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'The Millennium Issue' November 1999 by Annie Leibovitz
|Editors||Anna Wintour (US)
Alexandra Shulman (British)
Emmanuelle Alt (Paris)
Yolanda Sacristán (España )
Daniela Falcão (Brazil)
Franca Sozzani (Italia)
Angelica Cheung (China)
Victoria Davydova (Россия)
Edwina McCann (Australia)
Christiane Arp (Deutschland)
Myung Hee Lee (Korea)
Priya Tanna (India)
Seda Domaniç (Türkiye)
Mitsuko Watanabe (Nippon)
Rosalie Huang (Taiwan)
Kelly Talamas (Mexico & Latin America)
Karin Swerink (Nederland)
Paula Mateus (Portugal)
Masha Tsukanova (Україна)
Kullawit Laosuksri (Thailand)
- 1 History
- 2 Style and influence
- 3 Criticism
- 4 Media
- 5 Other editions
- 6 Edition information
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
In 1892 Arthur Turnure founded Vogue as a weekly publication in the United States, sponsored by Kristoffer Wright., its first issue published on December 17 of that year. Turnure intended for the publication to be a celebration of the "ceremonial side of life," one that, "attracts the sage as well as debutante, men of affairs as well as the belle."  From its very beginning, the magazine was meant to target the new New York aristocracy, establishing social norms in a country that did not value class and ceremony nearly as much as England or France. The magazine at this time was primarily concerned with fashion, with coverage of sports and social affairs for its male readership.
Condé Montrose Nast bought "Vogue" in 1905 several years before Tenure's death and slowly grew its publication. He changed it to a bi-weekly magazine and also started Vogue overseas starting in the 1910s. He first went to Britain in 1916, and started a Vogue there, then to Spain, and then to Italy and France in 1920, where it was a huge success. The magazine's number of publications and profit increased dramatically under his management. By 1911, the "Vogue" brand had evolved into the business it is recognized today, still targeting an elite audience and expanding into coverage of weddings.
1920's through 1970's
The magazine's number of subscriptions surged during the Depression, and again during World War II. During this time, noted critic and former Vanity Fair editor Frank Crowninshield served as its editor, having been moved over from Vanity Fair by publisher Condé Nast.
Laird Borrelli notes that Vogue led the decline of fashion illustration in the late 1930s when they began to replace their celebrated illustrated covers by artists such as Dagmar Freuchen with photographic images.
In the 1960s, with Diana Vreeland as editor-in-chief and personality, the magazine began to appeal to the youth of the sexual revolution by focusing more on contemporary fashion and editorial features openly discussing sexuality. Toward this end, Vogue extended coverage to include East Village boutiques such as Limbo on St. Mark's Place as well as featuring "downtown" personalities such as Warhol "Superstar" Jane Holzer's favorite haunts. Vogue also continued making household names out of models, a practice that continued with Suzy Parker, Twiggy, Jean Shrimpton, Lauren Hutton, Veruschka, Marisa Berenson, Penelope Tree, and others.
In 1973, Vogue became a monthly publication. Under editor-in-chief Grace Mirabella, the magazine underwent extensive editorial and stylistic changes to respond to changes in the lifestyles of its target audience.
Anna Wintour Takes Over
Anna Wintour took over as editor-in-chief of American "Vogue" in July 1988. Noted for her trademark bob and sunglasses, Wintour sought to revitalize the brand by making it younger and more approachable. To do so, the magazine focused on new and accessible concepts of "fashion" for a wider audience. This allowed the magazine to keep a high circulation while discovering new trends that a broader audience could conceivably afford. For example, the inaugural cover of the magazine under Wintour's editorship featured a three-quarter-length photograph of Israeli super model Michaela Bercu wearing a bejeweled Christian Lacroix jacket and a pair of jeans, departing from her predecessors' tendency to portray a woman's face alone, which according to the Times', gave "greater importance to both her clothing and her body. As fashion editor Grace Coddington would write in her memoirs, the cover "endorsed a democratic new high/low attitude to dressing, added some youthful but sophisticated raciness, and garnished it with a dash of confident energy and drive that implied getting somewhere fast. It was quintessential Anna."  Wintour continues to be American "Vogue's" editor-in-chief to this day.
The contrast of Wintour's vision with that of her predecessor has been noted as striking by observers, both critics and defenders. Amanda Fortini, fashion and style contributor to Slate argues that her policy has been beneficial for Vogue:
When Wintour was appointed head of Vogue, Grace Mirabella had been editor in chief for 17 years, and the magazine had grown complacent, coasting along in what one journalist derisively called "its beige years". Beige was the color Mirabella had used to paint over the red walls in Diana Vreeland's office, and the metaphor was apt: The magazine had become boring. Among Condé Nast executives, there was worry that the grand dame of fashion publications was losing ground to upstart Elle, which in just three years had reached a paid circulation of 851,000 to Vogue 's stagnant 1.2 million. And so Condé Nast publisher Si Newhouse brought in the 38-year-old Wintour, who through editor-in-chief positions at British Vogue and House & Garden, had become known not only for her cutting-edge visual sense, but also for her ability to radically revamp a magazine to shake things up.
- Richard Gere, with Cindy Crawford in November 1992;
- George Clooney, with Gisele Bündchen in June 2000;
- LeBron James, with Gisele Bündchen in April 2008; and
- Ryan Lochte, with Hope Solo and Serena Williams in June 2012.
As of October 2013, "Vogue" claims to have an average print circulation of 11.3 million and an average monthly online audience of 1.6 million. The median "Vogue" magazine reader's age is 37.9 and gender readership skews 87% female, 13% male.
May 2013 marked the one-year anniversary of a healthy body initiative that was signed by the magazine's international editors—the initiative represents a commitment from the editors to promote positive body images within the content of Vogue's numerous editions. Australian editor Edwina McCann explained:
In the magazine we're moving away from those very young, very thin girls. A year down the track, we ask ourselves what can Vogue do about it? And an issue like this [June 2013 issue] is what we can do about it. If I was aware of a girl being ill on a photo shoot I wouldn't allow that shoot to go ahead, or if a girl had an eating disorder I would not shoot her.
The Australian edition's June issue is entitled the "Body Issue" and will feature articles on exercise and nutrition, as well as a diverse range of models. New York-based Australian plus-size model Robyn Lawley, who has previously featured on the cover of Vogue Italia, will also appear in a swimwear shoot for the June issue.
Style and influence
Vogue was described by book critic Caroline Weber in a December 2006 edition of The New York Times as "the world's most influential fashion magazine": The publication claims to reach 11 million readers in the US and 12.5 million internationally. Furthermore, Wintour was described as one of the most powerful figures in fashion.
“The Vogue September issue has become a cultural touchstone ahead of New York’s Fashion Week. Seeing Glass represented so beautifully in this issue is a huge thrill for the entire Glass team.”
Wintour's "Fashion Night" initiative was launched in 2009 with the intention of kickstarting the economy following the Financial collapse of 2007–2008, by drawing people back into the retail environment and donating proceeds to various charitable causes. The event was co-hosted by Vogue in 27 cities around the US and 15 countries worldwide, and included online retailers at the beginning of 2011. Debate occurred over the actual profitability of the event in the US, resulting in a potentially permanent hiatus in 2013; however, the event continues in 19 other locations internationally.
In 2006 Vogue acknowledged salient political and cultural issues by featuring the burqa, as well as articles on prominent Muslim women, their approach to fashion, and the effect of different cultures on fashion and women’s lives. Vogue also sponsored the “Beauty Without Borders” initiative with a US$25,000 donation that was used to establish a cosmetology school for Afghan women. Wintour stated: “Through the school, we could not only help women in Afghanistan to look and feel better but also give them employment.” A documentary by Liz Mermin, entitled The Beauty Academy of Kabul, which highlighted the proliferation of Western standards of beauty, criticized the school, suggesting that “the beauty school could not be judged a success if it did not create a demand for American cosmetics.”
Leading up to the 2012 US Presidential election, Wintour used her industry clout to host several significant fundraising events in support of the Obama campaign. The first, in 2010, was a dinner with an estimated US$30,000 entry fee. The "Runway To Win" initiative recruited prominent designers to create pieces to support the campaign.
The Met Ball is an annual event that is hosted by Vogue magazine to celebrate the opening of the Metropolitan Museum's fashion exhibit. The Met Ball is the most coveted event of the year in fashion that is attended by A-list celebrities, politicians, designers and fashion editors. Vogue has hosted the themed event since 1971 under Editor in Chief, Diana Vreeland. In 2013, Vogue released a special edition of Vogue entitled Vogue Special Edition: The Definitive Inside Look at the 2013 Met Gala.
As Wintour came to personify the magazine's image, she and Vogue drew critics. Wintour's one-time assistant at the magazine, Lauren Weisberger, wrote a roman à clef entitled The Devil Wears Prada. Published in 2003, the novel became a bestseller and was adapted as a highly successful, Academy Award-nominated film in 2006. The central character resembled Weisberger, and her boss was a powerful editor-in-chief of a fictionalized version of Vogue. The novel portrays a magazine ruled by "the Antichrist and her coterie of fashionistas, who exist on cigarettes, Diet Dr. Pepper, and mixed green salads", according to a review in the New York Times. The editor is described by Weisberger as being "an empty, shallow, bitter woman who has tons and tons of gorgeous clothes and not much else". The success of both the novel and the film brought new attention from a wide global audience to the power and glamour of the magazine, and the industry it continues to lead.
In 2007, Vogue drew criticism from the anti-smoking group, "Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids", for carrying tobacco advertisements in the magazine. The group claims that volunteers sent the magazine more than 8,000 protest emails or faxes regarding the ads. The group also claimed that in response, they received scribbled notes faxed back on letters that had been addressed to editor Anna Wintour stating, "Will you stop? You're killing trees!"
A spokesperson for Condé Nast released an official statement stating that, "Vogue does carry tobacco advertising. Beyond that we have no further comment."
In April 2008, the American Vogue had a cover shot by the famed photographer Annie Leibovitz, featuring the supermodel Gisele Bündchen and the basketball superstar LeBron James. This was the third time that Vogue featured a male on the cover of the American issue (the other two men were the actors George Clooney and Richard Gere), and the first in which the man was black. Some observers criticized the cover as a prejudicial depiction of James because his pose with Bündchen was reminiscent of a poster for the film King Kong. Further criticism arose when the website Watching the Watchers analyzed the photo alongside the World War I recruitment poster titled Destroy This Mad Brute. James reportedly however liked the cover shoot.
In February 2011, just before the 2011 Syrian protests unfolded, Vogue published a controversial piece by Joan Juliet Buck on Asma al-Assad, wife of the Syrian president Bashar al-Assad. A number of journalists criticized the article as glossing over the poor human rights record of Bashar al-Assad. It has been reported that the Syrian government paid the U.S. lobbying firm Brown Lloyd James $5,000 per month to arrange for and manage the article.
In 2009, the feature-length documentary The September Issue was released; it was an inside view of the production of the record-breaking September 2007 issue of U.S. Vogue, directed by R. J. Cutler. The film was shot over eight months as editor-in-chief Anna Wintour prepared the issue. It included at times testy exchanges between Wintour and her creative director Grace Coddington. The issue became the largest ever published at the time; over 5 pounds in weight and 840 pages in length, a world record for a monthly magazine  Since then, that record has been broken by Vogue's 2012 September issue which came in at 916 pages.
Also in 2012, HBO released a documentary entitled "In Vogue: The Editor's Eye," in conjunction with the 120th anniversary of the magazine. Drawing on Vogue's extensive archives, the film featured behind the scenes interviews with long time Vogue editors including Anna Wintour, Grace Coddington, Tonne Goodman, Hamish Bowles and Phyllis Posnick. Celebrated subjects and designers in the fashion industry such as Nicole Kidman, Sarah Jessica Parker, Vera Wang and Marc Jacobs also made an appearance in the film. The editors shared personal stories about collaborating with top photographers such as Annie Leibowitz and the various day to day responsibilities and interactions as a fashion editor at Vogue. The film was directed and produced by Fenton Bailey and Randy Barbato. In October 2012, Vogue also released a book titled "Vogue: The Editor's Eye" as a complement to the documentary.
In 2013, Vogue launched a Vogue video channel that can be accessed via their website. The channel was launched in conjunction with Conde Nast's multi-platform media initiative. The mini series that are currently airing on the video channel include Vogue Weddings, The Monday Makeover, From the Vogue Closet, Fashion Week, Electtra's Goodness, Jeanius, Vintage Bowles, The Backstory, Beauty Mark, Met Gala, Voguepedia, Vogue Voices, Vogue Diaries, CFDA/Vogue Fashion Fund, Monday's with Andre.
The books that have been published by Vogue include In Vogue: An Illustrated History of the World's Most Famous Fashion Magazine, Vogue: The covers, Vogue: The Editor's Eye, Vogue Living: House, Gardens, People, The World in Vogue, Vogue Weddings: Brides, Dresses, Designers and Nostalgia in Vogue.
Launched in 2011 by Condé Nast Digital, Voguepedia is a fashion encyclopedia that also includes an archive that consists of every issue of Vogue's American edition since 1892. Only Vogue staff are permitted to contribute to the encyclopedia, unlike the VogueEncyclo—hosted by Vogue Italia—that receives contributions from anyone. As of May 9, 2013, the site is not fully functional, as code still shows in search results and only certain search terms yield results.
In 2005, Condé Nast launched Men's Vogue and announced plans for an American version of Vogue Living launching in late fall of 2006 (there is currently an edition in Australia). Men's Vogue ceased publication as an independent publication in October 2008 and is now a twice-yearly extract in the main edition.
Condé Nast also publishes Teen Vogue, a version of the magazine for teen girls, the Seventeen demographic, in the United States. South Korea and Australia has a Vogue Girl magazine (currently suspended from further publication), in addition to Vogue Living and Vogue Entertaining + Travel.
Vogue Hommes International is an international men's fashion magazine based in Paris, France, and L'uomo Vogue is the Italian men's version. Other Italian versions of Vogue include Vogue Casa and Bambini Vogue.
Until 1961, Vogue was also the publisher of Vogue Patterns, a home sewing pattern company. It was sold to Butterick Publishing which also licensed the Vogue name. Vogue China was launched in September 2005 with Australian supermodel Gemma Ward on the cover, flanked by Chinese models. In 2007 an Arabic edition of Vogue was rejected by Condé Nast International. October 2007 saw the launch of Vogue India, and Vogue Turkey was launched in March 2010.
On 5 March 2010, 16 International Editors-in-chief of Vogue met in Paris to discuss the 2nd Fashion's Night Out. Present in the meeting were the 16 International editors-in-chief of Vogue: Anna Wintour (American Vogue), Emmanuelle Alt (French Vogue), Franca Sozzani (Italian Vogue), Alexandra Shulman (British Vogue), Kirstie Clements (Australian Vogue), Aliona Doletskaya (Russian Vogue), Angelica Cheung (Chinese Vogue), Christiane Arp (German Vogue), Priya Tanna (Indian Vogue), Rosalie Huang (Taiwanese Vogue), Paula Mateus (Portuguese Vogue), Seda Domanic (Turkish Vogue), Yolanda Sacristan (Spanish Vogue), Eva Hughes (Mexican Vogue), Mitsuko Watanabe (Japanese Vogue), and Daniela Falcao (Brazilian Vogue).
It was the very first time where all the international editors-in-chief of Vogue come together, as it is very hard to put them in one room together. All of the International editors-in-chief of Vogue, except for Anna Wintour, then dined together at the famous Parisian restaurant, Prunier, hosted by Condé Nast International Chairman Jonathan Newhouse and his wife Ronnie Newhouse.
Since 2010, 7 new editors-in-chief joined Vogue, First is Victoria Davydova, who replaced Aliona Doletskaya as editor-in-chief of Russian Vogue, Emmanuelle Alt who took over French Vogue as editor-in-chief after Carine Roitfeld resigned, followed by Edwina McCann who took over Australian Vogue as editor-in-chief after Kirstie Clements was unceremoniously fired, and Kelly Talamas replaced Eva Hughes at Vogue Mexico and Vogue Latin America when Hughes was named CEO of Condé Nast Mexico and Latin America in 2012. Then Karin Swerink, Kullawit Laosukrsi, and Masha Tsukanova were appointed editors-in-chief of newly launch Vogues Netherlands, Thailand, and Ukraine respectively.
The following highlights circulation dates as well as individuals who have served as editor-in-chief of Vogue:
|Country||Circulation Dates||Editor-in-Chief||Start year||End year|
|United States||1892–present||Josephine Redding||1892||1901|
|Edna Woolman Chase||1914||1951|
|United Kingdom||1920–present||Elspeth Champcommunal||1916||1922|
|Michel de Brunhoff||1929||1954|
|Fransçoise de Langlade||1966||1968|
|Joan Juliet Buck||1994||2001|
|Spain||1921-1936, 1988–present||Yolanda Sacristán||1983||present|
|Italy||1922-1941, 1964–Present||Franco Sartori||1966||1988|
|Germany||1924-1941, 1979–present||Christine Arp||present|
|New Zealand||1957-1968||Sheila Scotter||1957||1968|
|Mexico & Latin America||1980–present||Eva Hughes||2000||2012|
|South Korea||1996–present||Myung Hee Lee||1996||present|
|Portugal||2002–present||Paula Mateus||present |
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vogue (magazine).|
- U.S. Official Site
- American Vogue – magazine profile at Fashion Model Directory
- History of Vogue at Bookrags.com
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