Voiced dental stop

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Voiced dental stop
IPA number 104 408
Encoding
Entity (decimal) d​̪
Unicode (hex) U+0064 U+032A
X-SAMPA d_d
Kirshenbaum d[
Braille ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456)

The voiced dental stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is . This is the letter for the voiced alveolar stop with the "bridge below" diacritic meaning dental.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced dental stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • Its place of articulation is dental, which means it is articulated with the tongue at either the upper or lower teeth, or both. (Most stops and liquids described as dental are actually denti-alveolar.)
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages, such as Swiss German, it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

True dental consonants are relatively uncommon. In the Romance languages, /d/ is often called dental. However, the rearmost contact (which is what gives a consonant its distinctive sound) is actually alveolar, or perhaps denti-alveolar. The difference between the /d/ sounds of the Romance languages and English is not so much where the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth as which part of the tongue makes the contact. In English, it is the tip of the tongue (such sounds are termed apical), whereas in a number of Romance languages, it is usually the blade of the tongue just behind the tip (such sounds are called laminal).

Laminal (denti-)alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic دين [d̪iːn] 'Religion' Also pronounced as a voiced alveolar stop. See Arabic phonology.
Armenian Eastern[1] դեմք / demk’ About this sound [d̪ɛmkʰ]  'face'
Western տալ / tal [d̪ɑl] 'to give'
Basque diru [d̪iɾu] 'money'
Belarusian[2] падарожжа [päd̪äˈroʐʐä] 'travel' See Belarusian phonology
Bengali দাম [d̪am] 'price' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Bengali phonology
Catalan[3] dit [ˈd̪it̪] 'finger' See Catalan phonology
Dinka[4] dhek [d̪ek] 'distinct' Contrasts with alveolar /d/.
Dutch Belgian ding [d̪ɪŋ] 'thing'
English Dublin[5] then [d̪ɛn] 'then' Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects; in Dublin it may be [d͡ð] instead.[5] See English phonology
Southern Irish[6]
Geordie[7] Word-initial allophone of /ð/;[7] may be pronounced [ð] instead.[7]
Broad South African[8] dawn [d̪oːn] 'dawn' Some speakers. Corresponds to alveolar [d] in other dialects.
New York [d̪ɔn] May be alveolar [d] for some speakers. Scottish transcription also illustrates dental [].
Scottish[9] [d̪ɔn̪]
Welsh[10] [d̪ɒːn̪] Some speakers;[10] for others it's alveolar [d]. The transcription also illustrates dental [].
Ulster[11] dream [d̪ɹim] 'dream' Allophone of /d/ before /r/, in free variation with [].
French[12] dais [d̪ɛ] 'canopy' See French phonology
Georgian[13] კუ [ˈkʼud̪i] 'tail'
Hindi[14] दाल [d̪ɑːl] 'lentils' Hindi contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Irish dorcha [ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəxə] 'dark' See Irish phonology
Italian[15] dare [ˈd̪äre] 'to give' See Italian phonology
Kashubian[16] [example needed]
Kyrgyz[17] дос [d̪os̪] 'friend'
Latvian[18] drudzis [ˈd̪rud̪͡z̪is̪] 'fever' See Latvian phonology
Marathi गड [d̪əɡəɖ] 'stone' Marathi contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Marathi phonology
Pashto ﺪﻮﻩ [ˈd̪wɑ] 'two'
Polish[19] dom About this sound [d̪ɔm]  'home' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[20] Many dialects dar [ˈd̪aɾ] 'to give' Likely to have allophones among native speakers, as it may affricate to [], [], [dz] and/or [ts] or lenite to [ð] in certain environments. See Portuguese phonology
Central northeastern Portuguese[21] dia e tarde [ˈd̪iɐ ˈi ˈtahd̪i] 'day and afternoon' In this dialect, it's used in a limited way, and not by all the speakers, the post-alveolar phonemes // and // before /i/ sound syllables "de", "di", "te" and "ti". Instead, they use denti-alveolar sounds like the spanish language. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਦਾਲ [d̪ɑːl] 'lentils'
Russian[22] дышать [d̪ɨ̞ˈʂätʲ] 'to breathe' Contrasts with a palatalized voiced alveolar stop. See Russian phonology
Slovene[23] danes [ˈd̪àːnəs̪] 'today'
Spanish[24] hundido [ũn̪ˈd̪ið̞o̞] 'sunken' See Spanish phonology
Swedish[25] dag [d̪ɑːɡ] 'day' May be an approximant in casual speech. See Swedish phonology
Turkish dal [d̪äɫ] 'twig' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[26] дерево [ˈd̪ɛrɛvɔ] 'tree' See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu[14] دودھ [d̪uːd̪ʰ] 'milk' Urdu contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Uzbek[27] [example needed]
Zapotec Tilquiapan[28] 'dan' [d̪aŋ] 'countryside'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

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