Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate

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Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
IPA number 216
Entity (decimal) ʥ
Unicode (hex) U+02A5

The voiced alveolo-palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with d͡ʑ (formerly ʥ).


Features of the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolo-palatal. This means that:
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[1] All dialects metge [ˈmedd͡ʑə] 'doctor' See Catalan phonology
Valencian joc [ˈd͡ʑɔk] 'game'
Japanese 知人 chijin [t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean 감자 gamja [kɐmd͡ʑɐ] 'potato' See Korean phonology
Polish[2] więk About this sound [d͡ʑvʲɛŋk]  'sound' See Polish phonology
Russian дочь бы [ˈd̪o̞d͡ʑ bɨ] 'daughter would' Allophone of /t͡ɕ/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian ђаво / đavo [d͡ʑâ̠ʋo̞ː] 'devil' Merges with /d͡ʒ/ in most Croatian and some Bosnian accents. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Taiwanese jit̍ [d͡ʑit̚ ˧ʔ] 'sun'
Uzbek[3] [example needed]
Yi jji [d͡ʑi˧] 'bee'

See also[edit]



  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar 
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7