Voiced labiodental fricative

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Voiced labiodental fricative
v
IPA number 129
Encoding
Entity (decimal) v
Unicode (hex) U+0076
X-SAMPA v
Kirshenbaum v
Braille ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
Sound

The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is v, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is v.

Although this is a familiar sound to most European listeners, it is cross-linguistically a fairly uncommon sound, being only a quarter as frequent as [w]. The presence of [v] and absence of [w], along with the presence of otherwise unknown front rounded vowels [y, ø, œ], is a very distinctive areal feature of European languages and those of adjacent areas of Siberia and Central Asia.[citation needed] Speakers of East Asian languages that lack this sound tend to pronounce /v/ as [p] (Mandarin), [b] (Japanese), or [w]/[f] (Cantonese), thus failing to distinguish a number of English minimal pairs.[citation needed]

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced labiodental fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages, such as Swiss German, it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz европа [evˈropʼa] 'Europe' See Abkhaz phonology
Afrikaans wees [ˈveə̯s] 'to be' See IPA for Afrikaans
Albanian valixhe [validʒɛ] 'case'
Arabic Siirt[1] ذهب [vaˈhab] 'gold' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] վեց About this sound [vɛtsʰ]  'six'
Bai Dali  ? [ŋv˩˧] 'fish'
Bulgarian вода [vɔda] 'water' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan Balearic[3] viu [ˈviw] 'live' See Catalan phonology
Valencian[4]
southern Catalonia[4]
Chechen вашa / vaṣa [vaʃa] 'brother'
Czech voda [voda] 'water' See Czech phonology
Dutch All dialects wraak [vraːk] 'revenge' Allophone of [ʋ ~ β̞ ~ w] before /r/. See Dutch phonology
Most dialects vreemd [vreːmt] 'strange' Can be devoiced to [f] by certain speakers, mainly those from the Netherlands. See Dutch phonology
Standard[5]
English valve [væɫv] 'valve' See English phonology
Ewe[6] ? [évlɔ] 'he is evil'
Faroese ða [ˈɹøːva] 'speech'
French[7] valve [valv] 'valve' See French phonology
Georgian[8] იწრო [ˈvitsʼɾo] 'narrow'
German Wächter [ˈvɛçtɐ] 'guard' See German phonology
Greek βερνίκι verníki [ve̞rˈnici] 'varnish' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew גב [ɡav] 'back' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi[9] व्र [vrət̪] 'fast' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian veszély [vɛseːj] 'danger' See Hungarian phonology
Irish bhaile [vaːlə] 'home' See Irish phonology
Italian[10] avare [aˈvare] 'miserly' (f.pl.) See Italian phonology
Judaeo-Spanish mueve [ˈmwɛvɛ] 'nine'
Kabardian зэвы [zavə] 'narrow' Corresponds to [ʐʷ] in Adyghe
Macedonian вода [vɔda] 'water' See Macedonian phonology
Maltese iva [iva] 'yes'
Norwegian vann [vɑn] 'water' See Norwegian phonology
Occitan Auvergnat vol [vɔl] 'flight' See Occitan phonology
Limousin
Provençal
Polish[11] wór About this sound [vur]  'bag' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[12] vila [ˈvilɐ] 'hamlet', 'town', 'villa' Historical Galician-Portuguese /β/ merged with /b/ in Galician and inland Northern Portuguese dialects, and shifted to /v/ in other dialects. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian val [val] 'wave' See Romanian phonology
Russian[13] волосы [ˈvoləsɨ] 'hair' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Slovak voda About this sound [voda]  'water'
Spanish[14] afgano [ävˈɣ̞äno̞] 'Afghan' Allophone of /f/ before voiced consonants. See Spanish phonology
Swedish vägg [ˈvɛɡ] 'wall' See Swedish phonology
Turkish cetvel [dʒetvæl] 'ruler' Allophone of /ʋ/ after voiceless consonants. See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian вона [vɔˈnɑ] 'she' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[15] và [vaː˨˩] 'and' In southern dialects, is in free variation with [j]. See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh fi [vi] 'I'
West Frisian weevje [ˈʋeːvjə] 'to weave' Never occurs in word-initial positions
Wu Chinese [vɛ] 'cooked rice'
Yi vu [vu˧] 'intestines'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232 
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7