Voiced labiodental fricative

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Voiced labiodental fricative
v
IPA number 129
Encoding
Entity (decimal) v
Unicode (hex) U+0076
X-SAMPA v
Kirshenbaum v
Braille ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
Sound

The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is v, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is v.

Although this is a familiar sound to most European listeners, it is cross-linguistically a fairly uncommon sound, being only a quarter as frequent as [w]. The presence of [v] and absence of [w], along with the presence of otherwise unknown front rounded vowels [y, ø, œ], is a very distinctive areal feature of European languages and those of adjacent areas of Siberia and Central Asia.[citation needed] Speakers of East Asian languages that lack this sound tend to pronounce it as [p] (Mandarin), [b] (Japanese), or [f]/[w] (Cantonese), thus failing to distinguish a number of English minimal pairs.[citation needed]

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced labiodental fricative:

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz европа [evˈropʼa] 'Europe' See Abkhaz phonology
Afrikaans wees [ˈveə̯s] 'to be' See IPA for Afrikaans
Albanian valixhe [validʒɛ] 'case'
Arabic Siirt[1] ذهب [vaˈhab] 'gold' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] վեց About this sound [vɛtsʰ]  'six'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ktava [kta:va] 'book' Only in the Urmia dialects. [ʋ] is also predominantly used. Corresponds to [w] in the other varieties.
Bai Dali  ? [ŋv˩˧] 'fish'
Bulgarian вода [vɔda] 'water' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan Balearic[3] viu [ˈviw] 'live' See Catalan phonology
Valencian[4]
southern Catalonia[4]
Chechen вашa / vaṣa [vaʃa] 'brother'
Czech voda [voda] 'water' See Czech phonology
Dutch All dialects wraak [vraːk] 'revenge' Allophone of /ʋ/ before /r/. See Dutch phonology
Most dialects vreemd [vreːmt] 'strange' Can be devoiced to [f] by certain speakers, mainly those from the Netherlands. See Dutch phonology
Standard[5]
English valve [væɫv] 'valve' See English phonology
Ewe[6] ? [évlɔ] 'he is evil'
Faroese ða [ˈɹøːva] 'speech'
French[7] valve [valv] 'valve' See French phonology
Georgian[8] იწრო [ˈvitsʼɾo] 'narrow'
German Wächter [ˈvɛçtɐ] 'guard' See German phonology
Greek βερνίκι verníki [ve̞rˈnici] 'varnish' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew גב [ɡav] 'back' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi[9] व्र [vrət̪] 'fast' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian veszély [vɛseːj] 'danger' See Hungarian phonology
Irish bhaile [vaːlə] 'home' See Irish phonology
Italian[10] avare [aˈvare] 'miserly' (f.pl.) See Italian phonology
Judaeo-Spanish mueve [ˈmwɛvɛ] 'nine'
Kabardian зэвы [zavə] 'narrow' Corresponds to [ʐʷ] in Adyghe
Macedonian вода [vɔda] 'water' See Macedonian phonology
Maltese iva [iva] 'yes'
Occitan Auvergnat vol [vɔl] 'flight' See Occitan phonology
Limousin
Provençal
Polish[11] wór About this sound [vur]  'bag' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[12] vila [ˈvilɐ] 'hamlet', 'town', 'villa' Historical Galician-Portuguese /β/ merged with /b/ in Galician and inland Northern Portuguese dialects, and shifted to /v/ in other dialects. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian val [val] 'wave' See Romanian phonology
Russian[13] волосы [ˈvoləsɨ] 'hair' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Slovak voda About this sound [voda]  'water'
Spanish[14] afgano [ävˈɣ̞äno̞] 'Afghan' Allophone of /f/ before voiced consonants. See Spanish phonology
Swedish vägg [ˈvɛɡ] 'wall' See Swedish phonology
Turkish cetvel [dʒetvæl] 'ruler' Allophone of /ʋ/ after voiceless consonants. See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian вона [vɔˈnɑ] 'she' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[15] và [vaː˨˩] 'and' In southern dialects, is in free variation with [j]. See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh fi [vi] 'I'
West Frisian weevje [ˈʋeːvjə] 'to weave' Never occurs in word-initial positions
Wu Chinese [vɛ] 'cooked rice'
Yi vu [vu˧] 'intestines'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232 
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7