Voiced palatal stop
|Voiced palatal stop|
The voiced palatal stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some vocal languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is 〈ɟ〉, a barred dotless 〈j〉 which was initially created by turning the type for a lowercase letter 〈f〉. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J\.
The sound does not exist as a phoneme in English, but is perhaps most similar to a voiced postalveolar affricate [dʒ], as in English jump (although it is a stop, not an affricate; the most similar stop phoneme to this sound in English is [ɡ], as in argue), and because it is difficult to get the tongue to touch just the hard palate without also touching the back part of the alveolar ridge, [ɟ] is a less common sound worldwide than [dʒ]. It is also common for the symbol /ɟ/ to be used to represent a palatalized voiced velar stop, or other similar affricates, for example in the Indic languages. This may be considered appropriate when the place of articulation needs to be specified and the distinction between stop and affricate is not contrastive, and therefore of secondary importance.
Features of the voiced palatal stop:
- Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Albanian||gjuha||[ˈɟuha]||'tongue'||Merged with [d͡ʒ] in Gheg Albanian for all speakers and in Tosk for some speakers|
|Arabic||Sudanese||جمل||[ɟæˈmæl]||'camel'||Some dialects; corresponds to /d͡ʒ/, /ʒ/ or /ɡ/ in other varieties. See Arabic phonology|
|Catalan||Majorcan||guix||[ˈɟiɕ]||'chalk'||Corresponds to /ɡ/ in other varieties. See Catalan phonology|
|Czech||dělám||[ɟɛlaːm]||'I do'||See Czech phonology|
|German||Studium||[ˈʃtuːɟʊm]||'(academic) studies'||Allophone of more frequent [dj] or [di]. See German phonology|
|Greek||μετάγγιση metággisi||[mɛˈtɐŋ̟ɟ̠isi]||'transfusion'||Somewhat retracted. See Modern Greek phonology|
|Hungarian||gyám||[ɟaːm]||'guardian'||See Hungarian phonology|
|Irish||Gaeilge||[ˈɡeːlʲɟə]||'Gaelic'||See Irish phonology|
|Macedonian||раѓање||[ˈraɟaɲɛ]||'birth'||See Macedonian phonology|
|Norwegian||Central||fadder||[fɑɟːeɾ]||'godparent'||Dialectal. See Norwegian phonology|
|Occitan||Auvergnat||diguèt||[ɟiˈɡɛ]||'said' (3rd pers. sing.)||See Occitan phonology|
|Romanian||ghimpe||[ˈɟimpe̞]||'thorn'||Allophone of /ɡ/ before /i/ and /e/. See Romanian phonology|
|Spanish||Canarian||coche||[ˈkoɟe]||'car'||/ɟ/ is proper of rural speech, the allophone /c/ is more common. See Canarian Spanish.|
|Turkish||güneş||[ɟyˈne̞ʃ]||'sun'||See Turkish phonology|
|Vietnamese||North-central dialect||da||[ɟa˧]||'skin'||See Vietnamese phonology|
- Ladefoged (2005:162)
- Newmark, Hubbard & Prifti (1982:10)
- Kolgjini (2004)
- Watson (2002:16)
- Recasens & Espinosa (2005:1)
- Connell, Ahoua & Gibbon (2002:100)
- Arvaniti (2007:20)
- Ladefoged (2005:164)
- Skjekkeland (1997:105–107)
- "Definiția cu ID-ul 9532", DEX Online (in Romanian)
- Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
- Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art", Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208
- Connell, Bruce; Ahoua, Firmin; Gibbon, Dafydd (2002), "Ega", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 32 (1): 99–104, doi:10.1017/S002510030200018X
- Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
- Kolgjini, Julie M. (2004), Palatalization in Albanian: An acoustic investigation of stops and affricates (Ph.D.), The University of Texas at Arlington
- Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
- Newmark, Leonard; Hubbard, Philip; Prifti, Peter R. (1982), Standard Albanian: A Reference Grammar for Students, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0-8047-1129-6
- Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2005), "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 1–25, doi:10.1017/S0025100305001878
- Skjekkeland, Martin (1997), Dei norske dialektane: Tradisjonelle særdrag i jamføring med skriftmåla, Høyskoleforlaget (Norwegian Academic Press)
- Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press