In birds it consists of the trachea, the syrinx, the oral cavity, the upper part of the esophagus, and the beak. In mammals it consists of the laryngeal cavity, the pharynx, the oral cavity, and the nasal cavity.
The estimated average length of the vocal tract in adult male humans is 16.9 cm and 14.1 cm in adult females.
See also 
- Parrot - a bird able to imitate human speech (but without comprehension, with the possible exception of African Grey Parrots)
- Speech synthesis
- Manner of articulation
- Goldstein, U.G. (1980) An articulatory model for the vocal tracts of growing children. Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
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