Voiced labial–velar stop

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Voiced labial–velar stop
ɡ͡b
IPA number 110 (102)
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɡ​͡​b
Unicode (hex) U+0261 U+0361 U+0062
Sound

The voiced labial–velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is a [ɡ] and [b] pronounced simultaneously. To make this sound, say go, but close your lips as if you were saying Bo; release your lips at the same time as, or a fraction of a second after, you pronounce the g of go. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɡ͡b.

The voiced labial–velar stop is commonly found in West and Central Africa, as in Laurent Gbagbo, former president of Ivory Coast. Its voiceless counterpart is voiceless labial–velar stop, [k͡p].

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced labial–velar stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • Its place of articulation is labial–velar, which means it is simultaneously articulated with the lips and with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the velum). The dorsal closure is made and released slightly before the labial closure, but they overlap for most of their duration.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages, such as Swiss German, it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Ega[1] [ɡ͡bá] 'finish'
Ewe Ewegbe [ɛβɛɡ͡be] 'the Ewe language'
Kalabari[2] ágbá [áɡ͡bá] 'paint'
Mono[3] gba [ɡ͡ba] 'moisten'
Dyula [ɡ͡bɑ] 'bench'
Temne[4] gbara [kʌ ɡ͡bara] 'Coconut'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Connell, Bruce; Ahoua, Firmin; Gibbon, Dafydd (2002), Ega, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 32 (1): 99–104, doi:10.1017/S002510030200018X 
  • Harry, Otelemate (2003), Kalaḅarị-Ịjo, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 113–120, doi:10.1017/S002510030300121X 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (1964), A phonetic study of West African languages, Cambridge University Press 
  • Olson, Kenneth (2004), Mono, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 233–238, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001744