Vladivostok

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Vladivostok (English)
Владивосток (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
VladivostokGoldenHorn.jpg
View of Vladivostok and the Golden Horn Bay
Vladivostok is located in Primorsky Krai
Vladivostok
Vladivostok
Location of Vladivostok in Primorsky Krai
Coordinates: 43°08′N 131°54′E / 43.133°N 131.900°E / 43.133; 131.900Coordinates: 43°08′N 131°54′E / 43.133°N 131.900°E / 43.133; 131.900
Gerbvlad2012.jpg
Flag of Vladivostok 2012.jpg
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day First Sunday of July[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of November 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Primorsky Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated to Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction[1]
Administrative center of Primorsky Krai,[citation needed] Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction[1]
Municipal status (as of December 2004)
Urban okrug Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug[2]
Head[citation needed] Igor Pushkaryov[citation needed]
Representative body Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 331.16 km2 (127.86 sq mi)[3]
Population (2010 Census) 592,034 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 22nd
Density 1,788 /km2 (4,630 /sq mi)[5]
Time zone VLAT (UTC+11:00)[6]
Founded July 2, 1860[7]
City status since April 22, 1880[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[8] 690xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 423[citation needed]
Official website
Vladivostok on WikiCommons

Vladivostok (Russian: Владивосток, IPA: [vlədʲɪvɐˈstok] ( ), lit. ruler of the East) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located at the head of the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea. The population of the city, according to the 2010 Census, is 592,034,[4] down from 594,701 recorded in the 2002 Census.[9] The city is the home port of the Russian Pacific Fleet and the largest Russian port on the Pacific Ocean.

Names[edit]

The name Vladivostok loosely translates from Russian as "the ruler of the East"—a name similar to Vladikavkaz which means "the ruler of the Caucasus". In Chinese, the city was known since the Qing Dynasty as Hǎishēnwǎi (海參崴, meaning "sea cucumber cliffs"). In modern day China, it is known by the transliteration Fúlādíwòsītuōkè (符拉迪沃斯托克), although its historical Chinese name Hǎishēnwǎi is still often used. The Japanese name of the city is Urajiosutoku (ウラジオストク; a rough transliteration of the Russian originally written in Kanji as 浦塩斯徳 and often shortened to Urajio; ウラジオ; 浦塩). In Korean, the name is transliterated as Beulladiboseutokeu (블라디보스토크) in South Korea, Ullajibosŭttokhŭ (울라지보스또크) in North Korea, and Beullajiboseu-ttokeu (블라지보스또크) by Koreans in China.

Geography[edit]

The city is located in the southern extremity of Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, which is about 30 kilometers (19 mi) long and approximately 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) wide.

The highest point is Mount Kholodilnik, the height of which is 257 meters (843 ft). Eagle's Nest Hill is often called the highest point of the city; however, with the height of only 199 meters (653 ft), or 214 meters (702 ft) according to other sources, it is the highest point of the downtown area, but not of the whole city.

History[edit]

The aboriginals of the territory on which modern Vladivostok is located are the Udege minority, and a sub-minority called the Taz which emerged through members of the indigenous Udege mixing with the nearby Chinese and Hezhe. The region had been part of many states, such as the Mohe, Balhae, Jīn Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, and various other Chinese dynasties, before Russia acquired the entire Maritime Province and the island of Sakhalin by the Treaty of Beijing (1860). Qing China, which had just lost the Opium War with Britain, was unable to defend the region. The Pacific coast near Hǎishēnwǎi was settled mainly by the Chinese and Manchus during the Qing Dynasty period. A French whaler visiting the Golden Horn Bay in 1852 discovered Chinese or Manchu village fishermen on its shore. The Manchus banned Han Chinese from most of Manchuria including the Hǎishēnwǎi area—it was only visited by illegal gatherers of sea cucumbers.

On June 20 (July 2 Gregorian style), 1860, the military supply ship Manchur, under the command of Captain-Lieutenant Alexey K. Shefner, called at the Golden Horn Bay to found an outpost called Vladivostok. Warrant officer Nikolay Komarov with 28 soldiers and two non-commissioned officers under his command were brought from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur by ship to construct the first buildings of the future city.

The Manza War in 1868 was the first attempt by Russia to expel Chinese from territory it controlled. Hostilities broke out around Vladivostok when the Russians tried to shut off gold mining operations and expel Chinese workers there.[10] The Chinese resisted a Russian attempt to take Ashold Island and in response, two Russian military stations and three Russian towns were attacked by the Chinese, and the Russians failed to oust the Chinese.[11]

An elaborate system of fortifications was erected between the 1870s and 1890s. A telegraph line from Vladivostok to Shanghai and Nagasaki was opened in 1871, the year when a commercial port was relocated here from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. Town status was granted on April 22, 1880. A coat of arms, representing the Siberian tiger, was adopted in March 1883.

Vladivostok circa 1898

The first high school was opened in 1899. The city's economy was given a boost in 1916, with the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which connected Vladivostok to Moscow and Europe.[12]

In the wake of the October Revolution, Vladivostok was of great military importance for the Far Eastern Republic, the Provisional Priamurye Government, and the Allied intervention, consisting of foreign troops from Czechoslovakia, Japan, the United States, British, Canada, and other nations.[13]

The Czechoslovak Legion conquered the city in 1918 and waited for foreign reinforcements. The Japanese forces arrived in April 1918, followed by British soldiers in May, Americans in June, and later other French and Canadian soldiers. They found in Siberia an open warfare going on between the Bolsheviks on one side and the Czechoslovak Legions and White Russians on the other. Czechoslovak Legion (around 67,000 soldiers), exhausted by their long trek across Siberia and eager to return to their new nation, returned via port of Vladivostok to Czechoslovakia. All allied forces were evacuated by 1920, apart from the Japanese who stayed until 1922.

1,600 Chinese troops also intervened in response to a request by the Chinese community in the area for aid.[14] The taking of the city by Ieronim Uborevich's Red Army on October 25, 1922 marked the end of the Russian Civil War.

American troops in Vladivostok during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War (August 1918)

As the main naval base of the Soviet Pacific Fleet, Vladivostok was officially closed to foreigners during the Soviet years. The city hosted the summit at which Leonid Brezhnev and Gerald Ford conducted the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks in 1974. At the time, the two countries decided quantitative limits on various nuclear weapons systems and banned the construction of new land-based ICBM launchers.

In 2012, Vladivostok hosted the 24th APEC summit. Leaders from the APEC member countries met at Russky Island, off the coast of Vladivostok.[15] With the summit on Russky Island, the government and private businesses inaugurated resorts, dinner and entertainment facilities, in addition to the renovation and upgrading of Vladivostok International Airport.[16] Two giant cable-stayed bridges were built in preparation for the summit, namely the Zolotoy Rog bridge over the Zolotoy Rog Bay in the center of the city, and the Russky Island Bridge from the mainland to Russky Island (it is the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world right now). The new campus of Far Eastern Federal University will be completed on Russky Island by 2012.

Politics[edit]

Vladivistok City Duma seat

Head of the city of Vladivostok on the principles of unity of command directs the administration of the city of Vladivostok in accordance with federal laws, the laws of the Primorsky Krai and the charter of the city. The structure of the city administration said City Council by the head. The structure of the administration of the city of Vladivostok may include the territorial bodies of administration of the city of Vladivostok.

The responsibilities of the administration of the city of Vladivostok are:

  • Exercise of the powers to address local issues of Vladivostok in accordance with federal laws, normative legal acts of the Duma of Vladivostok, decrees and orders of the head of the city of Vladivostok ;
  • The development and organization of the concepts, plans and programs for the development of the city, approved by the Duma of Vladivostok ;
  • Development of the draft budget of the city of Vladivostok ;
  • Ensuring implementation of the budget of the city of Vladivostok ;
  • Control the use of territory and infrastructure of the city of Vladivostok ;
  • Possession, use and disposal of municipal property in the manner specified by decision of the Duma of Vladivostok ;
  • Other authority in accordance with Article 6 of the Charter, as well as powers delegated by federal law, the laws of the jurisdiction of Primorsky Krai executive and administrative body of the local government of city district .

Legislative authority is vested in the City Council. The new City Council began operations in 2001. June 21 deputies of the Duma of the first convocation of Vladivostok started work. On 17 December 2007 Duma of the third convocation began. The deputies consists of 35 elected emmbers, including 18 members were chosen by a single constituency, and 17 deputies from single-mandate constituencies.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Vladivostok is the administrative center of the krai. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with five rural localities, incorporated as Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction is incorporated as Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug.[2]

Climate[edit]

Vladivostok
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
15
 
−8
−15
 
 
19
 
−4
−12
 
 
25
 
2
−5
 
 
54
 
10
2
 
 
61
 
15
7
 
 
100
 
18
11
 
 
124
 
21
16
 
 
153
 
23
18
 
 
126
 
20
13
 
 
66
 
13
6
 
 
38
 
3
−4
 
 
18
 
−5
−12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Pogoda[17]

Vladivostok has a monsoon influenced humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb) with warm, humid and rainy summers and cold, dry winters. Owing to the influence of the Siberian High, winters are far colder than a latitude of 43 degrees north should warrant given its low elevation and coastal location, with a January average of −12.3 °C (9.9 °F). In winter, temperatures can drop below −20 °C (−4 °F) while mild spells of weather can raise daytime temperatures above freezing. The average precipitation, mainly in the form of snow, is around 18.5 millimeters (0.73 in) from December to March.[17] Snowfall is common during the winter months, but individual snowfalls are light, with a maximum snow depth of only 5 centimeters (2.0 in) in January.[17] During the winter months, clear and sunny days are common.[17]

Summers are warm, humid and rainy, due to the East Asian monsoon. The warmest month is August, with an average temperature of +19.8 °C (67.6 °F). Most of the precipitation that Vladivostok receives falls during the summer months and with many days receiving precipitation. Cloudy days are fairly common and with the presence of rainfall, humidity is high, reaching up to 90% in July and August.[17] Overall, Vladivostok receives 840 millimeters (33 in) per year but this can vary. The wettest month was August 1943 when 418 millimeters (16.5 in) of precipitation fell while the wettest year was in 1974 with 1,272 millimeters (50.1 in) of precipitation.[17] On the other end, the months December to March have no precipitation at all in some years and the driest year was 1990 with only 244 millimeters (9.6 in).[17] Extremes range from −31.4 °C (−24.5 °F) in January 1931 to +33.6 °C (92.5 °F) in July 1939.[17]


Climate data for Vladivostok
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.0
(41)
9.9
(49.8)
15.2
(59.4)
22.7
(72.9)
29.5
(85.1)
31.8
(89.2)
33.6
(92.5)
33.0
(91.4)
30.0
(86)
23.4
(74.1)
17.5
(63.5)
9.4
(48.9)
33.6
(92.5)
Average high °C (°F) −8.1
(17.4)
−4.2
(24.4)
2.2
(36)
9.9
(49.8)
14.8
(58.6)
17.8
(64)
21.1
(70)
23.2
(73.8)
19.8
(67.6)
12.9
(55.2)
3.1
(37.6)
−5.1
(22.8)
9.0
(48.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.3
(9.9)
−8.4
(16.9)
−1.9
(28.6)
5.1
(41.2)
9.8
(49.6)
13.6
(56.5)
17.6
(63.7)
19.8
(67.6)
16.0
(60.8)
8.9
(48)
−0.9
(30.4)
−9.1
(15.6)
4.9
(40.8)
Average low °C (°F) −15.4
(4.3)
−11.6
(11.1)
−4.9
(23.2)
2.0
(35.6)
6.7
(44.1)
11.1
(52)
15.6
(60.1)
17.7
(63.9)
13.1
(55.6)
5.9
(42.6)
−3.8
(25.2)
−11.9
(10.6)
2.0
(35.6)
Record low °C (°F) −31.4
(−24.5)
−28.9
(−20)
−22
(−8)
−8.1
(17.4)
−0.8
(30.6)
3.7
(38.7)
8.8
(47.8)
10.1
(50.2)
2.2
(36)
−9.7
(14.5)
−23
(−9)
−28.1
(−18.6)
−31.4
(−24.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 14
(0.55)
15
(0.59)
27
(1.06)
48
(1.89)
81
(3.19)
110
(4.33)
164
(6.46)
156
(6.14)
119
(4.69)
59
(2.32)
29
(1.14)
18
(0.71)
840
(33.07)
Avg. rainy days 0.3 0.3 4 13 20 22 22 19 14 12 5 1 133
Avg. snowy days 7 8 11 4 0.3 0 0 0 0 1 7 9 47
 % humidity 58 57 60 67 76 87 92 87 77 65 60 60 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 176.7 186.5 217.0 192.0 198.4 129.0 120.9 148.8 198.0 204.6 168.0 155.0 2,094.9
Percent possible sunshine 61 63 59 48 44 28 26 35 53 62 58 55 49
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[17]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun, 1961-1990)[18]

Demographics[edit]

Church of Our Lady's Protection

The population of the city, according to the 2010 Census, is 592,034,[4] down from 594,701 recorded in the 2002 Census.[9] This is further down from 633,838 recorded in the 1989 Census.[19] Ethnic Russians and Ukrainians make up the majority of the population.

Economy[edit]

Zolotoy Bridge across bay in the city

The city's main industries are shipping, commercial fishing, and the naval base. Fishing accounts for almost four-fifths of Vladivostok's commercial production. Other food production totals 11%.

A very important employer and a major source of revenue for the city's inhabitants is the import of Japanese cars.[20] Besides salesmen, the industry employs repairmen, fitters, import clerks as well as shipping and railway companies.[21] The Vladivostok dealers sell 250,000 cars a year, with 200,000 going to other parts of Russia.[21] Every third worker in the Primorsky Krai has some relation to the automobile import business. In recent years, the Russian government has made attempts to improve the country's own car industry. This has included raising tariffs for imported cars, which has put the car import business in Vladivostok in difficulties. To compensate, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin ordered the car manufacturing company Sollers to move one of its factories from Moscow to Vladivostok. The move was completed in 2009, and the factory now employs about 700 locals. It is planned to produce 13,200 cars in Vladivostok in 2010.[20]

Transportation[edit]

Vladivostok Station
Svetlanskaya Street in the central part of Vladivostok (August 2005)

Vladivostok is the starting point of Ussuri Highway (M60) to Khabarovsk, the easternmost part of Trans-Siberian Highway that goes all the way to Moscow and Saint Petersburg via Novosibirsk. The other main highways go east to Nakhodka and south to Khasan.

The Trans-Siberian Railway was built to connect European Russia with Vladivostok, Russia's most important Pacific Ocean port. Finished in 1905, the rail line ran from Moscow to Vladivostok via several of Russia's main cities. Part of the railroad, known as the Chinese Eastern Line, crossed over into Manchuria, China, passing through Harbin, a major city in Manchuria. During the Soviet era, Vladivostok's status as a closed city meant that ferry-passenger tourists arriving from Japan to travel the Trans-Siberian railway westbound had to embark in Nakhodka. Today, Vladivostok serves as the main starting point for the Trans-Siberian portion of the Eurasian Land Bridge.

Air routes connect Vladivostok International Airport with Japan, China, South Korea, North Korea and Vietnam.

It is possible to get to Vladivostok from several of the larger cities in Russia. Regular flights to Seattle, Washington, were available in the 1990s but have been canceled since. Vladivostok Air resumed flying to Anchorage, Alaska, in July 2008.

Urban transportation[edit]

On June 28, 1908, Vladivostok's first tram line was started along Svetlanskaya Street, running from the railway station on Lugovaya Street.[citation needed] On October 9, 1912, the first wooden cars manufactured in Belgium entered service. Today, Vladivostok's means of public transportation include trolleybus, bus, tram, train, funicular, ferryboat and cutter. The main urban traffic lines are City Center—Vtoraya Rechka, City Center—Pervaya Rechka—3ya Rabochaya—Balyayeva, and City Center—Lugovaya Street.

In 2012, Vladivostok hosted the 24th Summit of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum. In preparation for the event, the infrastructure of the city was renovated and improved. Two giant cable-stayed bridges were constructed in Vladivostok, namely the Zolotoy Rog Bridge over the Golden Horn Bay in the center of the city, and the Russky Bridge from the mainland to Russky Island, where the summit took place. The latter bridge is the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world.

Port[edit]

Main article: Port of Vladivostok
Port of Vladivostok

Founded as a military outpost by Russia in 1860, the Port of Vladivostok's geographic location made it an important strategic base for Russia's Navy. In 1872 the Port of Vladivostok began to grow when the country's main naval base was located there.

The Port of Vladivostok is the eastern last stop on Russia's Northern Sea Route that stretches from the country's northwestern shores at the border of Norway. It is the principal base for supplies for Russia's Arctic ports to the east of Cape Chelyuskin.

The arrival of the Chinese Eastern Railway in 1903 connected the Port of Vladivostok to Manchuria and gave the port a better connection to the rest of the Russian Empire and enhanced its importance as a major center in eastern Russia. The Port of Vladivostok was important as a military port that received supplies from the United States during World War I.

When the Russian Revolution of 1917 began, the Port of Vladivostok was occupied by foreign forces, primarily the Japanese, who stayed there until the early 1920s. After they left the city, the Port of Vladivostok became important to the new Soviet Government.

The Port of Vladivostok continued to be the home of Russia's Pacific Fleet after the USSR took control. It grew considerably after World War II as a military base, and the Port of Vladivostok was closed to foreign shipping between 1952 and the and 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed.

After the fall of Communism in Russia, the Port of Vladivostok emerged as a commercial port with links to other eastern Russian ports as well as countries of the Far East. It began to import consumer goods from Japan, China, and other nations. The port is ice-free all year round, and in 2002 had a foreign trade turnover worth $275 million.[22]

Education[edit]

Videoconferencing in Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service

Vladivostok is home to numerous educational institutions, including five universities:

The Presidium of the Far Eastern Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ДВО РАН) as well as ten of its research institutes are also located in Vladivostok, as is the Pacific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (Тихоокеанский научно-исследовательский рыбохозяйственный центр or ТИНРО).

Media[edit]

Over fifty newspapers and regional editions to Moscow publications are issued in Vladivostok. The largest newspaper of the Primorsky Krai and the whole Russian Far East is Vladivostok with a circulation of 124,000 copies at the beginning of 1996. Its founder, joint-stock company Vladivostok-News, also issues a weekly English-language newspaper Vladivostok News. Another source of information on the city is the online daily Vladivostok Times. The subjects of the publications issued in these newspapers vary from information around Vladivostok and Primorye to major international events. Newspaper Zolotoy Rog (Golden Horn) gives every detail of economic news. Entertainment materials and cultural news constitute a larger part of Novosti (News) newspaper which is the most popular among Primorye's young people. Also, new online mass media about Russian Far East for foreigners Far East Times. This source invites everyone to take part in informational support of RFE for visitors, travellers and businessmen. Vladivostok operates many online media - newsvl, primamedia, primorye24, VladTop - Breaking News Vladivostok

As of 1999, there are also seven radio stations, the most popular being 24-hour VBC (612 kHz, 101.7 MHz) and Europa+ (738 kHz, 104.2 MHz). Europa+ normally broadcasts popular modern British-American music, while the ratio of Russian and foreign songs over VBC is fifty-fifty. Every hour one can hear local news over these radio stations. Radio Vladivostok (1098 kHz) operates from 06:00 till 01:00. It broadcasts several special programs which are devoted to the music of the 1950s-1980s as well as New Age.

Russian rock band Mumiy Troll hails from Vladivostok and frequently puts on shows there. In addition, the city played host to the now-legendary "VladiROCKstok" International Music Festival in September 1996. Hosted by the Mayor and Governor, and organized by two young American expatriates, the festival drew nearly 10,000 people and top-tier musical acts from St. Petersburg (Akvarium and DDT) and Seattle (Supersuckers, Goodness), as well as several leading local bands.[citation needed]

It is the nearest city to the massive Sikhote-Alin Meteorite, which fell on February 12, 1947, in the Sikhote-Alin Mountains, approximately 440 kilometres (273 miles) northeast of Vladivostok.

Culture[edit]

Theater[edit]

Maxim Gorky Theater

Maxim Gorky Academic Theater, named after Russian author, Maxim Gorky, was founded in 1931 and is used for drama, musical and children's theater performances.

In September 2012, a granite statue of actor Yul Brynner (1920-1985) was inaugurated in Yul Brynner Park, directly in front of the house where he was born at 15 Aleutskaya St.

Museums[edit]

The Arsenyev Primorye Museum (Приморский государственный объединенный музей имени В.К. Арсеньева), opened in 1890, is the main museum of the Primorsky Krai. Besides the main facility, it has three branches in Vladivostok itself (including Arsenyev's Memorial House), and five branches elsewhere in the krai.[23] Among the items in the museum's collection are the famous 15th-century Yongning Temple Steles from the lower Amur.

There is a beautiful new opera and ballet theatre.

Pollution[edit]

Local ecologists from the Ecocenter organization have claimed that much of Vladivostok's suburbs are polluted and that living in them can be classified as a health hazard.[citation needed] The pollution has a number of causes, according to Ecocenter geo-chemical expert Sergey Shlykov. Vladivostok has about eighty industrial sites, which may not be many compared to Russia's most industrialized areas, but those around the city are particularly environmentally unfriendly, such as shipbuilding and repairing, power stations, printing, fur farming and mining. In addition, Vladivostok has a particularly vulnerable geography which compounds the effect of the pollution. Winds cannot clear pollution from some of the most densely populated areas around the Pervaya and Vtoraya Rechka as they sit in basins which the winds blow over. In addition, there is little snow in winter and no leaves or grass to catch the dust to make it settle down.[24]

Sports[edit]

Vladivostok is home to the football club FC Luch-Energiya Vladivostok, who plays in the Russian First Division, ice hockey club Admiral Vladivostok from the Kontinental Hockey League's Chernyshev Division, and basketball club Spartak Primorye, who plays in the Russian Basketball Super League.

International relations[edit]

U.S. Navy Officer takes part in a bread and salt ceremony, a traditional Slavic welcoming ceremony, after arriving in Vladivostok, July 1, 2007

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Vladivostok is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #161-KZ
  2. ^ a b c Law #179-KZ
  3. ^ Генеральный план Владивостока. Расчёт потребности территории для определения границ населённых пунктов Владивостокского городского округа. Таблица 16.1
  4. ^ a b c "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 72. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  9. ^ a b "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. ^ Joana Breidenbach (2005). Pál Nyíri, Joana Breidenbach, ed. China inside out: contemporary Chinese nationalism and transnationalism (illustrated ed.). Central European University Press. p. 89. ISBN 963-7326-14-6. Retrieved 18 March 2012. "Probably the first clash between the Russians and Chinese occurred in 1868. It was called the Manza War, Manzovskaia voina. "Manzy" was the Russian name for the Chinese population in those years. In 1868, the local Russian government decided to close down goldfields near Vladivostok, in the Gulf of Peter the Great, where 1,000 Chinese were employed. The Chinese decided that they did not want to go back, and resisted. The first clash occurred when the Chinese were removed from Askold Island," 
  11. ^ Joana Breidenbach (2005). Pál Nyíri, Joana Breidenbach, ed. China inside out: contemporary Chinese nationalism and transnationalism (illustrated ed.). Central European University Press. p. 90. ISBN 963-7326-14-6. Retrieved 18 March 2012. "in the Gulf of Peter the Great. They organized themselves and raided three Russian villages and two military posts. For the first time, this attempt to drive the Chinese out was unsuccessful." 
  12. ^ "The Russian train experience". Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  13. ^ Benjamin Isitt, "Mutiny from Victoria to Vladivostok, December 1918," Canadian Historical Review, 87:2 (June 2006)
  14. ^ Joana Breidenbach (2005). Pál Nyíri, Joana Breidenbach, ed. China inside out: contemporary Chinese nationalism and transnationalism (illustrated ed.). Central European University Press. p. 90. ISBN 963-7326-14-6. Retrieved 18 March 2012. "Then there occurred another story which has become traumatic, this one for the Russian nationalist psyche. At the end of the year 1918, after the Russian Revolution, the Chinese merchants in the Russian Far East demanded the Chinese government to send troops for their protection, and Chinese troops were sent to Vladivostok to protect the Chinese community: about 1600 soldiers and 700 support personnel." 
  15. ^ Levy, Clifford J. "Crisis or Not, Russia Will Build a Bridge in the East," New York Times. April 20, 2009.
  16. ^ "Putin proposes Russky Island venue for APEC-2012". Vladivostok: Vladivostok News. 31 January 2007. Retrieved 2009-02-11. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved June 19, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Climatological Information for Vladivostok, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved March 11, 2013. 
  19. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  20. ^ a b "Putin Is Turning Vladivostok into Russia's Pacific Capital". Russia Analytical Digest (Institute of History, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland) (82): 9–12. 2010-07-12. 
  21. ^ a b Oliphant, Roland (2010). "Ruler of the East: The City of Vladivostok Is a Mixture of Promise and Neglect". Russia Profile. 
  22. ^ Vladivostok Economics (Russian) retrieved 18 Sep 2012
  23. ^ History of the Museum
  24. ^ B. V. Preobrazhensky, A. I. Burago, S. A. Shlykov. Primorye Ecology. Ecological Situation. Contamination of Sea and Water

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Приморского края. Закон №161-КЗ от 14 ноября 2001 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Приморского края», в ред. Закона №331-КЗ от 19 декабря 2013 г. «Об изменении категории посёлка городского типа Горный, о преобразовании Горненского городского поселения, входящего в состав Кировского муниципального района Приморского края, и внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Приморского края». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красное знамя Приморья", №69 (119), 29 ноября 2001 г. (Legislative Assembly of Primorsky Krai. Law #161-KZ of November 14, 2001 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Primorsky Krai, as amended by the Law #331-KZ of December 19, 2013 On Changing the Category of the Urban-Type Settlement of Gorny, on the Transformation of Gornenskoye Urban Settlement Within Kirovsky Municipal District of Primorsky Krai, and on Amending Several Legislative Acts of Primorsky Krai. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Приморского края. Закон №179-КЗ от 6 декабря 2004 г. «О Владивостокском городском округе», в ред. Закона №48-КЗ от 7 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Приморского края "О Владивостокском городском округе"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г.. Опубликован: "Ведомости Законодательного Собрания Приморского края", №76, 7 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Primorsky Krai. Law #179-KZ of December 6, 2004 On Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug, as amended by the Law #48-KZ of June 7, 2012 On Amending the Law of Primorsky Krai "On Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug". Effective as of January 1, 2005.).
  • Faulstich, Edith. M. "The Siberian Sojourn" Yonkers, N.Y. (1972–1977)
  • Poznyak, Tatyana Z. 2004. Foreign Citizens in the Cities of the Russian Far East (the second half of the 19th and 20th centuries). Vladivostok: Dalnauka, 2004. 316 p. (ISBN 5-8044-0461-X).
  • Stephan, John. 1994. The Far East a History. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994. 481 p.
  • Trofimov, Vladimir et al., 1992, Old Vladivostok. Utro Rossii Vladivostok, ISBN 5-87080-004-8

External links[edit]