Milyutin joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1903 and sided with the Bolshevik faction. He was viewed as an expert on the peasant question. He became a victim of Joseph Stalin's purges. Accused of right-wing deviationism, he was arrested on 27 July 1937, sentenced to death on 29 October and shot on 30 October 1937.
He was rehabilitated in 1988.
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