Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
|Coronation||22 August 1471|
|Spouse||Barbara of Brandenburg
Beatrice of Naples
Anne of Foix-Candale
|Anne, Queen of Hungary
Louis II, King of Hungary
|Father||Casimir IV, King of Poland|
|Mother||Elizabeth of Austria|
|Born||1 March 1456
Kraków, Kingdom of Poland
|Died||13 March 1516 (aged 60)
Buda, Kingdom of Hungary
Vladislaus II (1 March 1456 – 13 March 1516), also known as Ladislaus Jagiellon (Czech: Vladislav Jagellonský, Hungarian: II. Ulászló, Polish: Władysław II Jagiellończyk, Croatian: Vladislav Jagelović, Slovak: Vladislav Jagelovský, Ukrainian: Владислав ІІ Яґелончик), was King of Bohemia from 1471 and King of Hungary and Croatia from 1490 until his death in 1516. He was also a knight of the Order of the Dragon.
King of Bohemia
Vladislaus was born on 1 March 1456, the son of King Casimir IV of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, then the head of the ruling Jagiellon dynasty of Poland, and Elizabeth of Austria, daughter of Albert, King of Germany, Hungary and Bohemia. He was christened as the namesake of his grandfather, King Władysław Jagiełło of Poland and Lithuania, his maternal uncle King Ladislaus the Posthumous of Bohemia and his paternal uncle Władysław III of Poland, an earlier king of Hungary.
He was proposed for the Bohemian throne by the widow of the previous king, George of Poděbrady, and was crowned King of Bohemia on 22 August 1471. The period after the death of George of Poděbrady was a time of conflict for the Bohemian throne (see Bohemian War (1468–1478)) and Vladislaus was unable to confront it. At the time of his arrival in Prague, he was only fifteen years old and significantly dominated by his advisers. The succession conflict was settled in 1479 in the Peace of Olomouc, which allowed both Vladislaus and Matthias Corvinus to use the title "King of Bohemia". Vladislaus would reign in Bohemia proper, while Matthias gained Moravia, Silesia, and the two Lusatias. The deal also stipulated that in case of Matthias' death, Vladislaus would pay 400,000 gulden for the entirety of the Bohemian lands. However, this payment was not made once Vladislaus became King of Hungary after the death of Matthias.
The "Kutnohorian deal" in 1485 practically eliminated Vladislaus' power and granted it to the nobles. The deal in its original form would have been in effect for 31 years, but was extended in 1512 to "all times."
King of Hungary
Great chaos overcame in Hungary when the King Matthias Corvinus died without heir in 1490. His illegitimate son John Corvinus wasn't recognized by the Hungarian nobility, and after being forced to retreat, they called Vladislaus to Hungary, as his mother was the sister of the long ago deceased King Ladislaus and granddaughter of King Sigismund. Vladislaus then was crowned King of Hungary on 18 September 1490.
Vladislaus immediately moved to Hungary, and there he lived the rest of his life, having his court and all his children born in the palace of Buda. The Hungarian nobility reigned and took many important decisions in his name, and, his role as monarch soon passed to be in a second plan. Stephen Zápolya, the archbishop Tamás Bakócz and George Szatmári continued with the Turkish wars plans, and tried then to maintain the Kingdom that fell in a severe economical crisis after Matthias's death. Vladislaus was a cheerful man, but after his third wife's death, he fell in a severe depression and almost retired from all the official issues. Then he gained the nickname of "Vladislaus Bene" (Polish: Władysław Dobrze, Hungarian: Dobzse László, Czech: král Dobře) because to almost any request he answered, "Bene" (Latin for "(It's) well").
During his reign (1490–1516), the Hungarian royal power declined in favour of the Hungarian magnates, who used their power to curtail the peasants’ freedom. His reign in Hungary was largely stable, although Hungary was under consistent border pressure from the Ottoman Empire and went through the revolt of György Dózsa. On March 11, 1500 Czech Council adopted a new municipal constitution that limited royal power and Vladislav signed it in 1502 (hence it is known as Vladislav municipal constitution). Additionally, he oversaw the construction (1493–1502) of the enormous Vladislav Hall atop the palace at the Prague Castle.
Vladislaus died two weeks after his 60th birthday on 13 March 1516 in the city of Buda. His funeral was held 6 days after that in the city of Székesfehérvár's main cathedral, where all the Kings of Hungary were used to be buried. His son was previously crowned as King of Hungary in 1508 and in 1509 as King of Bohemia before his father died, so the succession was assured. Before he died, Vladislaus called Tamás Bakócz, John Bornemissza and George Hohenzollern, and named them the bearers and custodiers of the young prince Louis. The monarch left after his death a Kingdom in political ruins and with a debt of 403,000 Hungarian Florins.
Marriages and issue
He was married three times, first in 1476 at Frankfurt/Oder to Barbara of Brandenburg, daughter of Albrecht III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg, child widow of Silesian Piast Henry XI of Głogów, then to the widow of Matthias, Beatrice of Naples, daughter of Ferdinand I of Naples. His third wife, Anne of Foix-Candale, was crowned on 29 September 1502 when she about 18 years of age and he was 46. She gave birth to his only two surviving legitimate children,
and died less than 4 years later in 1506, from complications resulting from the birth of Louis.
After his death, Vladislaus' ten-year-old son Louis succeeded him on the thrones of both Bohemia and Hungary. His daughter Anna was married in 1515 to the future emperor Ferdinand of Austria, a grandson of Emperor Maximilian I. Therefore, after the death of Louis at the Battle of Mohács, the succession devolved through Anna to the cadet line of eastern Habsburgs.
His titles according to the laws in 1492: King of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria, Prince of Silesia and Luxembourg, Margrave of Moravia and Lusatia.
|Ancestors of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary|
- "Vladislas-II " Encyclopædia Britannica
- "The Royal Route". Královská cesta (in English). Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- Buchvaldek, Miroslav (1987). Československé dějiny v datech (in Czech) (2nd ed.). Prague: Svoboda. p. 714.
- 1000ev.hu (Hungarian)
Vladislaus II of Bohemia and HungaryBorn: 1 March 1456 Died: 13 March 1516
|King of Bohemia
|King of Hungary and Croatia