Milyutin joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1903 and sided at first with the Mensheviks. In 1910 he joined the Bolsheviks. He was viewed as an expert on the peasant question. He became a victim of Joseph Stalin's purges. Accused of right-wing deviationism, he was arrested on 27 July 1937, sentenced to death on 29 October and shot on 30 October 1937.
He was rehabilitated in 1988.
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