. The Kingdom of Pusapati Royal Family is the Largest & Royal Kshatriya Kingdom in Andhra Pradesh. Later on after Independence, Government divided both Visakhapatnam & Vizianagaram as separate Districts.
The history of this area is linked with the history of London, specifically the movement to provide drinking fountains. The Maharajah of Vizianagram (Meerza Vijiaram Gajapatirma Manca Sooltan Behadoor of Vijianagram) funded the erection of a very elaborate gothic fountain in 1867 very close to Marble Arch on the edge of Hyde Park, which survived until 1964, but was subsequently demolished for a new road system. The architect was Robert Keirle [fl.1862-1902], who also designed a similar (listed) fountain, which survives in Regent's Park, funded by Sir Jehangir Cowasji Jehangir Readymoney in 1869 sited on the boundary of Westminster and Camden. According to the Dictionary of British Architects, Keirle was the architect appointed by the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association, who erected these fountains and whose archive is lodged with the London Metropolitan Archives.
Vizianagaram is located at Srikakulam District, on the west and south by Visakhapatnam district, on the southeast by the Bay of Bengal, and on the northwest by Odisha state. The principal rivers flowing in the district are Nagavali, Vegavathi, Gomukhi, Suvarnamukhi, Champavathi and Gostani. The Nagavali is the main river, which flows in about 112 km in Vizianagaram district. The River Gosthani has its origin in Ananthagiri forest area and flows through Srungavarapukota (S.Kota) and Jami mandals. The Suvarnamukhi River originates in the hills of Saluru mandal, travels in an eastern direction and finally joins the Nagavali at Sangam village in Palakonda mandal of Srikakulam District. Vegavathi originates in pachipenta hills of Pachipenta mandal and flows almost parallel to Suvarnamukhi.. It has an average elevation of 74 metres (242 feet). The district is bounded on the east by
The climate of Vizianagaram district is characterized by high humidity nearly all the year round, with oppressive summers and good seasonal rainfall. The summer season extends from March to May, followed by southwest monsoon season, which continues to September. October and November constitute the post-monsoon or retreating monsoon season. The normal rainfall of the district for the year is 1,131.0 mm, as compared to the actual rainfall of 740.6 mm received during 2002-2003. The district gets the benefit of both the southwest and northeast monsoon. The season extending from December to February is of generally fine weather. The climate of the hill parts of the district is different from that of the plain.
Irrigation projects in the district (about 43,984 hectares are considered medium irrigation projects) include:
- Tatapudi Reservoir (Tatipudi, Vizianagaram) constructed across the Gosthani River at Gantyada mandal
- Vegavathi project across the river Vegavathi at Pachipenta in Salur mandal
- Vottigedda project across the river Vottigedda (one of the tributaries of the Nagavali River at Parvatipuram)
- Nagavali right and left side channels
- Peda Ankalam Anicut across Suvarnamukhi which is a tributary to the river Nagavali, located near Pedankalam village, Seethanagaram Mandal, Vizianagaram district
- Seeta Nagaram Anicut
- Denkada Anicut across Champavathi River
- Paradhi at Bobbili
- Surapadu Anicut at Salur
- Vengala Raya Sagaram project constructed across Suvarnamukhi, a tributary of Nagavali River, located near Laxmipuram village, Salur Mandal of Vizianagaram District
- Andra Reservoir project constructed across Champavathi River at Andra, Vizianagaram
The complete forest area in Vizianagaram district constitutes 17.8% of the total geographical area of the district. The forest area covers 1,19,303 hectares.
Vizianagaram District is predominantly an agricultural district. The agricultural land in Vizianagaram is 6,53,900 hectares (2010–2011), as 68.4% of the workers are engaged in agriculture and about 82% of the population of the district is living in rural areas and depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Rainfed farming is the primary practice in the district, with about 80% of its area cultivated purely under rainfed conditions. The rest of the area, which is considered as irrigated area, is mostly dependent on the rainfall received in the district. In view of the unassured irrigation conditions in the district, the majority of crops grown are dry crops.
Paddy crops are cultivated mainly during Kharif season with 80% of its area under tankfed conditions which, in turn, is dependent on the local rainfall. The major crops grown in the district are paddy, ragi, bajra, sugarcane, pulses, mestha, cotton and groundnut. The average yields obtained in the district are low due to the erratic rainfall generally received in the district.
The Cheepurupalli, Garividi and Merakamudidam mandals in the district are good sources of high-quality manganese. Garividi is also a good source of various sedimentary rocks like kankar and limestone. Cheepurupalli is a good source of quartz. Parvatipuram and Makkuva mandals are good sources of granite.
Vizianagaram district had a coastal belt of 28 km. Pusapatirega and Bhogapuram are coastal mandals with eight main villages and 16 hamlets. The land of 80.47 acres in the coastal villages of these mandals is being used for salt cultivation.
- Vizianagaram had a population of 227,533, of which 111,596 are male and 115,937 are female. Although Vizianagaram city has population of 227,533, its urban/metropolitan population is 239,374, of which 117,412 are male and 121,962 are female.
- Vizianagaram has an average literacy rate of 59.49.
- The male literacy rate is 69.04.
- The female literacy rate is 50.16.
- In Vizianagaram, 9.86% of the population is 0–6 years of age.
- There are 23 revenue villages and 21 panchayats in Vizianagaram mandal.
Post and telegraph
Out of 12 towns and 1,485 inhabited villages in the district, 633 villages have postal facilities. Apart from the head post offices at Vizianagaram, Saluru and Bobbili, 69 sub-post offices and 561 branches are located in different parts of the district.
Vizianagaram is one of the principal towns in north coastal Andhra, otherwise known as Uttarandhra. There are a number of industries in the city. The country's largest ferromanganese plant is situated on the outskirts of Garividi. There are various jute mills in Garividi, including the Hooghly Jute Mills.
Vizianagaram is a popular destination for the textile wholesale market.It is the preferred destination for marriage-related shopping for many people living not only in the district, but also from the neighbouring districts, and for Telugus living in Odisha and West Bengal.
Vizianagaram is in a growing phase in the retail sector, attracting the presence of branded ready-made stores. It also has textile traders and wholesale merchants, approximately 250 shops in the Balaji textile market, cantonment, and varied shops dealing in suits and shirts, saris, and dress materials selling at wholesale rates.
NCS mall, CMR shopping mall and kalanikethan mall and multiplexes like INOX and Big cinemas already have their operations started in the city. Some more malls also under construction.
Development in the city has sped up in recent years due to the astronomic growth of Vizag city, which is about 52 km (32 mi) away. There have been a number of layouts planned by the Visakhapatnam Urban Development Authority (VUDA) on the way to Vizag. This growth has a direct impact on the growth of Vizianagaram, which is also expected to merge into the Vizag metropolitan area. According to the VUDA master plan, a metropolitan area called Visakhapatnam Metropolitan Region (VMR) of over 1,700 km2 (660 sq mi), consisting of Vizag, Gajuwaka, Bheemunipatnam, Anakapalle and Vizianagaram, will be formed by 2021. Many zonal development schemes have been sanctioned, which include several plans in Vizianagaram.
There are 22 large- and medium-scale industries established with an investment of Rs. 669.09 crores, providing employment to 20,759 people. These industries are primarily engaged in the manufacture of jute twine, ferroalloys, sugar, cement, pharmaceuticals, sponge and iron.
There are 4,653 small-scale units with an investment of Rs. 114.20 crores and providing employment to 32,615 people. These SSI units are mainly engaged in general engineering, motor workshops, groundnut oil mills, rolling mills, RCC spun pipes, sawmills, aluminium utensils, and bus, lorry and cycle rickshow body buildings.
The economy of Vizianagaram District is predominantly agricultural. Industrial development in the district has been generally agro based, such as the establishment of jute mills at Nellimarla, Vantithadi Agrahram and Bobbili, Salur and Kothavalasa. Sugar factories, in addition to other major agro-based industries are located at Lachhayapeta, Bheemasinghi, and Kumaram village of Jami mandal. High carbon ferro chrome is exported to South Korea through Vizag Port.
Mineral-based ferro alloys factories are located at Sriramnagar of Garividi mandal and Kothavalasa. Other resources-based industries around Kothavalasa include brick and tile-making. Sponge iron units of M/s Gold Star Alloy Limited and M/s Maa Mahamaaya Industries are situated in L.Kota mandal. M/s Jindal Ferro Alloys factories are located in Jindal Nagar of Kothavalasa mandal. Prawn feed manufacturing unit of M/s C.P. Acqua Limited, maize starch unit of M/s Vizianagar Biotech and pharmaceutical unit of M/s Matrix Industries are located in Poosapatirega mandal. M/s Miracle Software at is located in Bhogapuram mandal and bio-mass power plant of M/s Perpetual Energy systems is prominent in Seethanagaram mandal.
- Collector & District Magistrate: Sri. M. kantilal Dande, I.A.S. present
- Joint Collector: Smt. P.A. Sobha, I.A.S
- Superintendent of Police: Sri Tafseer Iqubal, I.P.S.
- District & Sessions Judge: Sri. P. Mutyala Naidu
- Additional Joint Collector: Sri. U.C.G.Nageswar Rao
- District Revenue Officer: Sri. B. HemaSundar Venkat Rao
Ministers of Andhra Pradesh State from Vizianagaram
- Sri. Botcha Satyanarayana, Pradesh Congress Committee President (INC) of Andhra Pradesh and Honorable Minister for Transport, Andhra Pradesh
Members of Parliament
- Dr. Smt. Botcha Jhansi Lakhsmi (INC) is the sitting MP of the district.
- Kondapalli Pydithalli Naidu (TDP) was the MP in the 11'th, 12'th and 14'th Loksabha.