Voiced alveolar stop

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Voiced alveolar stop
IPA number 104
Entity (decimal) d
Unicode (hex) U+0064
Kirshenbaum d
Braille ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)

The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar stops is d (although the symbol can be used to distinguish the dental stop, and the postalveolar), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d.


Features of the voiced alveolar stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages, such as Swiss German, it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe дахэ [daːxa] 'pretty'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic wada [waːda] 'to do' or 'to make' Predominant in the Urmia, Jilu, Baz, Gawar and
Nochiya dialects. Corresponds to [ð̞] in other varieties.
Czech do [do] 'into' See Czech phonology
Dutch[1] dak [dɑk] 'roof' See Dutch phonology
English daddy [dædɪ] 'daddy' See English phonology
Finnish sidos [ˈsido̞s] 'bond' See Finnish phonology
German Dach [dax] 'roof' See German phonology
Greek ντροπή dropí [dro̞ˈpi] 'shame' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew דואר [ˈdoʔaʁ] 'mail' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian adó [ˈɒdoː] 'tax' See Hungarian phonology
Indonesian[2] dacing [ˈdätʃɪŋ] 'balance scale'
Japanese[3] 男性的 danseiteki [danseiteki] 'masculine' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian дахэ [daːxa] 'pretty'
Korean 아들 adeul [adɯl] 'son' See Korean phonology
Malay dahan [dähän] 'branch'
Maltese dehen [den] 'wit'
Norwegian dans [dɑns] 'dance' See Norwegian phonology
Slovak do About this sound [do]  'into'
Thai ดาว [daːu] 'star'
West Frisian doarp [ˈdwɑrp] 'village'
Yi dda [da˧] 'competent'

See also[edit]



  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), Dutch, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Maddieson, Ian (1984), Patterns of Sound, Camebridge University Press 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), Phonetic Representation:Japanese, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Soderberg, Craig D.; Olson, Kenneth S. (2008), Indonesian, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (2): 209–213, doi:10.1017/s0025100308003320