Vizianagaram

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Vizianagaram
విజయనగరం
City
Clockwise from Top Left: Clock Tower (Ganta stambham), Vizianagaram Fort Balcony, View of Vizianagaram Town, Writings of Gurazada Apparao garu, Vizianagaram Fort Walls, Replica of a steam engine at Vizianagaram railway station
Clockwise from Top Left: Clock Tower (Ganta stambham), Vizianagaram Fort Balcony, View of Vizianagaram Town, Writings of Gurazada Apparao garu, Vizianagaram Fort Walls, Replica of a steam engine at Vizianagaram railway station
Vizianagaram is located in Andhra Pradesh
Vizianagaram
Vizianagaram
Coordinates: 18°07′N 83°25′E / 18.12°N 83.42°E / 18.12; 83.42Coordinates: 18°07′N 83°25′E / 18.12°N 83.42°E / 18.12; 83.42
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Coastal Andhra
District Vizianagaram
Area[1]
 • Total 29.27 km2 (11.30 sq mi)
Elevation[2] 66 m (217 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
 • Total 227,533
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 535 xxx
Vehicle registration AP–35
Website Vizianagaram Municipality

Vizianagaram is a city and district headquarter of the Vizianagaram district in Andhra Pradesh, India. An important centre for commerce and education, the city is located 18 km inland from the Bay of Bengal and 42 km to the northeast of Visakhapatnam. Vizianagaram translates to the "city of victory".

West Entrance of the Vizianagaram fort in Andhra Pradesh

History[edit]

Vizianagaram kingdom coat of arms

Vizianagaram was ruled by different Hindu emperors of Kalinga (ancient Odisha) up to the medieval period. After the fall of the centralized Gajapati empire of Odisha, the region was governed by the Golkonda rulers. The ancestors of the Maharajas of Vizianagaram are believed to be the descendants of MahaRanas of Udaipur, the Sisodia dynasty and Vasishta gotra.

An important event in the history of the district which occurred at about this time is the war between the Rajas of Vizianagaram and Bobbili, popularly known as Bobbili Yuddam. The war was fought between the MahaRaja of Vizianagaram and the Rajah of Bobbili on 24 January 1757.

Rulers of this princely state belong to the Pusapati family. The village Pooshpadu in Nandigama Taluq was built by Amala Raju. The village later came to be known as Pusapadu, and the Kshatriyas living there came to be known as Pusapatis.

Rulers of this kingdom belong to the Pusapati clan.The Pusapati Royal family belongs to the Suryavanshi/Solar Dynasty Kshatriyas of Udaipur MahaRana family genealogical tree of which Ramachandra of Ramayana.According to Edward B. Eastwick, The Maharajah of Vijayanagaram claims descent from the Maharanas of Udaipur and is of the Vasistha Gotra or the Sisodhya branch of the Guhilot tribes. A brother of the Maharana emigrated to Oudh, and in the 529 A.D. his descendant, Madhava Varma, marched with Four clans into the Dakhan, and conquered the country from Ramanad to Katak. His capital was Vijayanagar, afterwards transferred to Bezawada. His descendants reigned over this kingdom for 921 years. In 1512 they were subjected by Sultan Kuli of the Golkonda dynasty. Under the 5th King of that line an ancestor of the present ruler of Vijayanagaram was made Subahdar of the North Sarkars. The Emperor Aurangzeb confirmed the Subahdar in his office and gave him a two-edged sword(zulfikar), which is still used in the coat-of-arms of the family. In 1817 the father of the present ruler made over his estate to Government to clear off his debts of 200,000 rupees. In 1827 he again made over his estate and died at Banaras, leaving a debt of 1,100,000. His successor, the later Maharajah Vijayarama Gajapati Raju III, was recognized in the room of his father in 1845 and had several honors conferred on him by the British Government. Lord Northbrook obtained for him the title of His Highness, and had his name enrolled among those of chiefs entitled to return visits from the Viceroy. He was clear of debt and distinguished himself by many acts of charity. His son was born December 31, 1850 and a daughter is married to His Highness Maharaj Kumar Singh, cousin and heir apparent of H.H.Maharajah of Rewah. The area of the country is 2,965 square miles (8,000 km2) with a population of 800,000 persons. Still in the coastal Andhra region, the last name Pusapati is associated with this ruling Dynasty. Additionally, the Pusapati has obtained power in modern India through participation in Government.The Rajahs of Vizianagaram obtained the title of 'Gajapathi', by right of conquest after the battle of Nandapur, in the Northern Circars in the sixteenth century. They never paid chouth to the Maharattas or any money as tribute to the French.The village Pooshpadu in Nandimandalam Taluq was built by Amala Raju. The village later came to be known as Pusapadu. Therefore, the Kshatriyas living there came to be known as Pusapati.The [Pericchedi|Paricchedi] Kings were ancestors of the Pusapati royal family who built Bezawada (Modern Vijayawada) off the river Krishna by 626 AD and another capital in Kollipaka establishing themselves for nine centuries there.Paricchedis were staunch patrons of Hindu Dharma in contrast to the Chalukyas, who initially were patrons of Jainism.[2] The family name was changed to Pusapati after moving to the coastal region. The name is derived from the Sanskrit Pushavat (Pushan), meaning of the sun, to highlight their Suryavanshi lineage. They founded the city of Vizianagaram, named after Vijay Rama Raju, spelled with a Z to differentiate it from the Vijayanagar Dynasty in Hampi. They obtained the title of Gajapathi, after the battle of Nandapur, in the Northern Circars in the 16th century. The Maharaja of Vizianagaram is stated to be descended from the Ranas of Udaipur,[3] the Sisodia branch of the Guhilot tribe and Vasishta gotra. According to the traditions of the Udaipur house, a member settled in Ayodhya (Oudh) and in the 6th century AD emigrated to Telingana, accompanied by representatives of the Vasishta, Dhanunjaya, Kaundinya and Kasyapa gotras. In 1484 Pusapati Rachi Raju wrote Vasistha Gotra Kshatriya Sisa Malika.The Rajas allied themselves with the Gajapathi Emperor of Orissa against the Vijayanagar Empire initially but after being conquered by Krishna Deva Raya they became their feudal allies. They, along with the other allies of Vijayanagar were conquered by Sultan Kali, the founder of the Qutub Shahi dynasty of Golkonda but by 1652 the 5th king of the subsequent Pusapati line was made Subahdar of the Northern Circars and they re-established themselves in the Vizagapatnam country. They obtained the title of Gajapathi, after the battle of Nandapur, in the northern circars in the 16th century.By 1713 they erected the fort at Vizianagaram where they have since resided. In 1827 Maharajah Vijay Rama Gajapati Raju III[6] had several honors conferred on him by the British Government. Lord Northbrook obtained for him the title of His Highness, and had his name enrolled among those of chiefs entitled to return visits from the Viceroy with a 13 gun salute. Vijay Ram Gajapati Raju Pusapati, the last crown prince of Vizianagaram, popularly known as P.V.G. and reverentially called "Raja Sahib".Until India got its Independence in 1947,United Kingdom of Both Vizianagaram & Visakhapatnam were ruled by Pusapati Royal Family. Their Kingdom extended also beyond to some parts like Kotipalli in East godavari & some parts of Srikakulam & Borders of Orissa. The Kingdom of Pusapati Royal Family is the Largest & Royal Kshatriya Kingdom in Andhra Pradesh. Later on after Independence, Government divided both Visakhapatnam & Vizianagaram as separate Districts.

The history of this area is linked with the history of London, specifically the movement to provide drinking fountains. The Maharajah of Vizianagram (Meerza Vijiaram Gajapatirma Manca Sooltan Behadoor of Vijianagram) funded the erection of a very elaborate gothic fountain in 1867 very close to Marble Arch on the edge of Hyde Park, which survived until 1964,[4] but was subsequently demolished for a new road system. The architect was Robert Keirle [fl.1862-1902],[5] who also designed a similar (listed) fountain, which survives in Regent's Park, funded by Sir Jehangir Cowasji Jehangir Readymoney in 1869 sited on the boundary of Westminster and Camden. According to the Dictionary of British Architects,[6] Keirle was the architect appointed by the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association, who erected these fountains and whose archive is lodged with the London Metropolitan Archives. Excavations at this town revealed copper coins belonging to the remains of 900 B.C..[7]

Geography[edit]

Vizianagaram is located at 18°07′N 83°25′E / 18.12°N 83.42°E / 18.12; 83.42. It has an average elevation of 74 metres (242 feet). The district is bounded on the east by Srikakulam District, on the west and south by Visakhapatnam district, on the southeast by the Bay of Bengal, and on the northwest by Odisha state. The principal rivers flowing in the district are Nagavali, Vegavathi, Gomukhi, Suvarnamukhi, Champavathi and Gostani. The Nagavali is the main river, which flows in about 112 km in Vizianagaram district. The River Gosthani has its origin in Ananthagiri forest area and flows through Srungavarapukota (S.Kota) and Jami mandals. The Suvarnamukhi River originates in the hills of Saluru mandal, travels in an eastern direction and finally joins the Nagavali at Sangam village in Palakonda mandal of Srikakulam District. Vegavathi originates in pachipenta hills of Pachipenta mandal and flows almost parallel to Suvarnamukhi.

Irrigation projects

Major Rivers flowing through the city are Nagavali, Vegavathi, Gomukhi, Suvarnamukhi, Champavathi, Gosthani River. Irrigation projects in the district (about 43,984 hectares are considered medium irrigation projects) include:

Climate[edit]

Sunset at Vizianagaram

The climate of Vizianagaram district is characterized by high humidity nearly all the year round, with oppressive summers and good seasonal rainfall. The summer season extends from March to May, followed by southwest monsoon season, which continues to September. October and November constitute the post-monsoon or retreating monsoon season. The normal rainfall of the district for the year is 1,131.0 mm, as compared to the actual rainfall of 740.6 mm received during 2002-2003. The district gets the benefit of both the southwest and northeast monsoon. The season extending from December to February is of generally fine weather. The climate of the hill parts of the district is different from that of the plain.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 Census of India, the town had a population of 227,533. The total population constitute, 111,596 males and 115,937 females —a sex ratio of 1039 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000.[3][8] 20,487 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 10,495 are boys and 9,992 are girls—a ratio of 952 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 81.85% with 169,461 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.[3][9]

Civic administration[edit]

Vizianagaram municipality was establishment in the year 1888 with an extent of 29.27 km2 (11.30 sq mi). During 2010–11, the total expenditure spent by the municipality was INR1887.75 crore (US$310 million) and total income generated was INR2367.51 crore (US$380 million).[10]

Utility services

The utility services include supply of water, sewer connections, drainage systems, parks, grounds, community centers, healthcare etc. The municipality maintains 458 public taps, 749 bore–wells, 330 km (210 mi) of roads, 243.25 km (151.15 mi) of drains, 32 parks, 2 playgrounds, 49 elementary and 3 secondary schools and 1 maternity and child health center.[11]

Economy[edit]

Vizianagaram is one of the principal towns in Uttarandhra. There are a number of industries in and around the city. The country's largest ferromanganese plant is situated on the outskirts of Garividi.[citation needed] There are various jute mills in Garividi, including the Hooghly Jute Mills. Vizianagaram is a popular destination for the textile wholesale market.

Maritime resources

Vizianagaram district had a coastal belt of 28 km. Pusapatirega and Bhogapuram are coastal mandals with eight main villages and 16 hamlets. The land of 80.47 acres in the coastal villages of these mandals is being used for salt cultivation.

Industries[edit]

There are 22 large- and medium-scale industries established with an investment of Rs. 669.09 crores, providing employment to 20,759 people. These industries are primarily engaged in the manufacture of jute twine, ferroalloys, sugar, cement, pharmaceuticals, sponge and iron.

There are 4,653 small-scale units with an investment of Rs. 114.20 crores and providing employment to 32,615 people. These SSI units are mainly engaged in general engineering, motor workshops, groundnut oil mills, rolling mills, RCC spun pipes, sawmills, aluminium utensils, and bus, lorry and cycle rickshow body buildings.

Transportation[edit]

Roadways

Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) provides bus services to all major cities and towns in the state. APSRTC and Odisha State Road Transport Corporation also provides buses for cities like Rayagada and Jeypore of Odisha state via Salur.

Railways

Vizianagaram railway station is on the Khurda Road-Visakhapatnam section of Howrah-Chennai main line and is the terminus for the Jharsuguda-Vizianagaram line.Many important trains have stoppage here.

Airport

The nearest airport is in Visakhapatnam which is 62 km

Educational institutions[edit]

This is list of prominent educational institutions in Vizianagaram city arranged in the order of their establishment year.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Basic Information of Municipality". Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration. Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 5 August 2014. 
  2. ^ "Elevation for Vizianagaram". Veloroutes. Retrieved 5 August 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c "Cities having population 1 lakh and above". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  4. ^ English Heritage Archive MOW negatives R 278 1-3; R 339 1-3; R 350 1-2
  5. ^ The Builder, 1868 p.79
  6. ^ Dictionary of British Architects 1834-1914, Vol.1, p.1056
  7. ^ "http://cdma.ap.gov.in/VIZIANAGARAM/". Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  8. ^ "Sex Ratio". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  9. ^ "Chapter–3 (Literates and Literacy rate)" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  10. ^ "Basic Information of Municipality". Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration. Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  11. ^ "Public services/amenities". Commissioner & Director of Municipal Administration. Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  12. ^ http://mrpgcollege.org

External links[edit]