Voiced bilabial stop
|Voiced bilabial stop|
The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨b⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is b. The voiced bilabial stop occurs in English, and it is the sound denoted by the letter ⟨b⟩ in boy. Many Indian languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between breathy voiced /bʱ/ and plain /b/.
Features of the voiced bilabial stop:
- Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
- Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages, such as Swiss German, it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central–lateral dichotomy does not apply.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
- Thelwall (1990:37)
- Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
- Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:53)
- Gussenhoven (1992:45)
- Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
- Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
- Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
- Okada (1991:94)
- Jassem (2003:103)
- Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
- DEX Online : 
- Padgett (2003:42)
- Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
- Merrill (2008:108)
- Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), Catalan, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
- Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), European Portuguese, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
- Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
- Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), Illustrations of the IPA:French, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
- Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), Dutch, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
- Jassem, Wiktor (2003), Polish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
- Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), Castilian Spanish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
- Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), Tilquiapan Zapotec, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
- Okada, Hideo (1991), Phonetic Representation:Japanese, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X
- Padgett, Jaye (2003), Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian, Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505
- Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), Italian, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
- Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), Standard Georgian, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
- Thelwall, Robin (1990), Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266