Voice stress analysis
Voice Stress Analysis (VSA) technology is said to record psychophysiological stress responses that are present in human voice, when a person suffers psychological stress in response to a stimulus (question) and where the consequences may be dire for the subject being 'tested'.
In a study published December 7, 2013, the International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering (IJEECE) found that Voice Stress Analysis (VSA) technology can identify emotional stress better than polygraph.
Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences held in 2005, identified that VSA technology can identify stress better than chance with performance approaching that of current polygraph systems.
Just like with polygraph, there is a plethora of information out there, both in support of VSA and against it. What it all comes down to is what do you want to believe. The lion-share of information supporting VSA is either from independent researchers who have no “Dog in the Fight,” or trained examiners who use VSA on a routine basis and know the benefits from using it. Most of if not all the negative information against VSA comes from either the National Center for Credibility Assessment (NCCA) in the way of studies that were either funded by them, or the American Polygraph Association (APA). NCCA used to be called DoDPI (Department of Defense Polygraph Institute). It only stands to reason that no polygraph organization or polygrapher is going to do anything that jeopardizes their very existence. Federally funded research via the American Polygraph Association in the United States showed "little validity" in the technique.
There is tension between the voice stress analysis community and the polygraph community, due in the main to the fact that the polygraph is heavily regulated and has been subject to numerous detailed, contentious scientific studies, while voice stress analysis is largely unregulated. However, there are studies which show VSA results to be even slightly better than chance.
In Anders Eriksson and Francisco Lacerda's article "Charlatanry in forensic speech science: A problem to be taken seriously" voice stress analysis is described as charlatanry, and that analysis of studies shows that these methods perform at chance levels. They argue that "there are serious ethical and security reasons to demand that responsible authorities and institutions should not get involved in such practices." This article was criticized by manufacturers of voice stress analysis machines. Due to the controversy, the International Association of Forensic Linguists' peer-reviewed journal International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law withdrew the article. However, there have no subsequent studies that refute the findings contained within that article.
Principle and origins
VSA is distinct from Layered Voice Analysis (LVA). The main difference in the method of operation between LVA and VSA is based on the analyzed frequencies ranges: while VSA focuses on the 8–14 Hz range which is recorded via an omni-directional microphone. LVA utilises components of the voice such as pitch and tone, which are conrollable by the user, also varying according to his/her emotions at time of utterance. Change of emotions produce unreliable results being not particularly relevant to DOD.
The original VSA technology was devised by three former US Army personnel from the Counterintelligence Electronic Div. The three, Bell, McQuiston & Ford, developed the PSE 1, an analogue machine. The same three, working under Dektor Counterintelligence and Security Inc., manufactured the Phoenix telephone analyzer, the PSE 1000 and later the PSE 2000.
VSA technology together with validated testing protocols, is designed to protect the innocent and avoid 'false positive' results. VSA is designed to assist any investigation by establishing the veracity of a subject's verbal responses.
There are no known physical countermeasures for VSA. Conversely according to Honts et al., the simple use of a 'tack' placed under the tongue of the examinee, to be used as a countermeasure, can reduce the accuracy of polygraph results from 98% to 26%.
Methodology and accuracy
The recorded "micro tremors" in a person's voice are converted via the algorithm into a scorable voice gram. The discrepancy in researched accuracy may result from incorrectly trained or non-trained persons utilizing the technology incorrectly. This is evident by some Polygraphists trying to "test" VSA technology without having received accredited training in the use thereof.
In 2002, Clifton Coetzee, a polygraph and VSA instructor, devised a scoring method for voice grams incorporating the 'UTAH 7 Point' scoring system, as used by modern day polygraphists. Reactive or Responsive patterns are assigned a weighting of +3 to -3.
In 2010 through to 2011, Clifton Coetzee and Jean-Louis Gouin (Alpes-Software: Contracted Developer of original Diogenes Lantern, which is now re-labelled as TDT )developed AVSAPRO which is a unique, evolutionary, fully automatic VSA system. AVSAPRO is programmed to cater for cadence control being consistent in every question posed. Examiner induced errors have been eliminated. AVSAPRO is based on a neural network - another major innovation in the worldwide vsa industry. Scoring of automatically captured and numerically identified voice wavs is according to the neural network database, developed from Expert blind scoring of 000's of voice wavs, with the input of known outcomes from polygraph tests conducted by Coetzee C and Davidson S.
The American Polygraph Association's website lists conclusions from multiple studies, into the accuracy of voice stress analysis as a means of detecting the subject's truthfulness. Some researchers or polygraph professionals cast doubt on the validity of the results of such tests; many describe the results as no better than chance.
The National Academy of Sciences published a 2003 study on the polygraph, in which they concluded that the evidence of its efficacy is "scientifically weak." According to the American Psychological Association, "most psychologists agree that there is little evidence that polygraph tests can accurately detect lies".
- Ruiz, Selye, & Guell, 1990. Voice analysis to predict the psychological or physical state of a speaker. Published in Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 1990. Ruiz et al. reports that their “research suggests that psychological stress may be detected as acoustic modifications in the fundamental frequency of a speakers voice” and “that the fundamental frequency of the vocal signal is slowly modulated (8-14 Hz) during speech in an emotionally neutral situation. In situations demanding increased ‘mental or psychomotor’ activity, the 8-14 Hz modulation then decreases as the striated muscles surrounding the vocal cords contract in response to the arousal, thus limiting the natural trembling”
- Patil, V. P., Nayak, K. K., & Saxena, M. Voice Stress Detection, 2, 148-154. (PDF File) International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, IJEECE (online) ISSN 1748-8893. 
- Sprague, R. H. (2005). HICSS 2005 38th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science (03-06 January 2005/Big Island, HI). Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society Press. 
- Refer NAS 2003 in reference to all APA related research projects.
- Haddad, Walters Study 2002, doc 193832
- Eriksson, Anders; Lacerda, Francisco (2007). "Charlatanry in forensic speech science: A problem to be taken seriously". (PDF File) The International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law. Equinox Publishing. IJSLL (print) issn 1748-8885 IJSLL (online) issn 1748-8893
- "Lie Detector Company Threatens Critical Scientists With Suit". Slashdot. 2009-01-29. Retrieved 2009-02-02.
- The Diogenes Company. Retrieved 9 February 2009.
- Heisse, J. “Is The Micro-Tremor Usable? - The Micro-Muscle Tremor In The Voice.” U.S. House Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, 1974. Heisse analyzed 91 known-conclusion criminal cases utilizing voice stress analysis and determined that "Audio stress analysis seems to be valid in detecting changes in various psycho physiological parameters so that a trained examiner utilizing standardized techniques can evaluate these changes and thus utilize the instrument in truth and deception".
- Honts 1993
- Honts, C. R., and Hodes, R. L., “The Effect of Simple Physical Countermeasures on the Detection of Deception," paper presented at meetings of the Society for Psychophysiological Research, Minneapolis, Minn., 1982.
- Honts, C. R., and Hodes, R. L., “The Effects of Multiple Physical Countermeasures on the Detection of Deception," Psychophysiology 19:564-565 (abstract), 1982.
- Honts, C. R., and Hodes, R. L., “The Effect of Simple Physical Countermeasures on the Detection of Deception," Psychophysiology 19:564 (abstract), 1982.
- Honts, C. R., Raskin, D. C., and Kircher, J. C., "Detection of Deception: Effectiveness of Physical Countermeasures Under High Motivation Conditions," 1 paper presented at meetings of the Society for Psychophysiological Research, September 1983.
- Cal Pen Code § 637.3
- Cal Pen Code § 637.2
- "Over 1700 Agencies Utilizing the CVSA".[dead link]
- see W.Carolina Uni paper 140 , Eng 101 , 2008 Tay, Adams, etc.
- Air Force Research Laboratory, Rome, New York, October, 2000
- Chapman, J. Criminal Justice Department, Corning Community College, New York. "The Psychological Stress Evaluator As A Tool For Eliciting Confessions", 1989. Chapman selected 211 criminal responses at random from 2,109 known-conclusion responses where voice stress analysis was used to test suspects. Professor Chapman's study confirmed that voice stress analysis was accurate when utilized as a truth verification device and produced a confession rate of 94.8% of the responses where deception was indicated.
- Coetzee, C. (2000). Truth Extraction: Eyes, Lies, Analyse ISBN 978-0-620-524131-1]
- Lippold, O. “Oscillations In The Stretch Reflex Arc And The Origin Of The Rhythmical 8-12 C/S Component Of The Physiological Tremor.” The Journal Of Physiology, February, 1970. Lippold first discovers the physiological tremor in the human voice in the 8-12 Hz range (Available from Library of Congress)
- Lippold, O., Redfearn, J., Vuco, R. "The Rhythmical Activity Of Groups Of Muscle Units In The Voluntary Contraction Of Muscle." The Journal Of Physiology, August, 1957. Lippold, Redfearn and Vuco begin exploring the correlation between muscle activity and stress (Available from Library of Congress).
- Cestaro, V. Department of Defense Polygraph Institute, Ft. McClellan, AL. "A Comparison Between Decision Accuracy Rates Obtained Using the Polygraph Instrument and the Computer Voice Stress Analyzer in the Absence of Jeopardy", August, 1995.
- "Conclusions and Recommendations" The Polygraph and Lie Detection (2003) National Academies Press. p. 212
- "The Truth About Lie Detectors (aka Polygraph Tests)". American Psychological Association. August 5, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2013.